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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Aj-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to chew 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 жевать 2 кусать

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ne-, c?ejne- 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|jne|- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"dajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"jna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:ne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"cajna-, c?ajna-, c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene-, c?a"ina"- 1 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, –ас. ‘иЋ 168. Forms with t- in some Siberian languages are rather enigmatic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ec?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flower 2 chicken-poxface="Times New Roman Star"1 цветок 2 оспаface="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c?e|k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ak 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?/`uz?|/ugface="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/es/ke 'цветок, листок'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2; aq c?ec?ek 'a k. of tree', c?ec?ekej 'crystalline lens'face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, s?es?ekej 2face="Times New Roman Star"sa"sa"k 2, sa"ska" 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek, c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ex (——я) 1, 'bud'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Ћексика 120. Turk. > Mong. c?ec?eg, see TMN 3, 57, ўербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. c?ec?c?e, c?ec?ek (see ≈горов 322, ‘едотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva c?ec?ek, perhaps also Oyr. c?ec?ek and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yj, *c?yj-ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wet, soaking, moist 2 dew 3 moisture 4 rawface="Times New Roman Star"1 мокрый 2 роса 3 влага, влажный 4 сырой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/c?y 3 (MK), c?y-la- 'to moisten' (MK), c?yq- 'to absorb moisture' (MK), c?yg|-la-n- 'to be half-cooked' (MK), c?ig 4 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|, c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq 2 (dial.), c?y:g| 1 (Xo|razm)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 'raw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:g 1, c?y:G 2face="Times New Roman Star"syx 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"si:k 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"hi:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, 'meadow', s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij-ki 4, c?yq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 4, s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sej 4, ysyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yj, cij 4, c?yx 2, 'hoar-frost'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-c?u 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 406,408, 413, 418, VEWT 107, Ћексика 39, Stachowski 106. The actual reflexes are best explained if we postulate an opposition *c?yj 'wet, raw' - *c?yj-yk 'dew, moisture' (with further contractions). Some forms, however, could be secondarily borrowed from Mong. (see Kal/. MEJ 34).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускатьс€ на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, ≈горов 205, ‘едотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, ўербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, ≈горов 323, ‘едотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see јникин 677.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружатьс€, ныр€ть 2 плавать, купатьс€ 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see ‘едотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, ≈горов 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*d(i)a:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"narrowface="Times New Roman Star"узкийface="Times New Roman Star"tar (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tar (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"darface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tar (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|rface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"darface="Times New Roman Star"da:rface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"ta:%r
face="Times New Roman Star"ta:r
face="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"dar (–ас. ‘иЋ), tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"darface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"darface="Times New Roman Star"tarface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 463, EDT 528, Ё—“я 3, 146-147, 159-160; cf. ‘едотов 2, 179.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da.ry-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"milletface="Times New Roman Star"просоface="Times New Roman Star"taryg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"taryg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"daryface="Times New Roman Star"taryface="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) tary (CCum., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"tariqface="Times New Roman Star"teriqface="Times New Roman Star"taryg|face="Times New Roman Star"daryface="Times New Roman Star"daryface="Times New Roman Star"taryg|face="Times New Roman Star"tara: (possibly < Mong.)face="Times New Roman Star"taral 'angelica' (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"tyrъ 'corn'

face="Times New Roman Star"tara: (possibly < Mong.)face="Times New Roman Star"dara: (possibly < Mong.)face="Times New Roman Star"taru:


