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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*A>burtface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cheek-pouch, inside of the mouth 2 gum 3 mouthful, gulp 4 cheek 5 molar 6 to take a mouthful, swallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 внутренн€€ полость рта 2 десна 3 глоток 4 щека 5 коренной зуб 6 глотатьface="Times New Roman Star"a[vurt] (?adurt) (OUygh., late med. texts TT II)
face="Times New Roman Star"avurt 1face="Times New Roman Star"urt 2face="Times New Roman Star"awurt (Sangl.) 3, (MKypch.) og|urt, owurt 1, 3 (Houts., Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"urt (dial.) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"howurt (dial.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"o:rt-a- 6face="Times New Roman Star"o:rt-a- 6face="Times New Roman Star"u:rt 'throat', u:rt-a- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"urъlъ, dial. vъw|rlъw| 5 (јшм. V 320)face="Times New Roman Star"omurt 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"a:rt-a- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"u:rtface="Times New Roman Star"urt 1face="Times New Roman Star"uwyrt 1face="Times New Roman Star"urt 1face="Times New Roman Star"uwurt 4face="Times New Roman Star"aurt 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"urt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"uvurt 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 65, Ё—“я 1, 407-409, Ћексика 225-226, ћудрак 115. The Old Uyghur form is poorly readable, so -d|- is dubious. Yak. -m- is irregular: could it be a trace of PA *umV 'drink', otherwise lost in Turkic?
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>dal/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"friend, companionface="Times New Roman Star"друг, товарищface="Times New Roman Star"adas? (OUygh. - Buddh., Man.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|as? (MK, KB), ajas? (IM)












face="Times New Roman Star"atas


face="Times New Roman Star"ajas?








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 72. A hypothesis about *adal/ < (compound) at-dal/ with 'name' as the first component is impossible (in that case we would expect *atal/ and 'namesake' as the earliest meaning). The form attas? is attested since MTurk.: attas? 'namesake' (Tefs.), adas? 'namesake' (Chag. Sangl.), atas? 'namesake' (CCum.) - and contaminates with *adal/. Modern languages for the most part reflect the compound, see Ё—“я I 203-204. Cf. Tuva a'das?ky-lar 'a father with his children' ("namesakes"; NB: pharyngealization as a reflex of *-t-). A possible reflex of *adal/ is Chuv. ural-a-s?- 'to agree about acquiring smth. collectively, together' and ural-a-n- 'to form a light circle (of astronomical bodies)': both are semantically quite far from ura-la-n- 'to recover'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Agyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mouth 2 lip, lips 3 mouth of a river, of a cleftface="Times New Roman Star"1 рот 2 губа, губы 3 устье реки, ущель€face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz (Orkh.) 3, ag|yz, ag|az (OUygh.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|iz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"eg|iz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ys 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, axsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"aqsy 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"o:s 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|rъw|, urъ-lъ 3face="Times New Roman Star"uos 2face="Times New Roman Star"uos 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, aqsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, aqsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ooz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyd| 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awud| 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"awuz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 8, EDT 98, Ё—“я 1, 81-83, ћудрак ƒисс. 115, Ћексика 224-225, Stachowski 245.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"netface="Times New Roman Star"сеть
face="Times New Roman Star"ag| (KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|; ag|, av (Osmanli)face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"ag| (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"a:g| (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"ag|face="Times New Roman Star"a:q (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag| (Sag.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|face="Times New Roman Star"ag| (dial.)





face="Times New Roman Star"u:face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"aw
face="Times New Roman Star"av, uvface="Times New Roman Star"aw
face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 7, 20, Ё—“я 1, 117-118, 152-153, Ћексика 418-419. On an|nyg| (Shor), ag|nyx| (Khak.) v. sub *a>n|u.
face="Times New Roman Star"*aglakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lonely, uninhabited (place) 2 unemployed, out of work 3 fieldface="Times New Roman Star"1 незаселенное место 2 безработный, лишенный службы 3 поле, степьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (OUygh. - Buddh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (MK), ag|la-ju 1 (MK; deverb. from *ag|la- 'to be deserted' (unattested)), ag|la-t- (MK) 'to send away (people)'face="Times New Roman Star"aylak 2; ag|lak (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ag|lax 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ulax 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o:laq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlaq, hajlaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 84, 85, VEWT 8, Ё—“я 1, 64. Turk. > WMong. ag|laq, ag|lag|a id. (KW 3, ўербак 1997, 95). Tends to contaminate with *a:b-lag 'hunting lands'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>ja-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to esteem 2 to pity, look after 3 veryface="Times New Roman Star"1 почитать 2 беречь, жалеть 3 очень, сильноface="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1, ajy 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- (MK) 1, 2, ajy 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"aj- 2, aja- dial. 1face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aji- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajin 'cult, ceremony'face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2, aj 3face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2 (in ajaba:n 'remorseless')

