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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kybak / *Kabakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"white poplar, willowface="Times New Roman Star"белый тополь, ива

face="Times New Roman Star"kavakface="Times New Roman Star"quvaqface="Times New Roman Star"qawaq (Houts.)
face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq (Jarr.)
face="Times New Roman Star"GovaG


face="Times New Roman Star"qa:q, dial. qabaq
face="Times New Roman Star"хъw|va

face="Times New Roman Star"xa:kface="Times New Roman Star"xa:k


face="Times New Roman Star"qywaq
face="Times New Roman Star"qavaq



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 215, Ё—“я 5, 170-171, TMN 3, 534-535. The variant *Kabak is probably secondary, due to vowel assimilation; qapaq in Uygh. is also secondary - a contamination with *Kap- 'cover'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gEmu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to gnawface="Times New Roman Star"грызть, глодать
face="Times New Roman Star"kemu"r- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gemir-, kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kimer-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r- (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemi(r)-
face="Times New Roman Star"ga"mir-face="Times New Roman Star"gemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kim@r-
face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"ru"o" 'spongy bone'
face="Times New Roman Star"xemir-face="Times New Roman Star"xemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kimer-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-
face="Times New Roman Star"gemir-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251, EDT 723, Ё—“я 3, 18-19, Ћексика 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge.rge-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to need 2 necessity, necessary 3 to stay away, dare notface="Times New Roman Star"1 нуждатьс€ 2 необходимость, необходимый 3 не осмеливатьс€face="Times New Roman Star"kerge- 1 (OUygh.), kergek 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kerge- 1, kerek 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"gerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kira"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ke.rek 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"kerak 2face="Times New Roman Star"kera"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ga"ra"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"gerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kirek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kir-l@ 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerej- 3, kerex 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"xerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"xerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"ka"ra"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kerek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"gerek 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 256, EDT 742, 743, Ё—“я 3, 25-26, Stachowski 145. Turk. > Mong. kereg (see ўербак 1997, 127).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kel/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"quiverface="Times New Roman Star"колчанface="Times New Roman Star"kes? (OUygh., Yenis.)face="Times New Roman Star"kes? (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"kes? (Qutb., MA, IM)









face="Times New Roman Star"kesex (ѕек.)
face="Times New Roman Star"xes? (Todzh., –ас. ‘иЋ 188)face="Times New Roman Star"xes? 1face="Times New Roman Star"kes? (R)




face="Times New Roman Star"kes?, kes


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 258, EDT 752, MNT 1697, Ё—“я 5, 60-61 (see ibid. the literature on the history of arms). {Cf. Russ. колчан < unattested Bulg.?}
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.jyn-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to boil (Intr.)face="Times New Roman Star"варитьс€face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qajna- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna- (Qutb., IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|jne|-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gajna-face="Times New Roman Star"Gajna-face="Times New Roman Star"xajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-

face="Times New Roman Star"ky:j- (kyn/n/y-)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjnar-, ky:jnar- (trans.)face="Times New Roman Star"xajyn-face="Times New Roman Star"xe:in-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 222, Ё—“я 5, 203-205, Stachowski 168, 171.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ki:n, *ki:n-du"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 navel, navelstring, centre 2 navel of a musk-deer, muskface="Times New Roman Star"1 пупок, пуповина, центр 2 мускусна€ железа, мускусface="Times New Roman Star"kin 'утроба, vagina; мускус', kindik 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kin (KB), ku"n (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kindik, ku"nu"k (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kendek 1face="Times New Roman Star"kindik (MA, Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kindik, kindak 1face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kendek 1 (я∆”)
face="Times New Roman Star"kindik (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"k@n 1, k@nd@k 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1, kin 2face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"k@nd@k (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ki:n 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xin 1, 2, xindik 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"xin 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kendek 1face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1, 'belly'face="Times New Roman Star"kindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kinz?|ix, kintix 1face="Times New Roman Star"gindik 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 271, EDT 725, 729, Ё—“я 5, 68-69, Ћексика 279-280. Turk. > Mong. kindik (ўербак 1997, 127).
face="Times New Roman Star"*gEru"l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to quarrel, fight, wrestleface="Times New Roman Star"ссоритьс€, дратьс€, боротьс€face="Times New Roman Star"keris?- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"keris?- (MK), ku"res?- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"gu"res?-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ra"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res?- (MA), gu"res?- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"kuras?-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ra"s?-
face="Times New Roman Star"gu"la"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"go"res?-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res?-face="Times New Roman Star"keris?-, ku"res?-
face="Times New Roman Star"k@res?-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res 'wrestling'
face="Times New Roman Star"xu"res-face="Times New Roman Star"xires?-, xu"res?- ; xire- 'to start a fight'face="Times New Roman Star"keris?-, ku"ro"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"keris-, ku"res-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ra"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res?-face="Times New Roman Star"gu"res?-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res?-face="Times New Roman Star"keris-, gu"res-
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"res?- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 747-748, Ё—“я 3, 79-81, 5, 50-51, ‘едотов 1, 280. The peculiar variation of keris?- and ku"res?- in old sources allows perhaps to reconstruct the original shape *gero"l/-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hairface="Times New Roman Star"волосface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"x@l@xface="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"kyl 'sealine'face="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl
face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 262, TMN 3, 574-5, EDT 614, Ћексика 196, Ё—“я 6, 204-205, Stachowski 168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl-ga-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"beard (of grain), awnface="Times New Roman Star"ость (колоса)







