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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/, *Kar/-dyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark 2 scales 3 dandruff 4 to peel bark 5 to husk nutsface="Times New Roman Star"1 кора 2 чешу€ 3 перхоть 4 сдирать кору 5 лущить орехиface="Times New Roman Star"qadyz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaz, qad|yz 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qajry 1, dial. qajyz 1; qajyzla- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qazg|o|q 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qazdyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xastyryx 1


face="Times New Roman Star"xujъr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qatyryk 1; xasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"kasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"qazyryq 2, qazy- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qa's- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajry, dial. qajyd| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 218, 243, EDT 608, 665, Ё—“я 5, 211-212, 328, ‘едотов 2, 352, Ћексика 107. The original form here is *Kar/; a suffixed form was *Kar/dy(r/), later simplified to *Kadyr/. This can be clearly seen from forms like SUygh. and Khak. Another possible explanation could be an early dissimilation (*Kar/-yr/ > *Kadyr/ = *Kad|yr/, or already after the zetacism, *Kazyz > *Kad|yz). There is some confusion between *Kar/ and *Kas, *Kasuk in Old Turkic, but MK definitely spells the word as qaz.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da.morface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 vein, artery 2 rootface="Times New Roman Star"1 жила, сосуд 2 кореньface="Times New Roman Star"tamar, tamyr 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tamur (MK, KB), tamar (MK-Oghuz) 1face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamur 1, 2 (Sangl., Abush., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"to|mir 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tomur, temir 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tymar 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tymyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"tymyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"damyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"damyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamur 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamur 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 460, EDT 508, Ё—“я 3, 143-144, Ћексика 107-108, 264-265, Stachowski 238. There are also some forms with -o-: Oyr. tomur- 'to uproot', Kirgh. tomor 'name of a plant, from the root of which dye is produced', Kaz. tomar id., KKalp. tomar 'root' - possibly contaminations with *Tomar 'block, log' (v. sub *t`ome).
face="Times New Roman Star"*deg- / *do"g- / *dog-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"roundface="Times New Roman Star"круглыйface="Times New Roman Star"tegirmi (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tegirme (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"degirmi 'circle'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"ge|re|kface="Times New Roman Star"tekirme, tekirmi (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu.garakface="Times New Roman Star"du"gla"kface="Times New Roman Star"doGyrface="Times New Roman Star"da"jirmiface="Times New Roman Star"tegelek, toGalaqface="Times New Roman Star"tog|ylaxface="Times New Roman Star"tog|alaqface="Times New Roman Star"tog|oloq
face="Times New Roman Star"t@w|g@w|r 'mirror'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"rem (poet.) 'round', tier- 'to turn round'face="Times New Roman Star"tier- 'to turn round'face="Times New Roman Star"to"gerikface="Times New Roman Star"to":rejface="Times New Roman Star"tegerek
face="Times New Roman Star"to"gerekface="Times New Roman Star"tu"n|a"ra"kface="Times New Roman Star"to"gerek
face="Times New Roman Star"togerekface="Times New Roman Star"do"n|gelek

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 3, 176-179, 281-282, Stachowski 222, 227. One of several expressive common Turkic roots meaning 'round' and displaying phonetic irregularities. Some modern Turkic forms (not listed above) are probably borrowed from Mongolian: cf., in particular, Yak. to"gu":r, to"gu"ru"k, Dolg. to"gu"ru"k ( > Evk. tug|uruk). Cf. also Ћексика 400 (with forms reflecting PT *teker). Bulg. > Hung. tu"ko"r 'mirror', see MNyTESz 3, 1010.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"manyface="Times New Roman Star"многоface="Times New Roman Star"ko"p (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ku"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"p (Pav. C., MA, Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku.pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"p

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"p



face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'p, xo"j ( < *ko"pej)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ku"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"p

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 291, EDT 686-687, Ё—“я 5, 107-108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tu"nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 night 2 yesterdayface="Times New Roman Star"1 ночь 2 вчераface="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1 (MK, KB), du"n, tu"n 'night, dark' (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1, du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"to"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1 (Abush.), 'dark' (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tun 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tune, tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"du"na"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1, du":n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1, 'dark'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tu":n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu":nface="Times New Roman Star"du"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"du"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tun 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"to"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tun, tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 505, EDT 513, Ё—“я 3, 315-316, Ћексика 81, Stachowski 236. Cf. also Yak. tu"n| 'dark, darkness' (< *tu"n-Vk). The variant *du":n, reflected in some languages, is obviously due to a secondary influence of *du":l/ 'dream' (v. sub *t`u:l/ke), as well as the archaic compound *tu"-gu"n 'yesterday' (*'that day'), preserved in: Tur. dial. du"hu"n, SUygh. tugyn, Tuva, Tof. du":n.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dalface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 branch 2 tree 3 willowface="Times New Roman Star"1 ветка 2 дерево 3 ива, вербаface="Times New Roman Star"tal 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tal 1 (KB), 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dal 1face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3, (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"dal 3 (Pav. C.), tal 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|l 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3
face="Times New Roman Star"dal 1face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3

