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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*apa (*appa)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fatherface="Times New Roman Star"отецface="Times New Roman Star"apa (Orkh., OUygh.) 'ancestors'face="Times New Roman Star"apa (MK) 'father, bear' ("Kypch."), (KB) 'ancestor'face="Times New Roman Star"abaface="Times New Roman Star"aba (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"awaface="Times New Roman Star"aba (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"aba (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"aba
face="Times New Roman Star"aba 'father, bear'
face="Times New Roman Star"oba 'bear'

face="Times New Roman Star"ava
face="Times New Roman Star"aba

face="Times New Roman Star"apa (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"appa, aba


face="Times New Roman Star"aba (Kakuk), aba, apa (ССЯ)
face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 5, VEWT 1, ЭСТЯ 1, 54-58, Федотов 2, 281, Лексика 305, Аникин 71. Сf. also *ba:pa 'grandfather, mother's father' (Turkm. ba:ba etc., see ЭСТЯ 2, 10-13, Лексика 294, 305). Voicing of -p- in many languages is probably due to expressive gemination.
face="Times New Roman Star"*apa-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"grasshopperface="Times New Roman Star"кузнечик










face="Times New Roman Star"abac?aqface="Times New Roman Star"abac?yjaq
face="Times New Roman Star"oba l@w|b@w|z?@w| 'бабочка совка', oba nъrri 'медведка (насекомое)'













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 1. Contaminations with abac?y 'чучело', aba 'father > bear'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)aby-
face="Times New Roman Star"1 to bend, fall 2 to roll, sway, swingface="Times New Roman Star"1 сгибаться, сваливаться, опрокидываться 2 валяться, переворачиваться с боку на бок


face="Times New Roman Star"avu- 1







face="Times New Roman Star"aby- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"a:-t-tyn- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o:- 1, 2, o:-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"awu- 1, awyn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"avy- 1, avna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awan- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"avd- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"avun- 2face="Times New Roman Star"The root should be distinguished from *(i)aby- `to enjoy oneself, be happy' q. v.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Apylface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hoeface="Times New Roman Star"мотыга










face="Times New Roman Star"abylface="Times New Roman Star"abyl, dial. o:l (Leb.)





face="Times New Roman Star"abyl-qasym 'one of the pegs in a plough'








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 2. Despite late and sparse attestation hardly borrowed from Mong. - for semantic and phonetic reasons, despite Аникин 73.
face="Times New Roman Star"*apaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mother, elder sister, auntface="Times New Roman Star"мать, старшая сестра, тетяface="Times New Roman Star"apa (Yen.)face="Times New Roman Star"epe ? apa (Oghuz=Qarluq Tu"rkmen, MK)face="Times New Roman Star"aba (Ank.), dial. apaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"apa 'elder sister' (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|paface="Times New Roman Star"apa

face="Times New Roman Star"apa, afa (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"abic?e (< aba-ec?e)face="Times New Roman Star"abune (< aba-ene)



face="Times New Roman Star"avaface="Times New Roman Star"abaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"abaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"aba
face="Times New Roman Star"apaj (Q)face="Times New Roman Star"apa
face="Times New Roman Star"abaj, apajface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 5, ЭСТЯ 1, 158-159, ССЯ 290-291, Лексика 300, 301, TMN 2, 3, Аникин 90. Front row variants (Tur. eve, Kaz. ebej, Yak., Dolg. ebe etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 220-221, Stachowski 42) are recent and may have a Mong. origin.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to openface="Times New Roman Star"открыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-
face="Times New Roman Star"os/-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 18-19, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 209-210, Федотов 2, 292.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:c?y-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bitter, acidface="Times New Roman Star"горький, кислыйface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?y (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?i, o|c?c?i (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|y, a:z?|yg|

face="Times New Roman Star"ac?uface="Times New Roman Star"ha:c?ug|, ha:c?uqface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z/@face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"az?yg|face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yg|
face="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?yface="Times New Roman Star"asyface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"az?|iface="Times New Roman Star"az?|y, ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?yface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 89-93, Егоров 82, Мудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *ia:c?y- 'to become bitter, sour'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ata / *Eteface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 father 2 uncle 3 ancestorface="Times New Roman Star"1 отец 2 дядя 3 предокface="Times New Roman Star"ata 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ata, ataqy 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3, dial. ede 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata, eti 1, etkej 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|ta 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3