face="Times New Roman Star"Gylg|a (dial.) 'third harvest on virgin soil'
face="Times New Roman Star"xylg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"qylg|an, qylg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"xyl/ъxface="Times New Roman Star"kyla:n

face="Times New Roman Star"xylg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qylqanface="Times New Roman Star"qylqan
face="Times New Roman Star"qylg|an (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"qylqan

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 263, Ћексика 127, Ё—“я 6, 208-209. The Kypchak names of "meadowgrass" (Kirgh. qylqan etc., see Ћексика ibid., Ё—“я 6, 208) are most probably borrowed from Mongolian.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kalymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ransom for bride 2 feeface="Times New Roman Star"1 выкуп за невесту 2 штраф, податьface="Times New Roman Star"qalan (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kalyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalym 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn (Houts., Pav. C., Ѕуд.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalin


face="Times New Roman Star"Galyn| 2face="Times New Roman Star"xalym 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qalym, qalyn| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xolъm 1face="Times New Roman Star"xalym, xaly:m 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xylyn| 1 (dial. Todzh.)face="Times New Roman Star"xylym 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalym 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalym 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn 1

face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qalym 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 226, TMN 3, 399, 488, Ё—“я 5, 239-240, ‘едотов 2, 354. Turk. > Mong. qalan 'fee, tax' (ўербак 1997, 197).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kalyn|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 thick, stiff 2 numerousface="Times New Roman Star"1 толстый, густой 2 многочисленныйface="Times New Roman Star"qalyn (Orkh.) 1, qalyn (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn (MK) 1, (MK, KB) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kalyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| (Qutb.) 1, qalyn (MA, Houts., Abush., AH, Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qe|lin 1face="Times New Roman Star"qelin 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Galyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"Galyn| 1face="Times New Roman Star"xalyn 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xulъn, xolъm 1face="Times New Roman Star"xalyn| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qylyn, dial. Todzh. 1face="Times New Roman Star"xylyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qalyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 226, Ё—“я 5, 238-239, ‘едотов 2, 354-355.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.rynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bellyface="Times New Roman Star"животface="Times New Roman Star"qaryn (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaryn (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qaryn (Sangl., Houts., AH, MA, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|rinface="Times New Roman Star"qerinface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"Garynface="Times New Roman Star"Garynface="Times New Roman Star"xarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarnyface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qa:rynface="Times New Roman Star"xyrъmface="Times New Roman Star"xaryn 'rumen; belly'
face="Times New Roman Star"xyrynface="Times New Roman Star"xyrynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qaryn-tas? 'a relative' (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 238, EDT 661, Ё—“я 5, 321-322, Ћексика 277.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kopur/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of musical (string) instrumentface="Times New Roman Star"вид музыкального (струнного) инструментаface="Times New Roman Star"qopuz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qopuz (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kopuzface="Times New Roman Star"qubyzface="Times New Roman Star"qopuz (Ѕор. Ѕад.), qobuz (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qu.bizface="Times New Roman Star"qowuz

face="Times New Roman Star"Gopuz
face="Times New Roman Star"qobus





face="Times New Roman Star"xobusface="Times New Roman Star"qobuzface="Times New Roman Star"qobyzface="Times New Roman Star"qobyzface="Times New Roman Star"qubyd|face="Times New Roman Star"qobuz
face="Times New Roman Star"qobuzface="Times New Roman Star"qobyz

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 281, EDT 588, TMN 3, 535-537, Ћексика 614, Ё—“я 69-71.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kodan **AD но чув нет
face="Times New Roman Star"hareface="Times New Roman Star"за€ц


face="Times New Roman Star"kujanface="Times New Roman Star"qojan (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qujo|nface="Times New Roman Star"qojan

