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face="Times New Roman Star"*apa (*appa)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fatherface="Times New Roman Star"отецface="Times New Roman Star"apa (Orkh., OUygh.) 'ancestors'face="Times New Roman Star"apa (MK) 'father, bear' ("Kypch."), (KB) 'ancestor'face="Times New Roman Star"abaface="Times New Roman Star"aba (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"awaface="Times New Roman Star"aba (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"aba (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"aba
face="Times New Roman Star"aba 'father, bear'
face="Times New Roman Star"oba 'bear'

face="Times New Roman Star"ava
face="Times New Roman Star"aba

face="Times New Roman Star"apa (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"appa, aba


face="Times New Roman Star"aba (Kakuk), aba, apa (ССЯ)
face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 5, VEWT 1, ЭСТЯ 1, 54-58, Федотов 2, 281, Лексика 305, Аникин 71. Сf. also *ba:pa 'grandfather, mother's father' (Turkm. ba:ba etc., see ЭСТЯ 2, 10-13, Лексика 294, 305). Voicing of -p- in many languages is probably due to expressive gemination.
face="Times New Roman Star"*apakaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 Alnus fruticosa; Labrador tea 2 a k. of fernface="Times New Roman Star"1 вид ольхи; багульник 2 вид папоротника
face="Times New Roman Star"apa bas?y 'Cannabis sativa, it is a plant which grows like Cucumis sativus and has a thorny stern, it is eaten in the mountains' (MK Qypch.)
face="Times New Roman Star"abag|a 2









face="Times New Roman Star"uba-zarri 2face="Times New Roman Star"abag|a 1





face="Times New Roman Star"abag|a 2





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 1, Попов 1986, 92. OT and Chuv. reflect a folk etymology (confusion with apa 'bear').
face="Times New Roman Star"*Abuc?-kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 husband, old man 2 foster-mother 3 elder sister 4 uncleface="Times New Roman Star"1 муж, старик 2 кормилица 3 старшая сестра 4 дядяface="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a, abuc?g|a 1, abuc?qa 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"abus? 3 dial.face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, awucqa 1 dial. (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, avus?qa 4 (Abush., Sangl.)




face="Times New Roman Star"apsax, apc?ax, Koib. abysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yj 1, aps?aq 'bear'face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yjaq 1; 'bear'
face="Times New Roman Star"obas?ka

face="Times New Roman Star"as?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?yn/aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1 dial.
face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 60-61, EDT 6, Егоров 274-275, Федотов II 282, Аникин 72. Chuv. is not quite regular and may be an early loanword from Tat. Formally the Turk. word may be derived from *aba 'elder in the mother's line' (+ dimin. -c?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to openface="Times New Roman Star"открыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-
face="Times New Roman Star"os/-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 18-19, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 209-210, Федотов 2, 292.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:c?y-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bitter, acidface="Times New Roman Star"горький, кислыйface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?y (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?i, o|c?c?i (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|y, a:z?|yg|

face="Times New Roman Star"ac?uface="Times New Roman Star"ha:c?ug|, ha:c?uqface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z/@face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"az?yg|face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yg|
face="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?yface="Times New Roman Star"asyface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"az?|iface="Times New Roman Star"az?|y, ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?yface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 89-93, Егоров 82, Мудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *ia:c?y- 'to become bitter, sour'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:t-al/c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be mistaken, to errface="Times New Roman Star"ошибаться, заблуждаться


face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-
face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-

face="Times New Roman Star"a:das?- (А-Б)








face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"adas-face="Times New Roman Star"adas-face="Times New Roman Star"ad|as?-

