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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to openface="Times New Roman Star"открыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-
face="Times New Roman Star"os/-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 18-19, VEWT 3, Ё—“я 1, 209-210, ‘едотов 2, 292.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elderface="Times New Roman Star"1 старший брат; старший д€д€; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старшийface="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ƒ“—)
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), ag|a 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1,2, qyz ag|a 'тесть' (я∆” 11, 13)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:Ga 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father's father')face="Times New Roman Star"aqqa 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father'), 3face="Times New Roman Star"aga 'father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|aj 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 2 (K), ag|a 2, 3 (K, T)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 13, Ё—“я 1, 70-71, 121-122, Ћексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
face="Times New Roman Star"*adakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"footface="Times New Roman Star"ногаface="Times New Roman Star"adaq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajakface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaq (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|qface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"azaxface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ad/aqface="Times New Roman Star"hada:q, hadaqface="Times New Roman Star"oraface="Times New Roman Star"ataqface="Times New Roman Star"atakface="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'bottom part'face="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'сошки; нижн€€ часть'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaxface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"aja(:)x|face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 45, Ё—“я 1, 103-105, Ћексика 288, ‘едотов 2, 283, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/ar/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"clear sky; frostface="Times New Roman Star"€сное небо; морозface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajas (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (Sangl.), ajaz, ajas (CCum.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajo|zface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajas; ajyz (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"haja:zface="Times New Roman Star"ojar

face="Times New Roman Star"ajas
face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajad|face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz/s

face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 102-3; VEWT 11; TMN 2, 170; Ћексика 13, ‘едотов 2, 298. A different suffixation is seen in Tur. (dial.) ajam, Kaz., Kirgh. ajyq 'clear (weather'). A derivative *an/-gyr/- (pointing to original *-n/-) is found in Kaz. an|yzaq, Turkm. an|zaq 'cold with dry wind' (see Ё—“я ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ady-r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to separateface="Times New Roman Star"отдел€тьface="Times New Roman Star"adyr- (Orkh., OUygh.); adyn (OUygh.) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yr- (MK); ad|yn (MK) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajir-face="Times New Roman Star"ajra-, ajri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajry-face="Times New Roman Star"hadru-, hadur-face="Times New Roman Star"ojъr-face="Times New Roman Star"atyr-; atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 6, EDT 60, 66-67, Ё—“я 1, 93, 114-116, ‘едотов 2, 270, Stachowski 39. Turk. > MMo, WMong. az?|ira- (see ўербак 1997, 94), whence again Uzb. az?|ra- etc. (see Ё—“я ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Aj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to revolve, rotate, go round 2 to tarry 3 to lead, lead round 4 to speed up 5 to driveface="Times New Roman Star"1 вращатьс€, вертетьс€, обходить 2 мешкать 3 кружить, водить 4 ускор€ть 5 гнать

