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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*er-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be (aux.)face="Times New Roman Star" (.)face="Times New Roman Star"er- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"er- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"i-face="Times New Roman Star"i- (i-ken (perf.) 'it appears', i-mes? (evident.) '...says that it is')face="Times New Roman Star"er- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"e-, er-u"r (fut.)face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"er-face="Times New Roman Star"i-face="Times New Roman Star"er-face="Times New Roman Star"i-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"a"r- (D. GCh 182)
face="Times New Roman Star"e-/er-face="Times New Roman Star"e-/er-face="Times New Roman Star"e-/ir-
face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"i-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"i-/ir-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"ir- (Kakuk 182)face="Times New Roman Star"e-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 193-194, VEWT 46, 1, 218-220, Stachowski 42, 46. The verb frequently occurs as e-, without the final -r- (see ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ediface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hostface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"edi (idi) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"id|i (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ije, ys, isface="Times New Roman Star"ija"face="Times New Roman Star"eje (. ., Abush.), ije (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"a"ja" (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"iseface="Times New Roman Star"jija"face="Times New Roman Star"ejeface="Times New Roman Star"e:face="Times New Roman Star"e:face="Times New Roman Star"e:

face="Times New Roman Star"ic?c?iface="Times New Roman Star"ic?c?iface="Times New Roman Star"e: ( < Oyr. or Khak.)
face="Times New Roman Star"e:face="Times New Roman Star"i>jeface="Times New Roman Star"ijeface="Times New Roman Star"i>ja"face="Times New Roman Star"ije
face="Times New Roman Star"ije, jeface="Times New Roman Star"ije
face="Times New Roman Star"jejeface="Times New Roman Star" 1, 237-241, TMN 2, 176, EDT 41, 324-325, Stachowski 122. Some forms (Tur. ys, is, Yak. ic?c?i etc.) go back to a suffixed *ede-si; the Khak. and Shor forms should be explained as a haplology of the same form.
face="Times New Roman Star"*i:l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to hang on (smth.) 2 hookface="Times New Roman Star"1 ( -.) 2 face="Times New Roman Star"il- (OUygh.) 1, ilin- (refl.) (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- (MK) 1, ylyn- (refl.) (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"dial. il- 1, ilmek 2face="Times New Roman Star"el- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yl- (Abush., Sangl.), ylyn- (refl.) (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmo|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmaq 2, 'loop'
face="Times New Roman Star"ilma"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"i:l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"@l-
face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jl, jlmak 'loop'face="Times New Roman Star"i:l- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmek 2face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"el- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ilin- (refl.) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 170, 1, 343-346, 73-74.
face="Times New Roman Star"*i:r/ / *y:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 trace 2 furrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 , face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"i>z 1, yzan 2face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1 (. ., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"is 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"y:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"i>s 1
face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"j@r 1, jran 2

face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"i>z 1face="Times New Roman Star"yz 1, yzan 2face="Times New Roman Star"i>d| 1, yd|an 2face="Times New Roman Star"yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"jiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz, yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1
face="Times New Roman Star"hyzan 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 277, 1, 383-385, 646, 647, VEWT 175, 79, 75. There exists a verbal derivative *i:r/-te- 'to follow one's tracks', attested as iste- as early as in OUygh. (see EDT 243) and in many modern languages (see 1, 383); but simultaneously there is a variant *i:r-te- (with *-r/- > -r- according to Helimski's rule), attested already in MK (see EDT 208) and in Yak., Dolg. irde:-, see Stachowski 128.
face="Times New Roman Star"*i:l/c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"work, deedface="Times New Roman Star", face="Times New Roman Star"is? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ys? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i>s?face="Times New Roman Star"is? (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is, ysface="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i:s?

face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i:.s?face="Times New Roman Star"@s/face="Times New Roman Star"i:s
face="Times New Roman Star"is?
face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i>sface="Times New Roman Star"isface="Times New Roman Star"i>s?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is
face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 254, VEWT 174, 1, 395-396, 66.
face="Times New Roman Star"*it-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to push, hitface="Times New Roman Star",
face="Times New Roman Star"it- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"i>t-face="Times New Roman Star"it- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"itar-face="Times New Roman Star"ita"r-face="Times New Roman Star"it-
face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"i>t-face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"it-, ijt-

face="Times New Roman Star"u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"it-, u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"it-

face="Times New Roman Star"i>jter-
face="Times New Roman Star"i>t-
face="Times New Roman Star"jitir-face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"ijter-