face="Times New Roman Star"oja- 'to care'

face="Times New Roman Star"aj 'well'
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10-11, EDT 267-8, Ё—“я 1, 101-102, ‘едотов 2, 298. Deriving *aja- 'to respect, esteem' from *aj 'fear' (VEWT 11) is hardly plausible. Clauson (EDT 182) thinks that OUygh. ajy 'very' is an unusually early example of the elision of -g in an/yg| 'evil', which means 'very' in many OUygh. texts, but this is hardly plausible phonetically; so it may belong here, together with Khak. aj 'very' (although the final narrow y is a problem). Sevortyan relates here also SUygh. ajyg| 'good omen, good luck', but this may be a reflex of OUygh., Karakh. ajyq 'vow, promise' (EDT 270).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ajranface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"kumysface="Times New Roman Star"кумыс
face="Times New Roman Star"ajran (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"e|jre|n
face="Times New Roman Star"o|jro|nface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ujran, dial. ur/an, oren (Anatri)



face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"ajran
face="Times New Roman Star"ajranface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 111, EDT 276, Ћексика 449, ‘едотов 2, 272. Chuv. > ORuss. урень (‘асмер 4, 167, Ўипова 350). Turk. > Russ. dial. ajra/n јникин 78.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Akan/aface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 gull 2 white partridgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 чайка 2 куропатка









face="Times New Roman Star"ag|aja, ag|ajan| (Sag., Kach.) 'a k. of bird'face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yj 1




face="Times New Roman Star"ag|anaq 2










face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 9.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)akuru-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"slowly, quietly, graduallyface="Times New Roman Star"медленно, постепенноface="Times New Roman Star"aquru (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aqru, aqrun (MK), aqru (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"arqun (Osmanli)face="Times New Roman Star"e|kren, e|kerten; e|kert (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"aqryn (Sangl.), ag|ryn (Ѕор. Ѕад.)




face="Times New Roman Star"a:g|yrin, ag|ryn, ag|yrtynface="Times New Roman Star"ag|yrynface="Times New Roman Star"aqqyryn, aqqyr-aqqyr

face="Times New Roman Star"arg|y:j, org|u:j


face="Times New Roman Star"aqyrinface="Times New Roman Star"aqyryn
face="Times New Roman Star"aqrynface="Times New Roman Star"aqyryn, aqryn, aqyrtyn
face="Times New Roman Star"arqytynface="Times New Roman Star"aqyryn

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, Ё—“я 1, 123-124, EDT 89-90. The forms with -yn and -tyn are old forms of Instr. and Abl. cases, so the PT word is a noun. Yak. reflects the -u of the second syllable.
face="Times New Roman Star"*okface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"arrowface="Times New Roman Star"стрелаface="Times New Roman Star"oq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"oq (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"okface="Times New Roman Star"uqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"u.qface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"ox|face="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"uxface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oq
face="Times New Roman Star"og|ъface="Times New Roman Star"ox
face="Times New Roman Star"o'q
face="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"uqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"oq
face="Times New Roman Star"oqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 389, Ё—“я 1, 437-438, TMN 2, 153, Ћексика 577, ‘едотов 2, 296. Cf. also Turk. *oklagu 'rolling pin' (Ё—“я 1, 441-442), Khal. ho.qlag|o_ (derived from ok-la- 'to roll' (R 1 1000, Chag.), a denominative from ok 'wheel axle' in the Oghuz and Qarluq groups).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Agyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 treasure 2 silk brocadeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сокровище 2 парчаface="Times New Roman Star"ag|y (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|y (MK, KB) 2face="Times New Roman Star"Osm. ag|y, dial. ag|y 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|y 2























