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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*sa.s-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"pigface="Times New Roman Star"свинья













face="Times New Roman Star"sysna













face="Times New Roman Star"Федотов 2, 77.
face="Times New Roman Star"*u":l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"lynxface="Times New Roman Star"рысь
face="Times New Roman Star"u"s?ek (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"u"s?ek






face="Times New Roman Star"u"s (tab.)face="Times New Roman Star"u"sface="Times New Roman Star"u":s (dial. - Leb.)

face="Times New Roman Star"u":sface="Times New Roman Star"u"s-kis 'sable'face="Times New Roman Star"u"sface="Times New Roman Star"u"s









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 523, Щербак 1961, 141, Рас. ФиЛ 239, Лексика 159, Stachowski 254. The irregular reflex of *l/ in some Siberian languages presupposes tabooistic interlingual borrowings (Tuva < Yak., Shor < Khak.? ).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jymgaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wild mountain she-goatface="Times New Roman Star"дикая горная козаface="Times New Roman Star"ymg|a (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ymg|a, jymg|a (KB), ymg|a (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"Old Osm. ime, yma 'goat', dial. 'deer with straight horns'
face="Times New Roman Star"ymg|a (Sangl.)



face="Times New Roman Star"umGa

face="Times New Roman Star"d/umg|a



face="Times New Roman Star"c?un|ma










face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 165, EDT 158, Лексика 154-155. Yak. ymaga (because of medial -g-) is most probably < Evk.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)anduk ( ? -nt-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of lynxface="Times New Roman Star"вид хищника

face="Times New Roman Star"andyk 'вид гиены', Osm. anduq
face="Times New Roman Star"andyq 'espe\ce de loup cervier' (Pav. C.)























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 20, Лексика 159.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sialykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of squirrel, chipmunkface="Times New Roman Star"вид белки, бурундук


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ulyg|an ( < *Chuv.)






face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yl 'белка'face="Times New Roman Star"salyq (dial. - Leb.)
face="Times New Roman Star"*s?olxan > Mari s?ulgan (TLT 65)













face="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 165.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.maface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 beaver 2 otterface="Times New Roman Star"1 бобер 2 выдра


face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2


face="Times New Roman Star"xam-nos, xam c?at (Верб.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamna(g|y) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qamdu 2
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|ma 'beaver, marten'






face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2


face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 5, 242, Лексика 162, Мудрак Дисс. 145. Also PT *Kam-tur/ 'beaver, otter' (VEWT 228, Лексика 162) (*Kam-tur/ may be a compound < *Kama + *utyr/ 'otter' q. v. sub *o/n|du; Лексика ibid., however, suggests rather *Kam-luc?, with a diminutive *-luc?. There is also a variant *Kun-tur/ (with *Kunu 'wolverine'? - see, however, TMN 3, 524, with a suggestion of Turk. < Pers.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*togus- (?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to jumpface="Times New Roman Star"скакать








face="Times New Roman Star"tovus-



face="Times New Roman Star"(Bulgar) doxs '(year of) mouse'














face="Times New Roman Star"*bura (?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"soul of a sacrificial animal (horse)face="Times New Roman Star"душа жертвенного животного (коня)









face="Times New Roman Star"pura 'picture of a male maral on a shaman drum'
face="Times New Roman Star"pura (dial.) 'sacrificial animal'















face="Times New Roman Star"The Oyr. word is usually identified with bura 'camel' < PT *bugra; the absence of vowel length (*bu:ra would be normally expected) is, however, baffling and could indicate a different origin of the Oyr. and Khak. words. Cf. perhaps also Yak. burgunas 'young cow, cow without calves'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gE:neface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"tick, name of different parasitesface="Times New Roman Star"клещ, назв. различных паразитов

face="Times New Roman Star"gene, kene

face="Times New Roman Star"kana

face="Times New Roman Star"ga"na"face="Times New Roman Star"ga":na"









face="Times New Roman Star"kena"




face="Times New Roman Star"kene

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251, TMN 3, 615-616, ЭСТЯ 5, 63-64, Лексика 183. Voiced *g- and front row vocalism speaks against the theory of Turk. being < Pers. kana (although some forms like Khalaj kana and Turkm. dial. ka":na" may have been influenced by the Persian word - which itself has so far no Iranian etymology and must be regarded as a Turkic loanword).
face="Times New Roman Star"*byn|yt (?-n/-,-d)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"Salmo lenocface="Times New Roman Star"ленок









face="Times New Roman Star"mind-@r 'burbot'



face="Times New Roman Star"byjyt
face="Times New Roman Star"myjytface="Times New Roman Star"miit