face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-(n)- 1, ajlak 'шатающийс€ без дела'face="Times New Roman Star"@jl@n- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajn-yt- 4, ajla-, @jl@- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 1, ajda- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"ajgy-s-yn- 'to tarry; to go, visit frequently' (*ajyg-ys?-yn-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajda- 5, ajnal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-, ajlan- 1, (h)ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 'to move, visit'face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 106-107, 109-110. The forms meaning `rotate, go round, walk in circles' are hardly connected with aj `moon'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*aglakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lonely, uninhabited (place) 2 unemployed, out of work 3 fieldface="Times New Roman Star"1 незаселенное место 2 безработный, лишенный службы 3 поле, степьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (OUygh. - Buddh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (MK), ag|la-ju 1 (MK; deverb. from *ag|la- 'to be deserted' (unattested)), ag|la-t- (MK) 'to send away (people)'face="Times New Roman Star"aylak 2; ag|lak (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ag|lax 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ulax 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o:laq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlaq, hajlaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 84, 85, VEWT 8, Ё—“я 1, 64. Turk. > WMong. ag|laq, ag|lag|a id. (KW 3, ўербак 1997, 95). Tends to contaminate with *a:b-lag 'hunting lands'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to takeface="Times New Roman Star"братьface="Times New Roman Star"al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"al- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"il-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 124-125, VEWT 14-15, Ё—“я 1, 127-128, ≈горов 68, Ћексика 336, 337, Stachowski 259.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:laface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"variegatedface="Times New Roman Star"пестрыйface="Times New Roman Star"ala (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"o|laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"a:laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"hala-bulaface="Times New Roman Star"olaface="Times New Roman Star"ala
face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"ala-z?|aface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 126, VEWT 15, Ё—“я 1, 129-130, TMN 2, 95-97, ‘едотов 2, 274, Ћексика 607.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to become weak 2 bad 3 to be vile (of a man), to turn septic (of a wound) 4 weak, inferior 5 upset 6 old, worn-out 7 crazy 8 lazy man 9 to hurry 10 fool 11 to go mad 12 to deceive 13 perplexed 14 dumb, foolish 15 doubt, surprise 16 error 17 be in doubt, perplexed 18 absent-minded, unattentive 19 weaknessface="Times New Roman Star"1 слабеть 2 дурной 3 быть подлым (о человеке), воспал€тьс€ (о ране) 4 слабый, худший 5 расстроенный 6 старый, изношенный 7 безумный, ошалелый 8 лент€й 9 торопитьс€ 10 дурак 11 сходить с ума 12 обманывать 13 растер€нный 14 глупый, простоватый 15 сомнение, удивление 16 ошибка 17 сомневатьс€, сбиватьс€, путатьс€ 18 рассе€нный, невнимательный 19 чахлость, немощьface="Times New Roman Star"alan|-a-d- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 2 (MK), alyq- 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"alyk, (Osm.) alu 4, alaz, alyz 4 (dial.), alkyn 5 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala-ma 2, 6face="Times New Roman Star"aluq 7 (Abush. 27)
face="Times New Roman Star"alaq, alan| 7face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ac? 8 (я∆” 14)
face="Times New Roman Star"al-n|-a-sa- 9face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 10, alas 5, al-yn-, al-ax- 11, (caus.) 12face="Times New Roman Star"al-aq-tyr- (caus. from *al-aq-) 12, al-aq-qan 13, alyg| 10, al-yn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"ala: (< alag|) 14, alu (< alyg|) 10, alan| 15, alg|as 5, al-yn- 11

face="Times New Roman Star"alg|as 16
face="Times New Roman Star"ala:q- 17, alan| 15
face="Times New Roman Star"alan|, alag|-dy 18face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18face="Times New Roman Star"ala-n|-g|a-s-ar 18face="Times New Roman Star"alama 2, 6, al-jawu 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyq 7, 10face="Times New Roman Star"alas 19face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 16-17, TMN 2, 116, EDT 129, 138, 149, Ё—“я 1, 132, 145-146, Clark 1977, 128. See also Oghuz *al-c?ak sub *a>l 'below'. Tends to contaminate with *a:l 'red' and *a:la 'variegated', cf. Uygh. al-ga"da"n 'nai've' ('red nape'), Turkm. a:la-samsyk 'foolish' ('variegated fool'), Bashk. al-jot 'fool' ('red fellow'). KW 7. Turk. *algaz > MMong. alg|asa- 'faul, nachlassig sein' (SH), then Mong. > Kirgh., KBalk., Kum. alg|asa(r)-, Nogh. alas-la-r- 'to become embarrassed', (Karaim) 'to be scared' etc. Despite Sevortyan, Tokharian A a:la:s 'iners, ignavus' (Poucha 27), B ala:s- 'be sick' (Sieg-Siegling 91) not < Turk., but < Sanskr. alasa.
face="Times New Roman Star"*An|dur/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a medicinal shrub, elecampane 2 cypress, juniper 3 shrub, bushface="Times New Roman Star"1 род лекарственного растени€, дев€сил 2 кипарис, можжевельник 3 кустарник
face="Times New Roman Star"an|duz 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"andyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"andyz 2face="Times New Roman Star"anduz 1 (Sngl)



face="Times New Roman Star"andyz 'переступень двудомный'; an|n|yza 'a k. of mountain plant'








face="Times New Roman Star"qar-andyz, qaryndiz, antyz (South dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"andyz, andz?y 'аир'face="Times New Roman Star"andyz 2face="Times New Roman Star"andyd| 2face="Times New Roman Star"andyz 2face="Times New Roman Star"andyz 3