face="Times New Roman Star"a'da 1face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 40, 48, VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 200-201, TMN 2, 5-6, 9, Лексика 294, 304.
face="Times New Roman Star"*adakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"footface="Times New Roman Star"ногаface="Times New Roman Star"adaq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajakface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaq (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|qface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"azaxface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ad/aqface="Times New Roman Star"hada:q, hadaqface="Times New Roman Star"oraface="Times New Roman Star"ataqface="Times New Roman Star"atakface="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'bottom part'face="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'сошки; нижняя часть'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaxface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"aja(:)x|face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 45, ЭСТЯ 1, 103-105, Лексика 288, Федотов 2, 283, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Argun ? *a:r/
face="Times New Roman Star"1 ermine 2 a k. of weaselface="Times New Roman Star"1 горностай 2 вид ласкиface="Times New Roman Star"as (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"as, az (MK) 1, arg|un (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"a(r)s, Osm. asface="Times New Roman Star"as 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as (Sangl.) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"a(g|a)s, a:s 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jos 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1
face="Times New Roman Star"arys 1

face="Times New Roman Star"at| 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 216, ЭСТЯ 191, **AD Федотов 2 493.
face="Times New Roman Star"*y, *y-(n/)gac?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"treeface="Times New Roman Star"1 дерево 2 лесface="Times New Roman Star"yg|ac? (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jyg|ac? (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|az?| (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jo|g|o|c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jig|as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"aGac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"hag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jyvъs/ 1face="Times New Roman Star"mas 1face="Times New Roman Star"mas 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjas? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"n/e|s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yg|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac?, -c 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac?, -s? 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 7, ЭСТЯ 1, 71-73, TMN 2, 73f, EDT 79-80, Егоров 83, Лексика 104, Stachowski 176. The form contains perhaps PT *y 'bush, tree' as the first component (for OT y see EDT 1), cf. the OT combination y yg|ac?; but the second element is yet unclear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/akface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pot, cup 2 hole; mouth 3(river) mouthface="Times New Roman Star"1 сосуд, чашка 2 отверстие; рот 3 устье (реки)face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajak 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|q 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajak 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajax 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajax 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"an/a, an/ak 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 11, ЭСТЯ 1, 105, TMN 2, 171-2, EDT 270, Stachowski 34. Turk. > Mongor ajaG 'paquet' (SM 16), ZM ajo|:q (14-2a); > Russ. Siber. aja/k (Аникин 104).
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/ar/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"clear sky; frostface="Times New Roman Star"ясное небо; морозface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajas (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (Sangl.), ajaz, ajas (CCum.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajo|zface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajas; ajyz (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"haja:zface="Times New Roman Star"ojar

face="Times New Roman Star"ajas
face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajad|face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz/s

face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 102-3; VEWT 11; TMN 2, 170; Лексика 13, Федотов 2, 298. A different suffixation is seen in Tur. (dial.) ajam, Kaz., Kirgh. ajyq 'clear (weather'). A derivative *an/-gyr/- (pointing to original *-n/-) is found in Kaz. an|yzaq, Turkm. an|zaq 'cold with dry wind' (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Aj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to revolve, rotate, go round 2 to tarry 3 to lead, lead round 4 to speed up 5 to driveface="Times New Roman Star"1 вращаться, вертеться, обходить 2 мешкать 3 кружить, водить 4 ускорять 5 гнать

face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-(n)- 1, ajlak 'шатающийся без дела'face="Times New Roman Star"@jl@n- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajn-yt- 4, ajla-, @jl@- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 1, ajda- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"ajgy-s-yn- 'to tarry; to go, visit frequently' (*ajyg-ys?-yn-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajda- 5, ajnal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-, ajlan- 1, (h)ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 'to move, visit'face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 106-107, 109-110. The forms meaning `rotate, go round, walk in circles' are hardly connected with aj `moon'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ajranface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"kumysface="Times New Roman Star"кумыс
face="Times New Roman Star"ajran (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"e|jre|n
face="Times New Roman Star"o|jro|nface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ujran, dial. ur/an, oren (Anatri)



