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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*apakaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 Alnus fruticosa; Labrador tea 2 a k. of fernface="Times New Roman Star"1 вид ольхи; багульник 2 вид папоротника
face="Times New Roman Star"apa bas?y 'Cannabis sativa, it is a plant which grows like Cucumis sativus and has a thorny stern, it is eaten in the mountains' (MK Qypch.)
face="Times New Roman Star"abag|a 2









face="Times New Roman Star"uba-zarri 2face="Times New Roman Star"abag|a 1





face="Times New Roman Star"abag|a 2





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 1, Попов 1986, 92. OT and Chuv. reflect a folk etymology (confusion with apa 'bear').
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a>baface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"poison; evilface="Times New Roman Star"яд; досада, гнев














face="Times New Roman Star"aba; aba-r- 'to be angry'face="Times New Roman Star"abala:- 'to be angry'face="Times New Roman Star"o: 'poison; ferret's musk'










face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 9, Рясянен 1955, 67, ЭСТЯ I 67, Stachowski 27. The root is very close to another one, *a:gu (v. sub *a:/gi), with the same meaning; the reflexes may be phonetically distinguished in Yak. and Tuva (Tuva *agu > a:, cf. Tof. a: 'poison'), in other languages the two roots must have coincided.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)amface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"vulvaface="Times New Roman Star"vulva
face="Times New Roman Star"am (MK - Oghuz, Kypch.)face="Times New Roman Star"amface="Times New Roman Star"am (Буд. 1, 90)face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) am (CCum., AH, At-Tuhf.)



face="Times New Roman Star"am

face="Times New Roman Star"am (R)face="Times New Roman Star"ha:%m
face="Times New Roman Star"abas 'vulva'; amanax 'fat in the groins of cows, horses'


face="Times New Roman Star"am (R)face="Times New Roman Star"am (R)







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 18, EDT 155, R 1 643.
face="Times New Roman Star"*apac?y, *apakyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bogy 2 figure set up to avert the evil eye 3 idolface="Times New Roman Star"1 бука 2 фигурка для отвода сглаза 3 идол
face="Times New Roman Star"abac?y 1, abaqy 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"apaq, abaq 'jinn, ghoul' (dial.), 'fool'
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) abaq 'doll' (Houts., At-Tuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|pa-lar 'female evil ghosts' (lit. "elder sisters")








face="Times New Roman Star"aba:hy 'evil ghost'






face="Times New Roman Star"abac?y 1
face="Times New Roman Star"abaq, abax 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 1, 2, EDT 6, 8. Quite dubious is the hypothesis (see Аникин 71, TMN 4, 307-310, Clark 1977, 127) of the Turkic forms being borrowed from Mong. abug|аc?i 'receiver' (all the more so because the Bur. form is not aba:s?a, but abags?a, i. e. reflecting -g-, not -g|-). See a detailed discussion in Stachowski 2001.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elderface="Times New Roman Star"1 старший брат; старший дядя; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старшийface="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ДТС)
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), ag|a 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1,2, qyz ag|a 'тесть' (ЯЖУ 11, 13)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:Ga 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father's father')face="Times New Roman Star"aqqa 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father'), 3face="Times New Roman Star"aga 'father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|aj 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 2 (K), ag|a 2, 3 (K, T)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 70-71, 121-122, Лексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?y-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 precious gift; wellbeing 2 to tend, make comfortable, be favourable 3 to pity, have compassionface="Times New Roman Star"1 драгоценный дар; благосостояние 2 быть благоприятным, благосклонным, ухаживать 3 жалеть, иметь состраданиеface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| 1, ac?yn- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 22, 29, ЭСТЯ 1, 92 (together with *ia:c?y- 'bitter'), Stachowski 29. Turk. > WMong. ac?ug| 'wages, rent' (L 8). In modern languages the root tends to be confused with *ia:c?y- 'bitter, bitterness' (v. sub *p`i_a:/c?`o), thus the Oghuz voicing may be a result of secondary contamination and not due to original vowel length; but the two roots are rather well distinguished in Old Turkic, see EDT ibid.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:c?y-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bitter, acidface="Times New Roman Star"горький, кислыйface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?y (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?i, o|c?c?i (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|y, a:z?|yg|

