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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hunt, chaseface="Times New Roman Star"охотаface="Times New Roman Star"ab (Orkh.), av (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"av (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"avface="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"aw (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|vface="Times New Roman Star"aw, dial. o:
face="Times New Roman Star"ovface="Times New Roman Star"a:v








face="Times New Roman Star"u:face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"aw
face="Times New Roman Star"uwface="Times New Roman Star"avface="Times New Roman Star"av

face="Times New Roman Star"aw, hawface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 3, VEWT 1, ЭСТЯ 62-64, TMN 2, 131, Лексика 417-418.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ab-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to crowd, come togetherface="Times New Roman Star"собираться, встречатьсяface="Times New Roman Star"av- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"av- (MK, KB)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 4, 10, ДТС 69.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.buc?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"handfulface="Times New Roman Star"пригоршня
face="Times New Roman Star"avut (MK), avut-c?a, avuc?-c?a (KB), avuc? (Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"avuc?face="Times New Roman Star"uc?face="Times New Roman Star"avuc? (MA, Sangl., Бор. Бад.)face="Times New Roman Star"xo|wuc?face="Times New Roman Star"oc?face="Times New Roman Star"os?face="Times New Roman Star"ovuc?face="Times New Roman Star"ovuc?, jan-avuc?face="Times New Roman Star"o:sface="Times New Roman Star"os?face="Times New Roman Star"u:s?
face="Times New Roman Star"yvъs/



face="Times New Roman Star"u:c?face="Times New Roman Star"uwysface="Times New Roman Star"uvysface="Times New Roman Star"usface="Times New Roman Star"uwuc?face="Times New Roman Star"auc?face="Times New Roman Star"avuc?, uvuc?, uvucface="Times New Roman Star"uwysface="Times New Roman Star"uz?|face="Times New Roman Star"uvuc?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 44, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 409-410, Егоров 342, Дыбо 179-181, Лексика 25-253. Turk. > MMong. a'uc? id. (Щербак 1997, 103).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Abuc?-kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 husband, old man 2 foster-mother 3 elder sister 4 uncleface="Times New Roman Star"1 муж, старик 2 кормилица 3 старшая сестра 4 дядяface="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a, abuc?g|a 1, abuc?qa 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"abus? 3 dial.face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, awucqa 1 dial. (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, avus?qa 4 (Abush., Sangl.)




face="Times New Roman Star"apsax, apc?ax, Koib. abysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yj 1, aps?aq 'bear'face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yjaq 1; 'bear'
face="Times New Roman Star"obas?ka

face="Times New Roman Star"as?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?yn/aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1 dial.
face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 60-61, EDT 6, Егоров 274-275, Федотов II 282, Аникин 72. Chuv. is not quite regular and may be an early loanword from Tat. Formally the Turk. word may be derived from *aba 'elder in the mother's line' (+ dimin. -c?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*A>burtface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cheek-pouch, inside of the mouth 2 gum 3 mouthful, gulp 4 cheek 5 molar 6 to take a mouthful, swallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 внутренняя полость рта 2 десна 3 глоток 4 щека 5 коренной зуб 6 глотатьface="Times New Roman Star"a[vurt] (?adurt) (OUygh., late med. texts TT II)
face="Times New Roman Star"avurt 1face="Times New Roman Star"urt 2face="Times New Roman Star"awurt (Sangl.) 3, (MKypch.) og|urt, owurt 1, 3 (Houts., Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"urt (dial.) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"howurt (dial.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"o:rt-a- 6face="Times New Roman Star"o:rt-a- 6face="Times New Roman Star"u:rt 'throat', u:rt-a- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"urъlъ, dial. vъw|rlъw| 5 (Ашм. V 320)face="Times New Roman Star"omurt 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"a:rt-a- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"u:rtface="Times New Roman Star"urt 1face="Times New Roman Star"uwyrt 1face="Times New Roman Star"urt 1face="Times New Roman Star"uwurt 4face="Times New Roman Star"aurt 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"urt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"uvurt 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 65, ЭСТЯ 1, 407-409, Лексика 225-226, Мудрак 115. The Old Uyghur form is poorly readable, so -d|- is dubious. Yak. -m- is irregular: could it be a trace of PA *umV 'drink', otherwise lost in Turkic?
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to openface="Times New Roman Star"открыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-
face="Times New Roman Star"os/-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 18-19, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 209-210, Федотов 2, 292.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>c?aj / *e>c?ejface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 old man or woman 2 mother 3 grandmother 4 sister (of woman) 5 mother (if the grandmother is still alive) 5 mother (addr. to an elder woman) 6 aunt, sister of father 7 elder brother 8 uncle 9 ancestor 10 Father! (to the God) 11 old man, elder man 12 husband 13 younger brother of father's father 14 grandfather 15 fatherface="Times New Roman Star"1 старый мужчина или женщина 2 мать 3 бабушка 4 сестра (женщины) 5 мать (при живой бабушке) 5 мать (обр. к пожилой женщине) 6 тетя, сестра отца 7 старший брат 8 дядя 9 предок 10 Отче! (обр. к Богу) 11 старик, пожилой человек 12 муж 13 младший брат деда 14 дед 15 отецface="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 7, 8 (Orkh.), ec?u" 9 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 1 (MK), ec?u" 10 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|u (dial.), ez?|e 11face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a, az?|i, e|z?|i 5 (dial., ТТДС 22, 551), azyj, e|zi 11, 15 (dial., ТТДС 23, 540)
face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?a, ac?a 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 6face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y 4, ac?a 12, 15