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 336, Лексика 177.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ban/ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"white-fishface="Times New Roman Star"сиг














face="Times New Roman Star"majag|as (Пек.)













face="Times New Roman Star"*bukaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"perchface="Times New Roman Star"окунь


face="Times New Roman Star"ala-bog|a





face="Times New Roman Star"ala-bug|a








face="Times New Roman Star"ala-bug|a







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 15, Лексика 178 (traditionally regarded as a compound *a:la 'variegated' + *buka 'bull', which is dubious because of the parallelism in Tat.: ala-balyq 'crucian' : ala-bog|a 'perch' - suggesting that the second part of both compounds is originally a fish name).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sarync?gaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"locustface="Times New Roman Star"саранча
face="Times New Roman Star"saryc?g|a (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"sarync?qan (AH)




face="Times New Roman Star"sarysxa, sarync?qa 'a k. of dragonfly'
face="Times New Roman Star"sarys?qa, sarysqa















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 845, VEWT 404, ЭСТЯ 7, Лексика 187 (confused with *siaryg| 'yellow').
face="Times New Roman Star"*gu"n/e / *gun/aface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mothface="Times New Roman Star"моль
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ja" (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gu"veface="Times New Roman Star"ko"je|
face="Times New Roman Star"kuja

face="Times New Roman Star"gu"va"face="Times New Roman Star"gu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"ku":face="Times New Roman Star"quja 'Kellerwurm'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"je, quja
face="Times New Roman Star"k@w|veface="Times New Roman Star"ko"ju"r, ku"ju"r



face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jeface="Times New Roman Star"ku"jeface="Times New Roman Star"ko"ja"face="Times New Roman Star"ku"je

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"je

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 297, ЭСТЯ 3, 94, Лексика 186. Kirgh. ku"bo" is rather < Mong. kibe id.
face="Times New Roman Star"*umanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wormface="Times New Roman Star"червь













face="Times New Roman Star"ъw|man













face="Times New Roman Star"Isolated in Chuvash, but probably archaic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ad(b)anface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"scorpionface="Times New Roman Star"скорпион
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ad|an (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan, c?yjan 'сколопендра'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan, (R, Буд. - Kas.) c?ejban 'millipede'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan, c?yjan (Abush., Sangl.), c?iban (R - Calc. Wb., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajo|nface="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aja:n








face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajanface="Times New Roman Star"s?ajanface="Times New Roman Star"s?ajanface="Times New Roman Star"sajan


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajan

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 94, EDT 403, Лексика 64, 184-185. Turk. > Kalm. caj@ `crayfish' (?), see Щербак 1997, 111.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAn|yr/ (?-s)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"gad-flyface="Times New Roman Star"овод









face="Times New Roman Star"ma:sface="Times New Roman Star"ma:sface="Times New Roman Star"paas 'gad-fly' (Leb.), man|g|ys 'locust' (Oyr.)



face="Times New Roman Star"maasface="Times New Roman Star"ma:s









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 329, 327.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"meliface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"муравейface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (MK - Chigil)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mo"ldu" (R - Bar.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"/umadu 'small ants' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umo|liface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ma"la" (R - Tar.)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?umaly, dial. c?ubaly



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyl 'maggot'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 423, VEWT 121, Лексика 184.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAl/(c?)gaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"white spot, white blazeface="Times New Roman Star"белое пятно, лысина
face="Times New Roman Star"qas?g|a (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kas?kaface="Times New Roman Star"qas?qaface="Times New Roman Star"qas?qa (AH, MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|s?qe|face="Times New Roman Star"qas?qa
face="Times New Roman Star"Gas?Gaface="Times New Roman Star"dial. Gas?Gaface="Times New Roman Star"xasxaface="Times New Roman Star"qas?qa






face="Times New Roman Star"qas?qa, qac?qaface="Times New Roman Star"qasqaface="Times New Roman Star"qasqaface="Times New Roman Star"qas?qaface="Times New Roman Star"qas?xa

face="Times New Roman Star"qasqa

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 350-351. Cf. also the probable deriving stem in Tuva xas? 'worked thin leather', Tof. xas? 'naked, napless (skin)' (Рас. ФиЛ 186).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"lik-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to become shabbyface="Times New Roman Star"становиться потрепанным, заношенным
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"lik- (c?u"lu"k-) (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?il 'little'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"le- 'e^tre altere/' (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"l-c?aGa 'little children', c?u"lpe 'small child'face="Times New Roman Star"su"lek- 'to wear unusual clothes'







face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lu"k- 'to be exhausted, weakened'








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 121, EDT 420.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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