face="Times New Roman Star"ac?uface="Times New Roman Star"ha:c?ug|, ha:c?uqface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z/@face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"az?yg|face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yg|
face="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?yface="Times New Roman Star"asyface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"az?|iface="Times New Roman Star"az?|y, ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?yface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 89-93, Егоров 82, Мудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *ia:c?y- 'to become bitter, sour'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ar/ygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fangface="Times New Roman Star"клыкface="Times New Roman Star"azyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azawface="Times New Roman Star"azu (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|ziq
face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyjface="Times New Roman Star"azu, azu:
face="Times New Roman Star"*ora > Mari ora-puj 'id.'face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:, dial. yhy:
face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azu:face="Times New Roman Star"azuw
face="Times New Roman Star"ad|awface="Times New Roman Star"azaw

face="Times New Roman Star"azuw
face="Times New Roman Star"azuwface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 33, ЭСТЯ 1, 96-98, Лексика 229. Turk. > Mong. *az?|ug| (ac?ug| in Uygh. script, see Clark 1980, 41).
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/akface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pot, cup 2 hole; mouth 3(river) mouthface="Times New Roman Star"1 сосуд, чашка 2 отверстие; рот 3 устье (реки)face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajak 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|q 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajak 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajax 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajax 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"an/a, an/ak 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 11, ЭСТЯ 1, 105, TMN 2, 171-2, EDT 270, Stachowski 34. Turk. > Mongor ajaG 'paquet' (SM 16), ZM ajo|:q (14-2a); > Russ. Siber. aja/k (Аникин 104).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sajface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 area covered with stones, stony desert, stony riverbed 2 shallow place, shallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 каменистое место, каменистая пустыня, каменистое русло реки 2 мелкое место, мелкийface="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, saj-yq- 'be shallow'face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|j 1, sajo|z 2face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sujъr c?ul@ (Anatri) 'pebble, rubble'face="Times New Roman Star"aja:n 'старица'
face="Times New Roman Star"saaryg|
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, sajyz, sajaz 2face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"haj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, sajyz 2
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 394, Лексика 93, EDT 858, ЭСТЯ 7, Ашм. XI, 162. Yak. > Evk., Evn. aja:n TMS 1, 21; > Russ. Siber. aja/n (Аникин 104).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Aj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to revolve, rotate, go round 2 to tarry 3 to lead, lead round 4 to speed up 5 to driveface="Times New Roman Star"1 вращаться, вертеться, обходить 2 мешкать 3 кружить, водить 4 ускорять 5 гнать

face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-(n)- 1, ajlak 'шатающийся без дела'face="Times New Roman Star"@jl@n- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajn-yt- 4, ajla-, @jl@- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 1, ajda- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"ajgy-s-yn- 'to tarry; to go, visit frequently' (*ajyg-ys?-yn-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajda- 5, ajnal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-, ajlan- 1, (h)ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 'to move, visit'face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 106-107, 109-110. The forms meaning `rotate, go round, walk in circles' are hardly connected with aj `moon'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)an/ygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sin, evilface="Times New Roman Star"грех, злоface="Times New Roman Star"an/yg| (Orkh., OUygh.), ajyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajyg| (MK)












face="Times New Roman Star"ajy:face="Times New Roman Star"an/y:











face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 20, EDT 182, ЭСТЯ 1, 113, Stachowski 34.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:laface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"variegatedface="Times New Roman Star"пестрыйface="Times New Roman Star"ala (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"o|laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"a:laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"hala-bulaface="Times New Roman Star"olaface="Times New Roman Star"ala
face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"ala-z?|aface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 126, VEWT 15, ЭСТЯ 1, 129-130, TMN 2, 95-97, Федотов 2, 274, Лексика 607.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ala-n / *ala-n|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"level ground, plainface="Times New Roman Star"равнина
face="Times New Roman Star"alan| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alan, dial. alaface="Times New Roman Star"alanface="Times New Roman Star"alan| (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"alan|, a:la



face="Times New Roman Star"olъxface="Times New Roman Star"ala:s, aly:face="Times New Roman Star"alyn, aly:face="Times New Roman Star"ala:q, alandy