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"Leb. az?|y, az?|a 7, ac?a 13
face="Times New Roman Star"az/a 15face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 15face="Times New Roman Star"as?'a, az?|a 7, 15face="Times New Roman Star"ac?aj 5, az?|a 11

face="Times New Roman Star"a"sa" 2




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|aj 5, ec?iw 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 35, ЭСТЯ 1, 231-235, TMN 2, 15, Егоров 35, Лексика 299, Clark 1977, 128, Stachowski 43. Shortness is suggested by pharyngealization in Tofalar, so the variants with -z?|- are probably due to expressive gemination (*ac?c?V / *ec?c?V).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?y-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 precious gift; wellbeing 2 to tend, make comfortable, be favourable 3 to pity, have compassionface="Times New Roman Star"1 драгоценный дар; благосостояние 2 быть благоприятным, благосклонным, ухаживать 3 жалеть, иметь состраданиеface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| 1, ac?yn- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 22, 29, ЭСТЯ 1, 92 (together with *ia:c?y- 'bitter'), Stachowski 29. Turk. > WMong. ac?ug| 'wages, rent' (L 8). In modern languages the root tends to be confused with *ia:c?y- 'bitter, bitterness' (v. sub *p`i_a:/c?`o), thus the Oghuz voicing may be a result of secondary contamination and not due to original vowel length; but the two roots are rather well distinguished in Old Turkic, see EDT ibid.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Adaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 danger 2 to endangerface="Times New Roman Star"1 опасность 2 подвергать опасностиface="Times New Roman Star"ada (tuda) 1, adart- 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)









face="Times New Roman Star"aza 'name of an evil spirit' (Верб.)


face="Times New Roman Star"atag|asta:- 'to insult'
face="Times New Roman Star"adam 'dashing, extraordinary'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 40, 68.
face="Times New Roman Star"*adakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"footface="Times New Roman Star"ногаface="Times New Roman Star"adaq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajakface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaq (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|qface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"azaxface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ad/aqface="Times New Roman Star"hada:q, hadaqface="Times New Roman Star"oraface="Times New Roman Star"ataqface="Times New Roman Star"atakface="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'bottom part'face="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'сошки; нижняя часть'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaxface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"aja(:)x|face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 45, ЭСТЯ 1, 103-105, Лексика 288, Федотов 2, 283, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>dal/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"friend, companionface="Times New Roman Star"друг, товарищface="Times New Roman Star"adas? (OUygh. - Buddh., Man.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|as? (MK, KB), ajas? (IM)












face="Times New Roman Star"atas


face="Times New Roman Star"ajas?








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 72. A hypothesis about *adal/ < (compound) at-dal/ with 'name' as the first component is impossible (in that case we would expect *atal/ and 'namesake' as the earliest meaning). The form attas? is attested since MTurk.: attas? 'namesake' (Tefs.), adas? 'namesake' (Chag. Sangl.), atas? 'namesake' (CCum.) - and contaminates with *adal/. Modern languages for the most part reflect the compound, see ЭСТЯ I 203-204. Cf. Tuva a'das?ky-lar 'a father with his children' ("namesakes"; NB: pharyngealization as a reflex of *-t-). A possible reflex of *adal/ is Chuv. ural-a-s?- 'to agree about acquiring smth. collectively, together' and ural-a-n- 'to form a light circle (of astronomical bodies)': both are semantically quite far from ura-la-n- 'to recover'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ady-r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to separateface="Times New Roman Star"отделятьface="Times New Roman Star"adyr- (Orkh., OUygh.); adyn (OUygh.) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yr- (MK); ad|yn (MK) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajir-face="Times New Roman Star"ajra-, ajri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajry-face="Times New Roman Star"hadru-, hadur-face="Times New Roman Star"ojъr-face="Times New Roman Star"atyr-; atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 6, EDT 60, 66-67, ЭСТЯ 1, 93, 114-116, Федотов 2, 270, Stachowski 39. Turk. > MMo, WMong. az?|ira- (see Щербак 1997, 94), whence again Uzb. az?|ra- etc. (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Agyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 treasure 2 silk brocadeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сокровище 2 парчаface="Times New Roman Star"ag|y (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|y (MK, KB) 2face="Times New Roman Star"Osm. ag|y, dial. ag|y 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|y 2