face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"adas-
face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5. Strange reflexes of the medial consonant (voicing in Kypchak, d| in Bashk.) may somehow reflect the original cluster "resonant + stop".
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elderface="Times New Roman Star"1 старший брат; старший дядя; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старшийface="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ДТС)
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), ag|a 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1,2, qyz ag|a 'тесть' (ЯЖУ 11, 13)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:Ga 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father's father')face="Times New Roman Star"aqqa 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father'), 3face="Times New Roman Star"aga 'father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|aj 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 2 (K), ag|a 2, 3 (K, T)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 70-71, 121-122, Лексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
face="Times New Roman Star"*y, *y-(n/)gac?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"treeface="Times New Roman Star"1 дерево 2 лесface="Times New Roman Star"yg|ac? (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jyg|ac? (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|az?| (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jo|g|o|c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jig|as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"aGac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"hag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jyvъs/ 1face="Times New Roman Star"mas 1face="Times New Roman Star"mas 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjas? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"n/e|s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yg|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac?, -c 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac?, -s? 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 7, ЭСТЯ 1, 71-73, TMN 2, 73f, EDT 79-80, Егоров 83, Лексика 104, Stachowski 176. The form contains perhaps PT *y 'bush, tree' as the first component (for OT y see EDT 1), cf. the OT combination y yg|ac?; but the second element is yet unclear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:.guface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 poison 2 muskface="Times New Roman Star"1 яд 2 мускус, кабарговая струяface="Times New Roman Star"ag|u 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|u 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"au 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|u 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|u 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|u 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|i, og|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|y 1face="Times New Roman Star"a:vy 1face="Times New Roman Star"o: 1



face="Times New Roman Star"y: 2

face="Times New Roman Star"a: 1 (Рас. ФиЛ 9)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|u: 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|u dial.face="Times New Roman Star"ag|uwface="Times New Roman Star"ag|ywface="Times New Roman Star"ag|u
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|u

face="Times New Roman Star"ag|uw, ag|uface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 9, 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 67. The Kypch. forms with -g|- (not shifted to -w-) and *-ug| may be borrowed from Chag.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>ja-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to esteem 2 to pity, look after 3 veryface="Times New Roman Star"1 почитать 2 беречь, жалеть 3 очень, сильноface="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1, ajy 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- (MK) 1, 2, ajy 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"aj- 2, aja- dial. 1face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aji- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajin 'cult, ceremony'face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2, aj 3face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2 (in ajaba:n 'remorseless')

face="Times New Roman Star"oja- 'to care'

face="Times New Roman Star"aj 'well'
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10-11, EDT 267-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 101-102, Федотов 2, 298. Deriving *aja- 'to respect, esteem' from *aj 'fear' (VEWT 11) is hardly plausible. Clauson (EDT 182) thinks that OUygh. ajy 'very' is an unusually early example of the elision of -g in an/yg| 'evil', which means 'very' in many OUygh. texts, but this is hardly plausible phonetically; so it may belong here, together with Khak. aj 'very' (although the final narrow y is a problem). Sevortyan relates here also SUygh. ajyg| 'good omen, good luck', but this may be a reflex of OUygh., Karakh. ajyq 'vow, promise' (EDT 270).
face="Times New Roman Star"*adakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"footface="Times New Roman Star"ногаface="Times New Roman Star"adaq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajakface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaq (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|qface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"azaxface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ad/aqface="Times New Roman Star"hada:q, hadaqface="Times New Roman Star"oraface="Times New Roman Star"ataqface="Times New Roman Star"atakface="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'bottom part'face="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'сошки; нижняя часть'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaxface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"aja(:)x|face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 45, ЭСТЯ 1, 103-105, Лексика 288, Федотов 2, 283, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/ar/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"clear sky; frostface="Times New Roman Star"ясное небо; морозface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajas (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (Sangl.), ajaz, ajas (CCum.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajo|zface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajas; ajyz (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"haja:zface="Times New Roman Star"ojar

face="Times New Roman Star"ajas
face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajad|face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz/s