face="Times New Roman Star"talax 3face="Times New Roman Star"talak 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3 (also 'poplar')face="Times New Roman Star"dal 1face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"da:l 2face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 489, VEWT 457, Ё—“я 3, 130-131, Ћексика 125-126, Stachowski 216. Turkm. tal (with irregular t-) may be a loan from Kypchak: there seems to be no reason to postulate two different roots for PT.
face="Times New Roman Star"*biagyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"liverface="Times New Roman Star"печеньface="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr 'breast, bosom'face="Times New Roman Star"bawyrface="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr (Ѕор. Ѕад., MA)
face="Times New Roman Star"beg|irface="Times New Roman Star"bag|yrface="Times New Roman Star"bag|yrface="Times New Roman Star"baGyrface="Times New Roman Star"pa:r


face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|verface="Times New Roman Star"byarface="Times New Roman Star"byar 'belly; liver'face="Times New Roman Star"ba:rface="Times New Roman Star"ba:rface="Times New Roman Star"bo:rface="Times New Roman Star"bawyrface="Times New Roman Star"bawyrface="Times New Roman Star"bawyrface="Times New Roman Star"bawur
face="Times New Roman Star"bag|yrface="Times New Roman Star"bawyrface="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 55, EDT 317, Ё—“я 2, 17-19, 22-23, Ћексика 278, Stachowski 69.
face="Times New Roman Star"*urug ( ? *or-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 seed 2 child, girl 3 kin, kind 4 relativesface="Times New Roman Star"1 сем€ 2 ребенок, девочка 3 род, плем€ 4 родственникиface="Times New Roman Star"urug| (OUygh.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"urug| (MK, KB) 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"orlyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"urug| (Sangl.) 4face="Times New Roman Star"urug| 1face="Times New Roman Star"uruq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"uruG 3



face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|rъw| 1face="Times New Roman Star"uru: 4face="Times New Roman Star"uru: 4face="Times New Roman Star"urug| 2face="Times New Roman Star"urug| 2face="Times New Roman Star"uruq 3face="Times New Roman Star"u_ryq 1face="Times New Roman Star"urlyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"orloq 1face="Times New Roman Star"urluq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"uryq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 516, TMN 2, 47, EDT 214-5, Ё—“я 1, 604-606, Ћексика 115-116, 307, 323-324, Stachowski 246. Deriving the word from *ur- 'beat, hit' (VEWT) is of course incorrect. Some forms reflect a variant form *uru-lyk. Turk. > Mong. urug| (see TMN 2, 51, ўербак 1997, 162).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jubkaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thin, slender, unsubstantialface="Times New Roman Star"тонкийface="Times New Roman Star"juqa (OUygh.), jujqa (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jupqa, juvqa (MK), juvg|a (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"jufkaface="Times New Roman Star"juqaface="Times New Roman Star"jufqa (AH), juqa (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jupqaface="Times New Roman Star"jupqa, juqa, z?upqa, z?uquface="Times New Roman Star"juqaface="Times New Roman Star"juxaface="Times New Roman Star"ju:qaface="Times New Roman Star"c?ug|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?og|aface="Times New Roman Star"d/uqa
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"g|e

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ug|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?ug|aface="Times New Roman Star"z?|upqa, z?|uqaface="Times New Roman Star"z?uqaface="Times New Roman Star"juqaface="Times New Roman Star"joqaface="Times New Roman Star"z?uqaface="Times New Roman Star"jufqa, jyfqaface="Times New Roman Star"juwg|a, jufqaface="Times New Roman Star"z?u>qaface="Times New Roman Star"jox|baface="Times New Roman Star"juqqaface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 209, TMN 4, 211-212, EDT 874, Ё—“я 4, 241-242.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yjsface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 smoke 2 soot, dirty smoke 3 scent, odour 4 fumesface="Times New Roman Star"1 дым 2 копоть, сажа 3 запах, аромат 4 испарени€

face="Times New Roman Star"is 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 3

face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"his 2face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 3



face="Times New Roman Star"jъs 3face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"is 4
face="Times New Roman Star"ijis 3



face="Times New Roman Star"ijis 3

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 379, ≈горов 76, Stachowski 263. The original meaning must have been 'smell, odour', see notes to *y:l/(c?) (cf. the opposition ys 'soot' - ijis 'smell' in Nogai etc.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ban/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fatface="Times New Roman Star"жир


face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"maj (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"mo|jface="Times New Roman Star"maj

face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"sar-maj 'butter' (Sag.)
face="Times New Roman Star"maj

face="Times New Roman Star"as-majax (ѕек.)


face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"maj

face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"maj
face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 322, Ћексика 453-454.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jyldyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"rootface="Times New Roman Star"кореньface="Times New Roman Star"jyltyz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jyldyz (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"iltyz (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"ildizface="Times New Roman Star"iltizface="Times New Roman Star"jyldys

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ilege (?)