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 78. Clauson points out that the oldest attested meaning is 'treasure', later concretized to 'silk brocade'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Agyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mouth 2 lip, lips 3 mouth of a river, of a cleftface="Times New Roman Star"1 рот 2 губа, губы 3 устье реки, ущельяface="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz (Orkh.) 3, ag|yz, ag|az (OUygh.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|iz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"eg|iz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ys 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, axsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"aqsy 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"o:s 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|rъw|, urъ-lъ 3face="Times New Roman Star"uos 2face="Times New Roman Star"uos 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, aqsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, aqsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ooz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyd| 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awud| 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"awuz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 8, EDT 98, ЭСТЯ 1, 81-83, Мудрак Дисс. 115, Лексика 224-225, Stachowski 245.
face="Times New Roman Star"*aglakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lonely, uninhabited (place) 2 unemployed, out of work 3 fieldface="Times New Roman Star"1 незаселенное место 2 безработный, лишенный службы 3 поле, степьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (OUygh. - Buddh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (MK), ag|la-ju 1 (MK; deverb. from *ag|la- 'to be deserted' (unattested)), ag|la-t- (MK) 'to send away (people)'face="Times New Roman Star"aylak 2; ag|lak (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ag|lax 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ulax 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o:laq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlaq, hajlaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 84, 85, VEWT 8, ЭСТЯ 1, 64. Turk. > WMong. ag|laq, ag|lag|a id. (KW 3, Щербак 1997, 95). Tends to contaminate with *a:b-lag 'hunting lands'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*agsa-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to hobble, limp 2 lameface="Times New Roman Star"1 хромать 2 хромой
face="Times New Roman Star"axsa- (MK) 1, aqsaq, ag|sag| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"aksa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqsa- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"o|qsa- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"axsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"axsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aGsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"axsa- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"axsym 2
face="Times New Roman Star"asqa- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"aqsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqha- 1face="Times New Roman Star"axsa-, asxa- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"aqsa- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"aqsa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 95, ЭСТЯ 76. Turk. > Mong. asag '(animal) lameness'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.gur/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"colostrumface="Times New Roman Star"молозиво
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|uz (MK), og|uz (Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"ayz su"tu", dial. a:z, ag|uzface="Times New Roman Star"ug|yzface="Times New Roman Star"ag|uz (Sangl., Pav. C., IM)face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|izface="Times New Roman Star"og|uz

face="Times New Roman Star"ovuzface="Times New Roman Star"o:s


face="Times New Roman Star"yrri (3Sg.)face="Times New Roman Star"uosax
face="Times New Roman Star"a:-zy (contamination with 3d p. poss.)
face="Times New Roman Star"u:zface="Times New Roman Star"uwyzface="Times New Roman Star"uwyzface="Times New Roman Star"ywyd|face="Times New Roman Star"uwuz

face="Times New Roman Star"uwyz
face="Times New Roman Star"uwuzface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 405-407, EDT 98, Егоров 344.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Aj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to revolve, rotate, go round 2 to tarry 3 to lead, lead round 4 to speed up 5 to driveface="Times New Roman Star"1 вращаться, вертеться, обходить 2 мешкать 3 кружить, водить 4 ускорять 5 гнать

face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-(n)- 1, ajlak 'шатающийся без дела'face="Times New Roman Star"@jl@n- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajn-yt- 4, ajla-, @jl@- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 1, ajda- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"ajgy-s-yn- 'to tarry; to go, visit frequently' (*ajyg-ys?-yn-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajda- 5, ajnal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-, ajlan- 1, (h)ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 'to move, visit'face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 106-107, 109-110. The forms meaning `rotate, go round, walk in circles' are hardly connected with aj `moon'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>ja-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to esteem 2 to pity, look after 3 veryface="Times New Roman Star"1 почитать 2 беречь, жалеть 3 очень, сильноface="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1, ajy 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- (MK) 1, 2, ajy 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"aj- 2, aja- dial. 1face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aji- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajin 'cult, ceremony'face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2, aj 3face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2 (in ajaba:n 'remorseless')

face="Times New Roman Star"oja- 'to care'

face="Times New Roman Star"aj 'well'
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10-11, EDT 267-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 101-102, Федотов 2, 298. Deriving *aja- 'to respect, esteem' from *aj 'fear' (VEWT 11) is hardly plausible. Clauson (EDT 182) thinks that OUygh. ajy 'very' is an unusually early example of the elision of -g in an/yg| 'evil', which means 'very' in many OUygh. texts, but this is hardly plausible phonetically; so it may belong here, together with Khak. aj 'very' (although the final narrow y is a problem). Sevortyan relates here also SUygh. ajyg| 'good omen, good luck', but this may be a reflex of OUygh., Karakh. ajyq 'vow, promise' (EDT 270).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касаться ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, ЭСТЯ 1, 99-100, 111-112, Егоров 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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