face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 111, EDT 276, Лексика 449, Федотов 2, 272. Chuv. > ORuss. урень (Фасмер 4, 167, Шипова 350). Turk. > Russ. dial. ajra/n Аникин 78.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ady-r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to separateface="Times New Roman Star"отделятьface="Times New Roman Star"adyr- (Orkh., OUygh.); adyn (OUygh.) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yr- (MK); ad|yn (MK) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajir-face="Times New Roman Star"ajra-, ajri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajry-face="Times New Roman Star"hadru-, hadur-face="Times New Roman Star"ojъr-face="Times New Roman Star"atyr-; atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 6, EDT 60, 66-67, ЭСТЯ 1, 93, 114-116, Федотов 2, 270, Stachowski 39. Turk. > MMo, WMong. az?|ira- (see Щербак 1997, 94), whence again Uzb. az?|ra- etc. (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to takeface="Times New Roman Star"братьface="Times New Roman Star"al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"al- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"il-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 124-125, VEWT 14-15, ЭСТЯ 1, 127-128, Егоров 68, Лексика 336, 337, Stachowski 259.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:laface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"variegatedface="Times New Roman Star"пестрыйface="Times New Roman Star"ala (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"o|laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"a:laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"hala-bulaface="Times New Roman Star"olaface="Times New Roman Star"ala
face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"ala-z?|aface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 126, VEWT 15, ЭСТЯ 1, 129-130, TMN 2, 95-97, Федотов 2, 274, Лексика 607.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to become weak 2 bad 3 to be vile (of a man), to turn septic (of a wound) 4 weak, inferior 5 upset 6 old, worn-out 7 crazy 8 lazy man 9 to hurry 10 fool 11 to go mad 12 to deceive 13 perplexed 14 dumb, foolish 15 doubt, surprise 16 error 17 be in doubt, perplexed 18 absent-minded, unattentive 19 weaknessface="Times New Roman Star"1 слабеть 2 дурной 3 быть подлым (о человеке), воспаляться (о ране) 4 слабый, худший 5 расстроенный 6 старый, изношенный 7 безумный, ошалелый 8 лентяй 9 торопиться 10 дурак 11 сходить с ума 12 обманывать 13 растерянный 14 глупый, простоватый 15 сомнение, удивление 16 ошибка 17 сомневаться, сбиваться, путаться 18 рассеянный, невнимательный 19 чахлость, немощьface="Times New Roman Star"alan|-a-d- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 2 (MK), alyq- 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"alyk, (Osm.) alu 4, alaz, alyz 4 (dial.), alkyn 5 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala-ma 2, 6face="Times New Roman Star"aluq 7 (Abush. 27)
face="Times New Roman Star"alaq, alan| 7face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ac? 8 (ЯЖУ 14)
face="Times New Roman Star"al-n|-a-sa- 9face="Times New Roman Star"alyg| 10, alas 5, al-yn-, al-ax- 11, (caus.) 12face="Times New Roman Star"al-aq-tyr- (caus. from *al-aq-) 12, al-aq-qan 13, alyg| 10, al-yn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"ala: (< alag|) 14, alu (< alyg|) 10, alan| 15, alg|as 5, al-yn- 11

face="Times New Roman Star"alg|as 16
face="Times New Roman Star"ala:q- 17, alan| 15
face="Times New Roman Star"alan|, alag|-dy 18face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18face="Times New Roman Star"ala-n|-g|a-s-ar 18face="Times New Roman Star"alama 2, 6, al-jawu 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyn- 11face="Times New Roman Star"alyq 7, 10face="Times New Roman Star"alas 19face="Times New Roman Star"alan| 18

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 16-17, TMN 2, 116, EDT 129, 138, 149, ЭСТЯ 1, 132, 145-146, Clark 1977, 128. See also Oghuz *al-c?ak sub *a>l 'below'. Tends to contaminate with *a:l 'red' and *a:la 'variegated', cf. Uygh. al-ga"da"n 'nai've' ('red nape'), Turkm. a:la-samsyk 'foolish' ('variegated fool'), Bashk. al-jot 'fool' ('red fellow'). KW 7. Turk. *algaz > MMong. alg|asa- 'faul, nachlassig sein' (SH), then Mong. > Kirgh., KBalk., Kum. alg|asa(r)-, Nogh. alas-la-r- 'to become embarrassed', (Karaim) 'to be scared' etc. Despite Sevortyan, Tokharian A a:la:s 'iners, ignavus' (Poucha 27), B ala:s- 'be sick' (Sieg-Siegling 91) not < Turk., but < Sanskr. alasa.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lowerface="Times New Roman Star"1 низ, нижняя сторона 2 нижнийface="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (Yen. ПМК 90, OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (dial., ЯБТ 126)


face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1 (ЯЖУ 14)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"ald 1, altyg|y 2; alty 1 {(Баск. Туба)}face="Times New Roman Star"a[:]lt 1face="Times New Roman Star"old(ъ) 'gusset'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'ldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldyn 'в низовье реки' (Рас. ФиЛ 153)face="Times New Roman Star"ald(y) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (K)


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, ЭСТЯ 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *a:l 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but alty 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk alty 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see Дыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-ty- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *a>l is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alas?a 'low, low place' (КСТТ 100). Another possible old derivative in -c?ak may be PT *al/(c?)ak (Karakh. as?aq, Turkm. as?a:q etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *a:l/- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-c?ak (see ЭСТЯ 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alc?aq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' (КСТТ 101), Turkm. alc?ak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alc?ak 'mean, vile', alc?a- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alyg, see under *a:\le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alc?aq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alc?aq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -c?ak from the root al- (which is why -lc?- did not yield -s?- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alc?a-gar, alc?a-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alc?aji- 'to spread legs apart'.
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