face="Times New Roman Star"alan|face="Times New Roman Star"alan|


face="Times New Roman Star"alan|face="Times New Roman Star"alan|

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 147, ЭСТЯ 1, 134-135, Федотов 2, 277, Stachowski 32, 33. Length in the Turkm. variant a:la is not clear. Yak. ala:s > Russ. Siber. ala/s (Аникин 80-81).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to become weak 2 bad 3 to be vile (of a man), to turn septic (of a wound) 4 weak, inferior 5 upset 6 old, worn-out 7 crazy 8 lazy man 9 to hurry 10 fool 11 to go mad 12 to deceive 13 perplexed 14 dumb, foolish 15 doubt, surprise 16 error 17 be in doubt, perplexed 18 absent-minded, unattentive 19 weaknessface="Times New Roman Star"1 слабеть 2 дурной 3 быть подлым (о человеке), воспаляться (о ране) 4 слабый, худший 5 расстроенный 6 старый, изношенный 7 безумный, ошалелый 8 лентяй 9 торопиться 10 дурак 11 сходить с ума 12 обманывать 13 растерянный 14 глупый, простоватый 15 сомнение, удивление 16 ошибка 17 сомневаться, сбиваться, путаться 18 рассеянный, невнимательный 19 чахлость, немощьface="Times New Roman Star"alan|-a-d- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 2 (MK), alyq- 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"alyk, (Osm.) alu 4, alaz, alyz 4 (dial.), alkyn 5 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala-ma 2, 6face="Times New Roman Star"aluq 7 (Abush. 27)
face="Times New Roman Star"alaq, alan| 7face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ac? 8 (ЯЖУ 14)
face="Times New Roman Star"al-n|-a-sa- 9face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 10, alas 5, al-yn-, al-ax- 11, (caus.) 12face="Times New Roman Star"al-aq-tyr- (caus. from *al-aq-) 12, al-aq-qan 13, alyg| 10, al-yn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"ala: (< alag|) 14, alu (< alyg|) 10, alan| 15, alg|as 5, al-yn- 11

face="Times New Roman Star"alg|as 16
face="Times New Roman Star"ala:q- 17, alan| 15
face="Times New Roman Star"alan|, alag|-dy 18face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18face="Times New Roman Star"ala-n|-g|a-s-ar 18face="Times New Roman Star"alama 2, 6, al-jawu 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyq 7, 10face="Times New Roman Star"alas 19face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 16-17, TMN 2, 116, EDT 129, 138, 149, ЭСТЯ 1, 132, 145-146, Clark 1977, 128. See also Oghuz *al-c?ak sub *a>l 'below'. Tends to contaminate with *a:l 'red' and *a:la 'variegated', cf. Uygh. al-ga"da"n 'nai've' ('red nape'), Turkm. a:la-samsyk 'foolish' ('variegated fool'), Bashk. al-jot 'fool' ('red fellow'). KW 7. Turk. *algaz > MMong. alg|asa- 'faul, nachlassig sein' (SH), then Mong. > Kirgh., KBalk., Kum. alg|asa(r)-, Nogh. alas-la-r- 'to become embarrassed', (Karaim) 'to be scared' etc. Despite Sevortyan, Tokharian A a:la:s 'iners, ignavus' (Poucha 27), B ala:s- 'be sick' (Sieg-Siegling 91) not < Turk., but < Sanskr. alasa.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.lky-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to bless, praise 2 blessing, praise 3 curseface="Times New Roman Star"1 благословлять, восхвалять 2 благословение, хвала 3 проклятие, проклинатьface="Times New Roman Star"alqa- (OUygh.) 1, alqys? (OUygh., Yen.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alkys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqa- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|lqis? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqis? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys 2face="Times New Roman Star"alGys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2

face="Times New Roman Star"alqa- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ylg|an 3face="Times New Roman Star"alg|a:- 1, alg|y: 2 ( < Tuva)face="Times New Roman Star"alga:- 'to shamanize' ( < Tuva)face="Times New Roman Star"a'lg|ys? 3
face="Times New Roman Star"alqa- 1, alqys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys 2; alqa- 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys 2
face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 137-138, EDT 137-138, Егоров 343, Stachowski 31, Мудрак Дисс. 181 (regarding the Yak. form as borrowed < Tuva because of its vocalism).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lowerface="Times New Roman Star"1 низ, нижняя сторона 2 нижнийface="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (Yen. ПМК 90, OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (dial., ЯБТ 126)


face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1 (ЯЖУ 14)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"ald 1, altyg|y 2; alty 1 {(Баск. Туба)}face="Times New Roman Star"a[:]lt 1face="Times New Roman Star"old(ъ) 'gusset'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'ldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldyn 'в низовье реки' (Рас. ФиЛ 153)face="Times New Roman Star"ald(y) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (K)