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 21, EDT 178, Ё—“я 1, 150-151.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 front 2 forehead 3 in front of 4 towards the front offace="Times New Roman Star"1 перед 2 лоб 3 впереди, спереди 4 впередface="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (dial.), alyn 1, 2; 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-d-y 1, alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"aly 1 (Abush.), alny-da 'in the presence of' (Abush.), aldy (Babur) 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-d-i 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajl, aldi 1, al-dyn 3, al-g|a 4face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alym, alyn 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:lyn 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"alny 1face="Times New Roman Star"alny 1, alyn-da 3face="Times New Roman Star"aldy, alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"ha:nl(y), ha:ll 2face="Times New Roman Star"om 1

face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 'face, mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al-da 3, al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al, aldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"al, ally 1, al-da 3, al-g|a 4face="Times New Roman Star"anny 2face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1 (K), alyn 1 (T, H)face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-dan 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 121, 147; VEWT 14 (should be distinguished from *al- 'below'), TMN 2, 120, Ё—“я 1, 124-125, 146, ‘едотов 2, 280, Ћексика 198-199. See EDT 121 commenting on the absence of early attestation of the suffixless form.
face="Times New Roman Star"*iak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to flowface="Times New Roman Star"течьface="Times New Roman Star"aq- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ak-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|q-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"ax-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"ax-
face="Times New Roman Star"aq-
face="Times New Roman Star"jox-

face="Times New Roman Star"aq-
face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"aq-
face="Times New Roman Star"aq-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 77, VEWT 12, Ё—“я 1, 118-120, ≈горов 352, ‘едотов 2, 495.
face="Times New Roman Star"*arpaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"barleyface="Times New Roman Star"€чменьface="Times New Roman Star"arpa (OUygh.), abra (late OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"arpa (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpa (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"a(r)pa
face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arba
face="Times New Roman Star"arbaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"orba



face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arfa (——я 292)face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 198, VEWT 27, Ё—“я 1, 176-177, TMN 2, 24, Ћексика 460, ≈горов 27, ‘едотов 2, 286. Turk. > Hung. a/rpa, see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>rkaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"backface="Times New Roman Star"спина, задн€€ сторонаface="Times New Roman Star"arqa (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"arqa (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"arkaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqa (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|rqaface="Times New Roman Star"a(r)qaface="Times New Roman Star"arqa, harqaface="Times New Roman Star"arxaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arg|aface="Times New Roman Star"arg|aface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqа (arxa < Az.)face="Times New Roman Star"org|a-lъx 'saddle strips'face="Times New Roman Star"arg|a:, arg|a-sface="Times New Roman Star"arga-la:- 'to turn one's back towards smb.'face="Times New Roman Star"a'rg|a 'mountain forest'
face="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arqa, arxaface="Times New Roman Star"arqaface="Times New Roman Star"arx|a, arGa (——я 292, 293)face="Times New Roman Star"arqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 200-201, 215, VEWT 26-27, Ё—“я 1, 174-175, 179-180, Ћексика 267-268, ‘едотов 2, 288, Stachowski 36.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to cross (a mountain) 2 to surpassface="Times New Roman Star"1 переходить (через гору) 2 превосходитьface="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"o|s?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"a:s- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s- 'to go by'face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 'to go beyond the range of vision'face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 30, Ё—“я 1, 212-214, EDT 255, Stachowski 41. The OT gerund as?ru 'having crossed over, exceeded > very' > Mong. asuru (Clark 1980, 42, ўербак 1997, 102-103).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.buc?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"handfulface="Times New Roman Star"пригоршн€
face="Times New Roman Star"avut (MK), avut-c?a, avuc?-c?a (KB), avuc? (Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"avuc?face="Times New Roman Star"uc?face="Times New Roman Star"avuc? (MA, Sangl., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"xo|wuc?face="Times New Roman Star"oc?face="Times New Roman Star"os?face="Times New Roman Star"ovuc?face="Times New Roman Star"ovuc?, jan-avuc?face="Times New Roman Star"o:sface="Times New Roman Star"os?face="Times New Roman Star"u:s?
face="Times New Roman Star"yvъs/