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 38, VEWT 174, 1, 386-387, Stachowski 129, 254.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jama-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to patchface="Times New Roman Star",
face="Times New Roman Star"jama- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama- (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"nama-face="Times New Roman Star"naba-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-, d/ama-

face="Times New Roman Star"sama:-face="Times New Roman Star"hama:-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ama-
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ama-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"zama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"jama-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 184, EDT 934-935, 4, 108, Stachowski 94. Turk. > WMong. z?|ama-, Kalm. zam@- (KW 466).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to cover; to close, shut (the door)face="Times New Roman Star"; ()
face="Times New Roman Star"jap- (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jap-face="Times New Roman Star"jap- (AH, Ettuhf., . .)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|p-face="Times New Roman Star"jap-
face="Times New Roman Star"jap- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jap-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"jap-, d/ap-

face="Times New Roman Star"sap-face="Times New Roman Star"hap-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yp-
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ap-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"jap-face="Times New Roman Star"jap-face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ap-, z?ap-, zap-
face="Times New Roman Star"jap-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ap-
face="Times New Roman Star"jap-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 187, EDT 870-871; 4, 127-128 (with a careful distinction of *jap- 'create, make' and *jap- 'cover'), Stachowski 96-97. Derivates mean 'cloth, covering' (see 545).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to shine 2 to dawn 3 light 4 candleface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 3 4 face="Times New Roman Star"jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryk 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jary- (AH), jaru- (Abush.) 1, jaruq 3 (. ., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|ri- 1, jo|rug| 3face="Times New Roman Star"joru- 1, joruq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ary- 1, c?aryx 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-, c?ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar-, d/ary- 1, d/aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s/or-da 4face="Times New Roman Star"sara:- 2 (but also syrda:-)face="Times New Roman Star"hyrda:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yry- 1, c?aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar-, z?|ary- 1, z?|aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"jary- 1, jaryq, jaryx 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jarux 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 956, 962, 963, 4, 134-135, VEWT 189 (there are hardly reasons to consider the Chuv. word a borrowing), 2, 145, Stachowski 119. Turk. (Bulg.?) > Hung. gyertya 'candle', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to split 2 split, crackface="Times New Roman Star"1 , 2 , face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja(r)- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1, jar-yG 2face="Times New Roman Star"ja:r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar-, d/ar- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/or- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sar-ka:x (adj.) 'split'face="Times New Roman Star"sar-ka:k (adj.) 'split'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 954-955, VEWT 188-189, 4, 135-137, 2, 139, Stachowski 209. Very widespread are the derivatives *ja:ryk, *ja:rma 'crack, split' (see ibid.); Turk. *ja:rym 'half' ( 4, 147) > Mong. z?|arim, z?|arimduq (KW 470, 1997, 123).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jugur- ( ? -y-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to kneadface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"jog|ur- (jug|ur-) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jour-
face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur- (MA, Houts.), jog|ur- (AH)
face="Times New Roman Star"jug|u(r)-, z?ug|u(r)-face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur-, jog|ur-face="Times New Roman Star"jog|ur-face="Times New Roman Star"jug|y:r-, jug|ur-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ura-face="Times New Roman Star"c?u:r-face="Times New Roman Star"jura-, d/ura-face="Times New Roman Star"jog|u:r-face="Times New Roman Star"s/@w|r-



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u:r-



face="Times New Roman Star"jur-

face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur-
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 205, 4, 243-244, TMN 4, 173, EDT 906. Turk. > Hung. gyu/r- (Gombocz 1912, MNyTeSz 1, 1138).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jutface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bad weather, bad harvest 2 hunger, troubleface="Times New Roman Star"1 , 2 , face="Times New Roman Star"jut (Orkh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jut (MK) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jut (Pav. C., AH, . .) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jut 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ut, z?|u"t 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"t 'lean, meagre'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ut 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ut 1face="Times New Roman Star"jut, d/ut 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"sut 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ut 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ut 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ut 2face="Times New Roman Star"jut 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jot 2


face="Times New Roman Star"z?u>t 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jut 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 883, VEWT 211-212, 4, 256-257. Turk. > Mong. *z?|ud, *z?|uta- (KW 481, TMN 4, 210, 1997, 125).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jagyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"enemy, warface="Times New Roman Star", face="Times New Roman Star"jag|y (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jag|y (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jag|yface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"jag|y (Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|w, (dial.) jaw, ja:g|yface="Times New Roman Star"jaw, jag|y, ja"g|y (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jag|yface="Times New Roman Star"jag|yface="Times New Roman Star"jag|yface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:face="Times New Roman Star"ju:, d/uface="Times New Roman Star"jag|yface="Times New Roman Star"s/u 'heathen'face="Times New Roman Star"sya-ka:r 'rogue, villain'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:face="Times New Roman Star"z?|o:face="Times New Roman Star"z?awface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"z?|aw, z?aw, zaw

face="Times New Roman Star"z?aw
face="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 178, 4, 55-56, 561, 2, 129 (?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ku"(b)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fame 2 wisdom 3 famousface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 face="Times New Roman Star"ku" (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku" (MK, KB)





face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j 'roar'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"-lu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"g (R)face="Times New Roman Star"ku" 'roar', ku"lu"k 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ku" 'sound, roar', ku"lu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"ku"lu"k 3