face="Times New Roman Star"silis












face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 201, EDT 922, Ё—“я 1, 350, Ћексика 109.
face="Times New Roman Star"*y:l/(c?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 smoke 2 soot, dirty smoke 3 scent, odour 4 fumesface="Times New Roman Star"1 дым 2 копоть, сажа 3 запах, аромат 4 испарени€
face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 2 (MK), 'mist' (KB)




face="Times New Roman Star"ys 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ys 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 4
face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ys 2



face="Times New Roman Star"ys 2

face="Times New Roman Star"The root originally meant 'soot, smoke' and should be strictly kept distinct from PT *jyd- 'smell' and *yjs 'smell, odour, fumes', although they have a natural tendency to merge. See VEWT 167, 170, EDT 254, 883, Ё—“я 1, 379-382, Ћексика 370-371.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kul-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to roll (down), fall 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 скатыватьс€, падать 2 круглый



face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1 (Ѕуд.)face="Times New Roman Star"qula"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qula-, g|ula- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qula-, Gol- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1





face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qola- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1face="Times New Roman Star"gulylu"x 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 298, Ё—“я 6, 122.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dyn|la- / *din|le-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to listen 2 to hear 3 to consider, meditateface="Times New Roman Star"1 слушать 2 слышать 3 размышл€ть, обдумыватьface="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dinle- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|ma- 1face="Times New Roman Star"din|le-, tyn|la- 1 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"tin|la- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tynna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dinla"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"din|le- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|na- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|da- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъnla- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"dyn|na- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dyn|na- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|s?a- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|da- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"dinle-, tyn|la- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn|la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"The verbal stem *dyn|la- is derived from the noun *dyn| (OT tyn|, Turkm. din| 'reason, mind, cleverness'). See VEWT 478, EDT 522, Ё—“я 3, 236-237.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sing (of birds) 2 to say 3 to ask, requestface="Times New Roman Star"1 петь (о птицах) 2 сказать, говорить 3 проситьface="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1 (OUygh.), o"tu"n- 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1, o"tu"n- 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"ten- 3face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 2 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"n- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"n- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"avъt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"et- 2face="Times New Roman Star"et- 2face="Times New Roman Star"e't- 1face="Times New Roman Star"e't- 1







face="Times New Roman Star"edi- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 52, Ё—“я 1, 556, 557-558, EDT 39, 62, ≈горов 21, Stachowski 48. The Chuv. form is somewhat aberrant phonetically: it is possible that the actual Chuv. reflex of this root is vit@n- `to ask' - while Chuv. avъt- (together with avtan, atan `cock', Tat. a"ta"c? `cock') goes back to a separate PT root *ebt-, possibly going back to PA *ip`i (?-p-,-e) `to say, speak' q. v.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)an|-(yr)-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nose 2 to snuffle 3 beak, snout 4 parched nose (phras.) 5 nose bridgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 нос 2 гнусавить 3 клюв, морда 4 пересохший (о носе) 5 переносица
face="Times New Roman Star"qan|raq `palate' (MK - ƒ“—)




face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ryq, qarq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gan|s?yravuq 'nasal cavity', Gon|ursa- 'to reek'

face="Times New Roman Star"qan|yryq (Tel.) (R II, 82); qon|yr 5 (R II 521), Tel. (¬ерб.)

face="Times New Roman Star"xan|ynaj- 2; xon|uru:, xan|yry: 5 (ѕек.)
face="Times New Roman Star"xa:j 3, xa:s? 'nasal', qon|zan| 'crook-nosed'face="Times New Roman Star"xa:j 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qan|yryq 4, qon|ursu- 'to reek'

face="Times New Roman Star"qan|g|yryq (dial.) 'hard palate'





face="Times New Roman Star"The root is no doubt archaic, although not widely attested. On its modern reflexes see VEWT 232, Ћексика 215-216 (some of the listed forms are < Mong., but certainly not all.), Ё—“я 6, 66.
face="Times New Roman Star"*don|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cold 2 frost 3 frozen 4 freeze, be frozenface="Times New Roman Star"1 холодный 2 мороз 3 замерзший 4 замерзатьface="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ton| 2, 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"don 2face="Times New Roman Star"tun| 2face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1face="Times New Roman Star"don 2, don- 4face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"to:-r- 4


face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|m 2 'frost'face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 3face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 3face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"ton| 2, ton|- 4








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 488, EDT 513, 515, Ё—“я 3, 265-267, Ћексика 17, Stachowski 226.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.lan|ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"personface="Times New Roman Star"человекface="Times New Roman Star"jalan|uq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaln|uq (MK, KB)











face="Times New Roman Star"s/yn(ъ)













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 182, EDT 930.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ujaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"nestface="Times New Roman Star"гнездоface="Times New Roman Star"uja (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"uja (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"juwaface="Times New Roman Star"ojaface="Times New Roman Star"juwa, uja (AH, Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"uwa, ugaface="Times New Roman Star"uja, oja 'egg'face="Times New Roman Star"juwa
face="Times New Roman Star"uja
face="Times New Roman Star"uja
face="Times New Roman Star"jъw|vaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"oja
face="Times New Roman Star"juwaface="Times New Roman Star"juwa, ujaface="Times New Roman Star"uja
face="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 511, EDT 267, Ё—“я 4, 239, ≈горов 73, Stachowski 242.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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