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 78. Clauson points out that the oldest attested meaning is 'treasure', later concretized to 'silk brocade'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to takeface="Times New Roman Star"братьface="Times New Roman Star"al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"al- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"il-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 124-125, VEWT 14-15, Ё—“я 1, 127-128, ≈горов 68, Ћексика 336, 337, Stachowski 259.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)al/(c?)ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ankle joint, knucklebone 2 dieface="Times New Roman Star"1 лодыжка, бабка 2 альчик
face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 2 (Osmanli), as?yk 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 1, 'bone of the elbow' (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s?iq 2face="Times New Roman Star"os?uq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yG 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"az?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"us?aq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 259, VEWT 30, Ё—“я 1, 216-217, TMN 2, 64-65, Ћексика 288.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lowerface="Times New Roman Star"1 низ, нижн€€ сторона 2 нижнийface="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (Yen. ѕћ  90, OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (dial., яЅ“ 126)


face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1 (я∆” 14)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"ald 1, altyg|y 2; alty 1 {(Ѕаск. “уба)}face="Times New Roman Star"a[:]lt 1face="Times New Roman Star"old(ъ) 'gusset'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'ldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldyn 'в низовье реки' (–ас. ‘иЋ 153)face="Times New Roman Star"ald(y) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (K)


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, Ё—“я 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *a:l 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but alty 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk alty 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see ƒыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-ty- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *a>l is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alas?a 'low, low place' ( —““ 100). Another possible old derivative in -c?ak may be PT *al/(c?)ak (Karakh. as?aq, Turkm. as?a:q etc., see Ё—“я 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *a:l/- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-c?ak (see Ё—“я 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alc?aq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' ( —““ 101), Turkm. alc?ak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alc?ak 'mean, vile', alc?a- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alyg, see under *a:\le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alc?aq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alc?aq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -c?ak from the root al- (which is why -lc?- did not yield -s?- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alc?a-gar, alc?a-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alc?aji- 'to spread legs apart'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.l/it-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hearface="Times New Roman Star"слышатьface="Times New Roman Star"es?id- (Orkh.), es?it- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"is?it-face="Times New Roman Star"is?et-; dial. (Mishar) is?- 'hear' (““ƒ— 156), (Bar.) is?e|n- 'listen' (яЅ“ 140)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it- (Abush. 63)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"es?et- (Kashg., ”Ќ— 109)
face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-, pass. es?idil-face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-, pass. es?idil-face="Times New Roman Star"is- / ist-

face="Times New Roman Star"is?u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"ilt-face="Times New Roman Star"ihit-, pass. ihilin-face="Times New Roman Star"ihit-, pass. ihilin-

face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"est-face="Times New Roman Star"esit-face="Times New Roman Star"is?et-face="Times New Roman Star"es?t-face="Times New Roman Star"is?it-face="Times New Roman Star"s?it-face="Times New Roman Star"esit-face="Times New Roman Star"is?ti-face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 51, EDT 257-8, Ё—“я 1, 318-319, ≈горов 69, Stachowski 123. Note -d- in Runic and the voicing of -t before a vowel in Az. and Turkm. Khak. has two forms of stem (is- and iste-, morphonologically distributed, so that is- < iste-; the same historical process could have occurred with. Ku"a"r. a"s?-, Kach. es?- (R 1, 905); so the only clear evidence for the stem *el/- are Tatar dialectal reflexes (in which case -t may be a causative suffix, see Bang 1925, Zaja,czkowski 1932). Shor este- 'to hear', estel- 'to be heard' do not belong here, being derived from *es > is 'mind, memory', like Mod. Uygh. an|la- 'to hear' < an| 'mind'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Al/uface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"red clay, ochreface="Times New Roman Star"красна€ глина
face="Times New Roman Star"as?u (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as?y, dial. as?u, as?ur, Osmanli as?u
face="Times New Roman Star"as?y (AH 6)























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 30, EDT 256, Ћексика 376.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A>lan|yrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of rat, jerboaface="Times New Roman Star"вид крысы, тушканчик
face="Times New Roman Star"alan|yr (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"alan|g|arat 'gros rat' (Pav. C. 30)



face="Times New Roman Star"alaqa 'gopher', alan|n|yrt 'field mouse'


