face="Times New Roman Star"Gojan (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"xozan
face="Times New Roman Star"kojon
face="Times New Roman Star"(kujan dial. < Tat.) xor/an, xoren (dial.) **AD нет в јшм. и стандартных словар€х; откуда? » Ћевитска€ в словаре не нашла.face="Times New Roman Star"xotonox
face="Times New Roman Star"kodan (kojg|un from some j-language?)face="Times New Roman Star"xodanface="Times New Roman Star"kojonface="Times New Roman Star"qojanface="Times New Roman Star"qojanface="Times New Roman Star"qujanface="Times New Roman Star"qojan
face="Times New Roman Star"qojanface="Times New Roman Star"qojan
face="Times New Roman Star"qojanface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 274-275, Ћексика 164, Ё—“я VI 29-30. ѕредполагаетс€ чув *xoran > марийск. *oren в составе moren 'за€ц' ≈горов 122 - скорее маразм.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Koju-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thick, saturatedface="Times New Roman Star"толстый, густойface="Times New Roman Star"qojug| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qojug| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kojuface="Times New Roman Star"qujy
face="Times New Roman Star"qujuqface="Times New Roman Star"qojuq

face="Times New Roman Star"Gojyface="Times New Roman Star"xojyg|face="Times New Roman Star"qojyg|face="Times New Roman Star"qoju

face="Times New Roman Star"xoju:face="Times New Roman Star"koju:face="Times New Roman Star"xojug|face="Times New Roman Star"xojug|face="Times New Roman Star"quju:face="Times New Roman Star"qojuface="Times New Roman Star"qojyface="Times New Roman Star"qujy
face="Times New Roman Star"qojuface="Times New Roman Star"qoju, quju


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 676, TMN 3, 562, Ё—“я 6, 32-33, Stachowski 150. The deriving stem *Koj(u)- 'to become viscous, thick' is attested in Oyr. qoj-, KKalp. qojy-, Khak. xojy-, Tuva xoju- (see ibid.). The reconstruction *Kon/- is proposed in VEWT 276, but is based only on the not quite reliable Tofalar nasalization; the Yakut and OT evidence does not support it.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ko:mface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"camel's pack-saddleface="Times New Roman Star"верблюжье вьючное седло
face="Times New Roman Star"qom (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"qom (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qu.m


face="Times New Roman Star"Go:m

face="Times New Roman Star"qom



face="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"xomface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qom
face="Times New Roman Star"qum


face="Times New Roman Star"qom

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 278, Ћексика 541, Ё—“я 6, 55, Clark 1977, 149. Turk. > WMong. qom (KW 184, ўербак 1997, 139), whence Evk. ko:m, Man. qomo (see “ћ— 1, 408, Doerfer MT 61).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shadow 2 to shadowface="Times New Roman Star"1 тень 2 давать тень, затен€тьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lu"- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lik (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"lge, ko"lge (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"le|ge| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lege (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku.lke|, ku.le|ke| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"le|n|ge|, ko"lige| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lga" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lge 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"le- 2, ko"lek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lo"- 2, ko"lo"n|o" 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"lu"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"lu"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"xo"lege 1face="Times New Roman Star"xo"lege 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lo"ko" 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"letke 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"le|ge| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"lge 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"len|ke 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 288-289, 294, EDT 716-718, Ё—“я 5, 96-97, 128, Stachowski 164. Should be distinguished from *Ko"l/- 'to screen' (v. sub *ge:\l/a).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to buryface="Times New Roman Star"закапывать, хоронитьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (MA), go"m- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-
face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"xo"m-face="Times New Roman Star"xo"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 289, EDT 721, Ё—“я 3, 70-71, Stachowski 155.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"jn|-ilface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"heart, moodface="Times New Roman Star"сердце, духface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"n-u"l; go"ju"n, go"jn (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n|@lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"nu"lface="Times New Roman Star"go"vu"n, ko"n|-u"l (arch. - borrowed from Tu"rki)face="Times New Roman Star"ko":l, ko"n|n-@face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|n-u"face="Times New Roman Star"ku":nface="Times New Roman Star"ki:ilface="Times New Roman Star"k@w|m@w|lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l 'will, freedom'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l 'permission'
face="Times New Roman Star"xo":lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ku"n|@lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lface="Times New Roman Star"go"nface="Times New Roman Star"ko"nu"l, ko"lu"nface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|il, kewilface="Times New Roman Star"go"jn|yface="Times New Roman Star"go"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 291, EDT 731, Ё—“я 3, 75-77, Ћексика 274, Stachowski 156. Almost all languages reflect a suffixed form (a substantivized adjective in -il, see Gabain AG 75). Khak., Shor reflect a nominalized attributive form of ko"n|u"l.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kumface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sandface="Times New Roman Star"песокface="Times New Roman Star"qum (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qum (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kumface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qum (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qum, qomface="Times New Roman Star"Gumface="Times New Roman Star"Gumface="Times New Roman Star"xumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qum
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|mface="Times New Roman Star"kumaxface="Times New Roman Star"kumakface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"xumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qu_mface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"Gum
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 299, EDT 625, Ћексика 102, Ё—“я 6, 133-134, Stachowski 160. Turk. > WMong. qum, Kalm. xum 'sand' (KW 196; TMN 3, 508), Hung. homok (Gombocz 1912).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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