face="Times New Roman Star"taryface="Times New Roman Star"daryface="Times New Roman Star"tary, daryface="Times New Roman Star"taryface="Times New Roman Star"daryface="Times New Roman Star"tariface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 464, EDT 537-538, TMN 2, 480-482, Ё—“я 3, 157, Ћексика 456-457. Turk. > Hung. dara 'grain, groats', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dia:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"stoneface="Times New Roman Star"каменьface="Times New Roman Star"tas? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas? (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"to|s?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"dasface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"da:s?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"ta:%s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?olface="Times New Roman Star"ta:sface="Times New Roman Star"ta:sface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?, das?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 466, TMN 2, 437-8, EDT 557, Ё—“я 3, 167-168, ≈горов 326, ‘едотов 2, 421-422, Stachowski 219.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dal/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"outer sideface="Times New Roman Star"наружный, снаружиface="Times New Roman Star"tas? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tas? (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dys?face="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"tas? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|s?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"dys?aryface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tas?ty 'exterior side'face="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tolface="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tys?
face="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"tysface="Times New Roman Star"tysface="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"dys?arface="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"tysface="Times New Roman Star"das?y (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 466, EDT 556-557, TMN 2, 511, Ё—“я 3, 164-167, јшм. XIV, 115, ‘едотов 2, 243-244, Stachowski 218. -y- in some languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mountainface="Times New Roman Star"гораface="Times New Roman Star"tag| (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tag| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"tag| (MA), tag|, t.ag| (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|g|face="Times New Roman Star"tag|face="Times New Roman Star"tag|face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"da:Gface="Times New Roman Star"tag|face="Times New Roman Star"tag| (¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu:face="Times New Roman Star"ta:g|face="Times New Roman Star"tuface="Times New Roman Star"tya 'taiga, wood'face="Times New Roman Star"tya 'land, tundra'face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"dag|, tag|face="Times New Roman Star"to:face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"tauface="Times New Roman Star"tauface="Times New Roman Star"da:face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"da:g|face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 454, TMN 2, 439-440, EDT 463, Ё—“я 3, 117-118, Ћексика 94, 111, Stachowski 236.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dalface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 branch 2 tree 3 willowface="Times New Roman Star"1 ветка 2 дерево 3 ива, вербаface="Times New Roman Star"tal 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tal 1 (KB), 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dal 1face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3, (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"dal 3 (Pav. C.), tal 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|l 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3
face="Times New Roman Star"dal 1face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3

face="Times New Roman Star"talax 3face="Times New Roman Star"talak 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3 (also 'poplar')face="Times New Roman Star"dal 1face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"tal 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"da:l 2face="Times New Roman Star"tal 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 489, VEWT 457, Ё—“я 3, 130-131, Ћексика 125-126, Stachowski 216. Turkm. tal (with irregular t-) may be a loan from Kypchak: there seems to be no reason to postulate two different roots for PT.
face="Times New Roman Star"*de:-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to sayface="Times New Roman Star"сказать, говоритьface="Times New Roman Star"te- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"te- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"di-face="Times New Roman Star"di- (Abush.), te- (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"da"-face="Times New Roman Star"di-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"di:-face="Times New Roman Star"t@-face="Times New Roman Star"te-face="Times New Roman Star"de-
face="Times New Roman Star"te-face="Times New Roman Star"die-face="Times New Roman Star"die-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"te-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"ti-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"dij-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 467-8, EDT 433-4, Ё—“я 3, 221-224, Stachowski 79. Kypchak and some other languages preserve voiced d- due to the word's grammaticalized usage.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dur-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to standface="Times New Roman Star"сто€тьface="Times New Roman Star"tur- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tur- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dur-face="Times New Roman Star"tor-face="Times New Roman Star"tur- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"dur-face="Times New Roman Star"dur-face="Times New Roman Star"dur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|r-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"dur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tu_r-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tor-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"dur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"dyr-face="Times New Roman Star"tur-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 500, EDT 529-530, Ё—“я 3, 296-301, Stachowski 232. Turk. > WMong. toru- 'get smwh., arrive smwh.' (KW 402).
face="Times New Roman Star"*do:l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fullface="Times New Roman Star"полныйface="Times New Roman Star"tolu (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tolu (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"doluface="Times New Roman Star"tulyface="Times New Roman Star"tola (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu.laface="Times New Roman Star"tola, tolg|anface="Times New Roman Star"toloface="Times New Roman Star"doluface="Times New Roman Star"do:lyface="Times New Roman Star"tol- (v.)face="Times New Roman Star"tol-dyr- (v.)face="Times New Roman Star"toloface="Times New Roman Star"tu:ol- (v.)face="Times New Roman Star"tol- (v.), tolliface="Times New Roman Star"tuol- (v.), toloruface="Times New Roman Star"tuol- (v.), toloruface="Times New Roman Star"doluface="Times New Roman Star"doluface="Times New Roman Star"toloface="Times New Roman Star"tolyface="Times New Roman Star"tolyface="Times New Roman Star"tulyface="Times New Roman Star"toluface="Times New Roman Star"doluface="Times New Roman Star"tolyface="Times New Roman Star"tolyface="Times New Roman Star"doli(:); t`oly (Kakuk); to:l- v. (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"toluface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 486, EDT 491-492, Ё—“я 3, 257-259, ‘едотов 2, 242-243, Stachowski 226, 231. PT *do:l-y is derived from *do:l- 'to get filled'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*du:r/ (? *-u":-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"saltface="Times New Roman Star"сольface="Times New Roman Star"tuz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tuz (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"tuz (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"duzface="Times New Roman Star"duzface="Times New Roman Star"du:zface="Times New Roman Star"tusface="Times New Roman Star"tusface="Times New Roman Star"tusface="Times New Roman Star"tu:zface="Times New Roman Star"tъw|varface="Times New Roman Star"tu:sface="Times New Roman Star"tu:sface="Times New Roman Star"dusface="Times New Roman Star"tusface="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"tu_zface="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"tod|face="Times New Roman Star"tod|face="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"tuzface="Times New Roman Star"duzface="Times New Roman Star"duz, du"z/, tuzface="Times New Roman Star"duzface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 502, EDT 571, Ё—“я 3, 288-289, Stachowski 234.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ti-(ku")face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thatface="Times New Roman Star"тот


face="Times New Roman Star"tegeface="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) tigi (Bulgat), tik (Ettuhf.)