face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 102-3; VEWT 11; TMN 2, 170; Лексика 13, Федотов 2, 298. A different suffixation is seen in Tur. (dial.) ajam, Kaz., Kirgh. ajyq 'clear (weather'). A derivative *an/-gyr/- (pointing to original *-n/-) is found in Kaz. an|yzaq, Turkm. an|zaq 'cold with dry wind' (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ady-r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to separateface="Times New Roman Star"отделятьface="Times New Roman Star"adyr- (Orkh., OUygh.); adyn (OUygh.) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yr- (MK); ad|yn (MK) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajir-face="Times New Roman Star"ajra-, ajri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajry-face="Times New Roman Star"hadru-, hadur-face="Times New Roman Star"ojъr-face="Times New Roman Star"atyr-; atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 6, EDT 60, 66-67, ЭСТЯ 1, 93, 114-116, Федотов 2, 270, Stachowski 39. Turk. > MMo, WMong. az?|ira- (see Щербак 1997, 94), whence again Uzb. az?|ra- etc. (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to takeface="Times New Roman Star"братьface="Times New Roman Star"al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"al- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"il-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 124-125, VEWT 14-15, ЭСТЯ 1, 127-128, Егоров 68, Лексика 336, 337, Stachowski 259.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:laface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"variegatedface="Times New Roman Star"пестрыйface="Times New Roman Star"ala (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"o|laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"a:laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"hala-bulaface="Times New Roman Star"olaface="Times New Roman Star"ala
face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"ala-z?|aface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 126, VEWT 15, ЭСТЯ 1, 129-130, TMN 2, 95-97, Федотов 2, 274, Лексика 607.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bukaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"perchface="Times New Roman Star"окунь


face="Times New Roman Star"ala-bog|a





face="Times New Roman Star"ala-bug|a








face="Times New Roman Star"ala-bug|a







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 15, Лексика 178 (traditionally regarded as a compound *a:la 'variegated' + *buka 'bull', which is dubious because of the parallelism in Tat.: ala-balyq 'crucian' : ala-bog|a 'perch' - suggesting that the second part of both compounds is originally a fish name).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to become weak 2 bad 3 to be vile (of a man), to turn septic (of a wound) 4 weak, inferior 5 upset 6 old, worn-out 7 crazy 8 lazy man 9 to hurry 10 fool 11 to go mad 12 to deceive 13 perplexed 14 dumb, foolish 15 doubt, surprise 16 error 17 be in doubt, perplexed 18 absent-minded, unattentive 19 weaknessface="Times New Roman Star"1 слабеть 2 дурной 3 быть подлым (о человеке), воспаляться (о ране) 4 слабый, худший 5 расстроенный 6 старый, изношенный 7 безумный, ошалелый 8 лентяй 9 торопиться 10 дурак 11 сходить с ума 12 обманывать 13 растерянный 14 глупый, простоватый 15 сомнение, удивление 16 ошибка 17 сомневаться, сбиваться, путаться 18 рассеянный, невнимательный 19 чахлость, немощьface="Times New Roman Star"alan|-a-d- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 2 (MK), alyq- 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"alyk, (Osm.) alu 4, alaz, alyz 4 (dial.), alkyn 5 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala-ma 2, 6face="Times New Roman Star"aluq 7 (Abush. 27)
face="Times New Roman Star"alaq, alan| 7face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ac? 8 (ЯЖУ 14)
face="Times New Roman Star"al-n|-a-sa- 9face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 10, alas 5, al-yn-, al-ax- 11, (caus.) 12face="Times New Roman Star"al-aq-tyr- (caus. from *al-aq-) 12, al-aq-qan 13, alyg| 10, al-yn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"ala: (< alag|) 14, alu (< alyg|) 10, alan| 15, alg|as 5, al-yn- 11