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 149.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e>lge-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sift; 2 sieveface="Times New Roman Star"сито, просеиватьface="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1 (MK), ele- 1 (IM), elek 2 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ile|- 1, ile|k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ela- 1, elak 2face="Times New Roman Star"a"gli- 1, a"lga"k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"a"la"- 1, a"la"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ilge- 1, ilgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1, elgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ha"jla"- 1, ha"jla"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"alla- 1, alla 2

face="Times New Roman Star"egle- / elge- 1face="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1, elgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele-, elge- 1, elek, elgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ile- 1, ilek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"iele- 1, ielek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele-, o"le- 1, elek, o"lek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"elex 2 (——я 324)face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 143, VEWT 40, Ё—“я 1, 261-263, ≈горов 24. The behaviour of the internal cluster is phonetically normal (not on a morphemic boundary). Turk. *elgek > WMong. elgeg, Kalm. elg@g (KW 119, TMN 2, 118, ўербак 1997, 114).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lpface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 difficult, hard 2 warrior 3 hero 4 brave 5 giant 6 landlordface="Times New Roman Star"1 трудный 2 воин 3 герой 4 храбрый 5 великан 6 помещик, землевладелецface="Times New Roman Star"alp 1, 2, 4 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.); alp-a-g|ut 2 (OUygh.).face="Times New Roman Star"alp 2, 4 (MK, KB, Tefs., IM); alpag|ut 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 3, 5, alpawyt 2face="Times New Roman Star"alp 2, 3 (Sngl.)face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3face="Times New Roman Star"alpawut 2


face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4, albyx- 'to act as a meddler'face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 4
face="Times New Roman Star"olъp 5, olbut 2face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 'witchcraft; part of some names of spirits'
face="Times New Roman Star"albyq- 'to pant, stifle', alba:- 'to lapse into oblivion'
face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 4, 5, albu:t 'hot-tempered'face="Times New Roman Star"alyp 5, albyt, albyrt 'hot-tempered'
face="Times New Roman Star"alpawyt 2, alpamys?a 5 (from Alp Amys?a, a folklore name, = Tat.)

face="Times New Roman Star"alp 'chief', alpawut 'gentry man'face="Times New Roman Star"alp 3, 5, albyra- 'be exhausted, embarassed'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 127-128, VEWT 18, Ё—“я I 139, ‘едотов 2, 276. Clauson's hypothesis that the reflexes of *alpawut in recent languages are the result of a re-borrowing from Mong. (cf. Lit. Mong. albag|ut (Kow. 84) < Turk.), partly contaminated with Mong. alban 'tax', is unnecessary: a semantic shift 'warrior' > 'gentry' > 'landlord' seems to be natural. Cf. a borrowing from Mong. alba-tu in Tuva, Oyr. albatu, albaty, Kirgh. albaty 'tax-payers, people'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a>l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 seed, cereals, crops; 2 graft, 3 vaccine, 4 pus (primarily - as a material for vaccinacion?) 5 tanning matter, 6 starchface="Times New Roman Star"1 сем€, злаки, зерновые 2 привой 3 вакцина 4 гной (первоначально - как прививка?) 5 дубильное вещество 6 крахмал
face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1 (as?lyq taryg| o"nar 'crops spring') (MK; IM)face="Times New Roman Star"as?y 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as? 1, 4 dial. (Sib.,  —““ 107), as?-la- 'to starch'face="Times New Roman Star"as?i 2 (Pav. C.), 'pollen' (Zenker I 56)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s? 5, o|s?-liq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as?-la- 'to tan'
face="Times New Roman Star"as?, as?y 3, 5face="Times New Roman Star"as?-Gar 5face="Times New Roman Star"as 1, as-ta-n- 'to beware of a disease' ('to vaccinate oneself'?)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 4, as, ahylyk 'fruit of some wild plants, berry'face="Times New Roman Star"ahylyk 'berry'

face="Times New Roman Star"as? 'fruit of some wild plants, berry', as?tyq 1, as?a- 'to tan'face="Times New Roman Star"astyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 'a grain, a seed', aslyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?lyq 1, as?la- 'to graft', dial. as? 'pus' (Ѕhh III 26)face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as?-u"gu" 'one of cereal cultures'face="Times New Roman Star"has?-la- 'to plant out seedlings; to graft; to vaccinate'face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as?-la- 'to graft'
face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1 (——я 296)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1 (Cатыб. 73), as?-la- 'to pollinate; to tan'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 30, Ё—“я 1, 211-212, 216, Stachowski 29. A lot of etymological confusion here. Forms meaning 'to tan, tanning matter; starch' may be either borrowed from Persian or, rather, derived from *(i)al/ 'meal' (v. sub *i_ol/e), see Ћексика 378. The latter root, due to its phonetic similarity (or even identity) has in general influenced the present one: 'cereals' are influenced by 'porridge' and *(i)al/-la- 'to graft, to pollinate' by *(i)al/-la- 'to fertilize' ( = 'to feed'). It seems nevertheless impossible to unite them completely.
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