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, ЭСТЯ 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *a:l 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but alty 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk alty 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see Дыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-ty- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *a>l is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alas?a 'low, low place' (КСТТ 100). Another possible old derivative in -c?ak may be PT *al/(c?)ak (Karakh. as?aq, Turkm. as?a:q etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *a:l/- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-c?ak (see ЭСТЯ 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alc?aq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' (КСТТ 101), Turkm. alc?ak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alc?ak 'mean, vile', alc?a- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alyg, see under *a:\le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alc?aq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alc?aq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -c?ak from the root al- (which is why -lc?- did not yield -s?- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alc?a-gar, alc?a-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alc?aji- 'to spread legs apart'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lpface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 difficult, hard 2 warrior 3 hero 4 brave 5 giant 6 landlordface="Times New Roman Star"1 трудный 2 воин 3 герой 4 храбрый 5 великан 6 помещик, землевладелецface="Times New Roman Star"alp 1, 2, 4 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.); alp-a-g|ut 2 (OUygh.).face="Times New Roman Star"alp 2, 4 (MK, KB, Tefs., IM); alpag|ut 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 3, 5, alpawyt 2face="Times New Roman Star"alp 2, 3 (Sngl.)face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3face="Times New Roman Star"alpawut 2


face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4, albyx- 'to act as a meddler'face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4
face="Times New Roman Star"olъp 5, olbut 2face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 'witchcraft; part of some names of spirits'
face="Times New Roman Star"albyq- 'to pant, stifle', alba:- 'to lapse into oblivion'
face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 4, 5, albu:t 'hot-tempered'face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 5, albyt, albyrt 'hot-tempered'
face="Times New Roman Star"alpawyt 2, alpamys?a 5 (from Alp Amys?a, a folklore name, = Tat.)

face="Times New Roman Star"alp 'chief', alpawut 'gentry man'face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 5, albyra- 'be exhausted, embarassed'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 127-128, VEWT 18, ЭСТЯ I 139, Федотов 2, 276. Clauson's hypothesis that the reflexes of *alpawut in recent languages are the result of a re-borrowing from Mong. (cf. Lit. Mong. albag|ut (Kow. 84) < Turk.), partly contaminated with Mong. alban 'tax', is unnecessary: a semantic shift 'warrior' > 'gentry' > 'landlord' seems to be natural. Cf. a borrowing from Mong. alba-tu in Tuva, Oyr. albatu, albaty, Kirgh. albaty 'tax-payers, people'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 gentle, quiet 2 to love, desire, rejoice 3 politeness 4 beloved 5 to be quietface="Times New Roman Star"1 тихий, спокойный 2 любить, радоваться 3 вежливость 4 милый, любимый 5 быть спокойнымface="Times New Roman Star"amul, amyl 1, amraq 4, amyr-, amran- 2, amryl- 5 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"amul 1, amraq 4, amyrt- 'to calm', amryl- 5 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ymyl, umul 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ymrag| 4
face="Times New Roman Star"amraq 4face="Times New Roman Star"amyr 1, amyra- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"amyr 1, amyra- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"amyr 1, amyra- 5face="Times New Roman Star"havul 'good' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"ъw|mъw|r 'quiet and grey (weather)'face="Times New Roman Star"amarax, amyrax 'compassionate'face="Times New Roman Star"amarak 'compassionate'face="Times New Roman Star"amyr 1, amyra- 2, amyraq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"amyz 'honour'


face="Times New Roman Star"amyr 'desire'



face="Times New Roman Star"amraq 'disposition, aptitude'face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 160-161, 162-163, 164, VEWT 19, ЭСТЯ 1, 59-60 (confused with abra- 'to save' < Mong.), Stachowski 33, TMN 2, 125, Федотов 1, 82. Turk. > MMong. amrax| 'sweetheart', amurag| 'friend' (IM), amraq bol- 'to fall in love' (MA), amara- 'sich lieben', amarah 'Liebe' (SH), Mgr amurag| 'friend' (Тод. Мгр. 314) etc.; but modern Kypchak and Siberian forms may be reborrowed < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sAmarface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sack, saddle pack 2 big wooden vesselface="Times New Roman Star"1 вьючный мешок 2 большой деревянный сосуд



face="Times New Roman Star"samar 1 (Pav. C.)









face="Times New Roman Star"ampara 'налуч (колчан)' (Пек.) ?



face="Times New Roman Star"samar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"hamar 2


face="Times New Roman Star"samar 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 399.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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