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 306, 5, 128-129, 140-141, TMN 3, 653.
face="Times New Roman Star"*-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"notface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-
face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-my-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-
face="Times New Roman Star"*be.-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 I 2 (*bi-r/) weface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 (*bi-r/) face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), men 1 (OUygh.), biz 2 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"men 1 (MK, KB), biz 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bez 2face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1 (Abush.), biz 2 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"n 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, pyz 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"n 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, bi:z 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, p@s 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, pis 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, mis 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"n 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"e-b@ 1, e-b@r 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bihigi 2 (Poss.)face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bihigi 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, bis 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, bi's 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, miz 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bed| 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, miz 2face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1, bis 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"me:(n) 1, pise(r) 2 ( 128)face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 346 (*be.-n), 388 (*bir/), 2, 129-130, VEWT 77, 333, Stachowski 60, 179.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bejn|iface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"brainface="Times New Roman Star"; face="Times New Roman Star"meji, men|i (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"men|i (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bejinface="Times New Roman Star"miface="Times New Roman Star"miji (MA), mejn (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"mijaface="Times New Roman Star"min|a"
face="Times New Roman Star"bejinface="Times New Roman Star"bejni, mejniface="Times New Roman Star"mi:face="Times New Roman Star"mi:-sface="Times New Roman Star"me:face="Times New Roman Star"meinface="Times New Roman Star"mim@face="Times New Roman Star"meji:face="Times New Roman Star"men/i: 'head'face="Times New Roman Star"me:face="Times New Roman Star"ma":face="Times New Roman Star"me:face="Times New Roman Star"myjface="Times New Roman Star"myjface="Times New Roman Star"mejeface="Times New Roman Star"mije
face="Times New Roman Star"mijiface="Times New Roman Star"mij
face="Times New Roman Star"mijiface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 70, EDT 348-349, 2, 106-107, TMN 4, 35, 195, Stachowski 178. Turk. > MMong. mije, miji ( 1997, 105).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bin/r/ (*bin|r/)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"awlface="Times New Roman Star"

face="Times New Roman Star"bizface="Times New Roman Star"bezface="Times New Roman Star"biz (MA), bigiz (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bigizface="Times New Roman Star"bizface="Times New Roman Star"pyz-, puz-face="Times New Roman Star"bizface="Times New Roman Star"bijz/bi:zface="Times New Roman Star"p@sface="Times New Roman Star"pisface="Times New Roman Star"mis



face="Times New Roman Star"bisface="Times New Roman Star"bisface="Times New Roman Star"mizface="Times New Roman Star"biz, dial. bigizface="Times New Roman Star"bizface="Times New Roman Star"bed|face="Times New Roman Star"miz
face="Times New Roman Star"bizface="Times New Roman Star"biz
face="Times New Roman Star"bizface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 75, 2, 130-131, TMN 2, 311. The Chag. form bigiz is quite strange: perhaps it is a result of denasalization of *bin|iz < *bin|r/ (this would then suggest a velar nasal in the root).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ne:-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whatface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"ne (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ne (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"ni, ne|rse|face="Times New Roman Star"ne (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"na"face="Times New Roman Star"niface="Times New Roman Star"na"face="Times New Roman Star"na":, na":ma"face="Times New Roman Star"nime, ni; no: `which' (*ne-gu)face="Times New Roman Star"nebe `thing', no: `what' (*ne-gu)face="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"m@w|n (metathesis < *ne-me)face="Times New Roman Star"tuox (*suox < *c?e-gu+ok?)face="Times New Roman Star"tuokface="Times New Roman Star"c?u": (*c?e-gu"), c?u"ve (*c?egu"-me)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u":, c?u"meface="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"ni, na"ma"face="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"The earliest PT form must have contained a unique initial nasal (generally nasals were not allowed word-initially), having yielded specific reflexes in modern languages. See VEWT 352, EDT 774-5, Stachowski 230-231, 7, 1, 356.
face="Times New Roman Star"*-n|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"an ending of the 2d personface="Times New Roman Star" 2- .face="Times New Roman Star"-n| (Orkh., OUygh.), -g| (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"-n| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|
face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n, -jface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star" 23-26, 28, 32.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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