face="Times New Roman Star"u:c?face="Times New Roman Star"uwysface="Times New Roman Star"uvysface="Times New Roman Star"usface="Times New Roman Star"uwuc?face="Times New Roman Star"auc?face="Times New Roman Star"avuc?, uvuc?, uvucface="Times New Roman Star"uwysface="Times New Roman Star"uz?|face="Times New Roman Star"uvuc?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 44, VEWT 3, Ё—“я 1, 409-410, ≈горов 342, ƒыбо 179-181, Ћексика 25-253. Turk. > MMong. a'uc? id. (ўербак 1997, 103).
face="Times New Roman Star"*A>burtface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cheek-pouch, inside of the mouth 2 gum 3 mouthful, gulp 4 cheek 5 molar 6 to take a mouthful, swallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 внутренн€€ полость рта 2 десна 3 глоток 4 щека 5 коренной зуб 6 глотатьface="Times New Roman Star"a[vurt] (?adurt) (OUygh., late med. texts TT II)
face="Times New Roman Star"avurt 1face="Times New Roman Star"urt 2face="Times New Roman Star"awurt (Sangl.) 3, (MKypch.) og|urt, owurt 1, 3 (Houts., Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"urt (dial.) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"howurt (dial.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"o:rt-a- 6face="Times New Roman Star"o:rt-a- 6face="Times New Roman Star"u:rt 'throat', u:rt-a- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"urъlъ, dial. vъw|rlъw| 5 (јшм. V 320)face="Times New Roman Star"omurt 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"a:rt-a- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"u:rtface="Times New Roman Star"urt 1face="Times New Roman Star"uwyrt 1face="Times New Roman Star"urt 1face="Times New Roman Star"uwurt 4face="Times New Roman Star"aurt 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"urt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"uvurt 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 65, Ё—“я 1, 407-409, Ћексика 225-226, ћудрак 115. The Old Uyghur form is poorly readable, so -d|- is dubious. Yak. -m- is irregular: could it be a trace of PA *umV 'drink', otherwise lost in Turkic?
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)aby-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to enjoy oneself, be happy (refl.) 2 to comfort (caus.)face="Times New Roman Star"1 радоватьс€, быть счастливым 2 утешать, успокаиватьface="Times New Roman Star"abynyq 'consolation' (USp. 43), avyn-c?u 'concubine' (YB 1)face="Times New Roman Star"avyn- 1 (MK), avyt- 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"avun- 1, avut- 2, 'to deceive'
face="Times New Roman Star"awut- 2, awun- 'to find comfort' (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|vun- 1, o|vut- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ovun- 1, ovut- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"abyt- 'to lull'face="Times New Roman Star"abyt- 'to lull'
face="Times New Roman Star"avun- 1, avut- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ya-hax 'play'face="Times New Roman Star"ya-hak 'play'face="Times New Roman Star"aat- 'to lull'face="Times New Roman Star"aat- 'to lull'




face="Times New Roman Star"aut- 'to deceive'face="Times New Roman Star"avun-, uvun- 'to be consoled', uvut- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 7, 12; VEWT 2, Ё—“я 1, 66, Stachowski 257. The meaning 'to lull' may belong to the homonymic *(i)abu- 'to bend, swing', on which see under *i_a>\p[o\].
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:c?y-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bitter, acidface="Times New Roman Star"горький, кислыйface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?y (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?i, o|c?c?i (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|y, a:z?|yg|

face="Times New Roman Star"ac?uface="Times New Roman Star"ha:c?ug|, ha:c?uqface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z/@face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"az?yg|face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yg|
face="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?yface="Times New Roman Star"asyface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"az?|iface="Times New Roman Star"az?|y, ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?yface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 89-93, ≈горов 82, ћудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *ia:c?y- 'to become bitter, sour'.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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