face="Times New Roman Star"alg|as 16
face="Times New Roman Star"ala:q- 17, alan| 15
face="Times New Roman Star"alan|, alag|-dy 18face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18face="Times New Roman Star"ala-n|-g|a-s-ar 18face="Times New Roman Star"alama 2, 6, al-jawu 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyq 7, 10face="Times New Roman Star"alas 19face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 16-17, TMN 2, 116, EDT 129, 138, 149, ЭСТЯ 1, 132, 145-146, Clark 1977, 128. See also Oghuz *al-c?ak sub *a>l 'below'. Tends to contaminate with *a:l 'red' and *a:la 'variegated', cf. Uygh. al-ga"da"n 'nai've' ('red nape'), Turkm. a:la-samsyk 'foolish' ('variegated fool'), Bashk. al-jot 'fool' ('red fellow'). KW 7. Turk. *algaz > MMong. alg|asa- 'faul, nachlassig sein' (SH), then Mong. > Kirgh., KBalk., Kum. alg|asa(r)-, Nogh. alas-la-r- 'to become embarrassed', (Karaim) 'to be scared' etc. Despite Sevortyan, Tokharian A a:la:s 'iners, ignavus' (Poucha 27), B ala:s- 'be sick' (Sieg-Siegling 91) not < Turk., but < Sanskr. alasa.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ala-n / *ala-n|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"level ground, plainface="Times New Roman Star"равнина
face="Times New Roman Star"alan| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alan, dial. alaface="Times New Roman Star"alanface="Times New Roman Star"alan| (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"alan|, a:la



face="Times New Roman Star"olъxface="Times New Roman Star"ala:s, aly:face="Times New Roman Star"alyn, aly:face="Times New Roman Star"ala:q, alandy

face="Times New Roman Star"alan|face="Times New Roman Star"alan|


face="Times New Roman Star"alan|face="Times New Roman Star"alan|

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 147, ЭСТЯ 1, 134-135, Федотов 2, 277, Stachowski 32, 33. Length in the Turkm. variant a:la is not clear. Yak. ala:s > Russ. Siber. ala/s (Аникин 80-81).
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 device, trick, deceit 2 to deceiveface="Times New Roman Star"1 обман, хитрость 2 обманыватьface="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), al-ta- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"a:l 1 (MK, KB), alda- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"a^l 1, aldat- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aldi- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (dial.), al-da-n- 'to be deceived, to err'face="Times New Roman Star"a:l 1, a:lda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2






face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 93, ЭСТЯ 1, 126-127. A discussion of albasty ( = Mong. albin) see in TMN 2, 109-110. Turk. *a:l-da- > Mong. alda- 'to deceive' (MA, cf. also TMN 2, 116, Щербак 1997, 97) > Evk. alda- etc. (Doerfer MT 109). On Mong. alda- 'to lose' see *a:\le 'weak, tired'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lpface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 difficult, hard 2 warrior 3 hero 4 brave 5 giant 6 landlordface="Times New Roman Star"1 трудный 2 воин 3 герой 4 храбрый 5 великан 6 помещик, землевладелецface="Times New Roman Star"alp 1, 2, 4 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.); alp-a-g|ut 2 (OUygh.).face="Times New Roman Star"alp 2, 4 (MK, KB, Tefs., IM); alpag|ut 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 3, 5, alpawyt 2face="Times New Roman Star"alp 2, 3 (Sngl.)face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3face="Times New Roman Star"alpawut 2


face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4, albyx- 'to act as a meddler'face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4
face="Times New Roman Star"olъp 5, olbut 2face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 'witchcraft; part of some names of spirits'
face="Times New Roman Star"albyq- 'to pant, stifle', alba:- 'to lapse into oblivion'
face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 4, 5, albu:t 'hot-tempered'face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 5, albyt, albyrt 'hot-tempered'
face="Times New Roman Star"alpawyt 2, alpamys?a 5 (from Alp Amys?a, a folklore name, = Tat.)

face="Times New Roman Star"alp 'chief', alpawut 'gentry man'face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 5, albyra- 'be exhausted, embarassed'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 127-128, VEWT 18, ЭСТЯ I 139, Федотов 2, 276. Clauson's hypothesis that the reflexes of *alpawut in recent languages are the result of a re-borrowing from Mong. (cf. Lit. Mong. albag|ut (Kow. 84) < Turk.), partly contaminated with Mong. alban 'tax', is unnecessary: a semantic shift 'warrior' > 'gentry' > 'landlord' seems to be natural. Cf. a borrowing from Mong. alba-tu in Tuva, Oyr. albatu, albaty, Kirgh. albaty 'tax-payers, people'.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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