face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) s?u"-tki,s?u"tu"ki, bitiki 'вот этот' (Akhaltek.)face="Times New Roman Star"tege; i>-di 'so, thus'



face="Times New Roman Star"i-ti 'this'face="Times New Roman Star"i-ti 'this'face="Times New Roman Star"do":face="Times New Roman Star"te:face="Times New Roman Star"tigiface="Times New Roman Star"tigi (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"tege
face="Times New Roman Star"te bu 'this here', te o 'that there'

face="Times New Roman Star"du"g|u", tu":
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 479, Ra"sa"nen 1957, 36,  отвич 1962, 142, Stachowski 129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sing (of birds) 2 to say 3 to ask, requestface="Times New Roman Star"1 петь (о птицах) 2 сказать, говорить 3 проситьface="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1 (OUygh.), o"tu"n- 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1, o"tu"n- 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"ten- 3face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 2 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"n- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"n- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"avъt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"et- 2face="Times New Roman Star"et- 2face="Times New Roman Star"e't- 1face="Times New Roman Star"e't- 1







face="Times New Roman Star"edi- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 52, Ё—“я 1, 556, 557-558, EDT 39, 62, ≈горов 21, Stachowski 48. The Chuv. form is somewhat aberrant phonetically: it is possible that the actual Chuv. reflex of this root is vit@n- `to ask' - while Chuv. avъt- (together with avtan, atan `cock', Tat. a"ta"c? `cock') goes back to a separate PT root *ebt-, possibly going back to PA *ip`i (?-p-,-e) `to say, speak' q. v.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e>lge-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sift; 2 sieveface="Times New Roman Star"сито, просеиватьface="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1 (MK), ele- 1 (IM), elek 2 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ile|- 1, ile|k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ela- 1, elak 2face="Times New Roman Star"a"gli- 1, a"lga"k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"a"la"- 1, a"la"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ilge- 1, ilgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1, elgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ha"jla"- 1, ha"jla"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"alla- 1, alla 2

face="Times New Roman Star"egle- / elge- 1face="Times New Roman Star"elge- 1, elgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele-, elge- 1, elek, elgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ile- 1, ilek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"iele- 1, ielek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele-, o"le- 1, elek, o"lek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"elex 2 (——я 324)face="Times New Roman Star"ele- 1, elek 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 143, VEWT 40, Ё—“я 1, 261-263, ≈горов 24. The behaviour of the internal cluster is phonetically normal (not on a morphemic boundary). Turk. *elgek > WMong. elgeg, Kalm. elg@g (KW 119, TMN 2, 118, ўербак 1997, 114).
face="Times New Roman Star"*e>.dn|e-rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"saddleface="Times New Roman Star"седло
face="Times New Roman Star"ed|er (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"eyerface="Times New Roman Star"ije|rface="Times New Roman Star"e.gerface="Times New Roman Star"egarface="Times New Roman Star"eg@(r)face="Times New Roman Star"ezerface="Times New Roman Star"ja"ha"rface="Times New Roman Star"ejerface="Times New Roman Star"izerface="Times New Roman Star"ezerface="Times New Roman Star"e:r
face="Times New Roman Star"j@nerface="Times New Roman Star"yn|y:rface="Times New Roman Star"yn|y:rface="Times New Roman Star"ezerface="Times New Roman Star"e'zer (–ас. ‘иЋ 183)face="Times New Roman Star"e:rface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"ijerface="Times New Roman Star"eja"rface="Times New Roman Star"ijerface="Times New Roman Star"je:rface="Times New Roman Star"jerface="Times New Roman Star"jerface="Times New Roman Star"en|er (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 63, VEWT 36, Ё—“я 1, 241-242, 658-659, Ћексика 539, Stachowski 261. Reflexes of the cluster are complicated by borrowings: e.g. Tuva, Tof. is < Khak. Turk. *edn|er-c?ak 'pack saddle' > MMong. in|g|irc?aq, WMong. jan|g|irc?aq id. (TMN 2, 128-129, ўербак 1997, 164, јникин 88).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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