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face="Times New Roman Star"*Kor(t)-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 burbot 2 pike 3 huso, belugaface="Times New Roman Star"1 налим 2 щука 3 белуга


face="Times New Roman Star"( —““) qurty 1, qurtan 2





face="Times New Roman Star"xorty 1 (Sag.)face="Times New Roman Star"qortu 1face="Times New Roman Star"qortu 1
face="Times New Roman Star"? kъrtъs?, kъrъs? 'ruff' ( = Mari kyrys?, k@rkke 'trout')




face="Times New Roman Star"qortpa 3face="Times New Roman Star"qortpa 3






face="Times New Roman Star"‘едотов 1, 260. For Chuv. kъrtъs? cf. also Tat. qyrtys? (the direction of borrowing is unclear).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Komaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 concubine 2 wives of the same husbandface="Times New Roman Star"1 наложница 2 жены одного мужа по отношению друг к другу

face="Times New Roman Star"kuma 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"quma (Ѕуд.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"quma (Pav. C.) 1



















face="Times New Roman Star"quma 1


face="Times New Roman Star"Turk. > MMong. (MA, LHa) quma id. (although Doerfer TMN 1, 415 suggests the opposite direction of loan - which is dubious because of the isolated nature of the MMong. form).
face="Times New Roman Star"*dir/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to bead, string 2 arrange in a rowface="Times New Roman Star"1 нанизывать 2 располагать в р€дface="Times New Roman Star"tiz- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"diz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tez- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tiz-, tu"z- (Abush., Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"du"z- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"du"z- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"t@s-, c?@s- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tis- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tis- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tis- 1face="Times New Roman Star"dis- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ted|e- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"diz- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 1, tu"z- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"diz- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tiz- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 482, EDT 572, Ё—“я 3, 218-220, Stachowski 223. The word (with the meaning 'to arrange in a row') interacts with *du"r/ 'even, level' (v. sub *c?i_ur/i).
face="Times New Roman Star"*op-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to attack 2 to robface="Times New Roman Star"1 нападать 2 грабитьface="Times New Roman Star"op-la- 1 (Orkh.)


face="Times New Roman Star"op- 2 (R - ShS)











face="Times New Roman Star"opla- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ob-dul- 1face="Times New Roman Star"op- 2 (R)



face="Times New Roman Star"op- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 11, Ё—“я 1, 464 (together with *o:p- 'suck'), R I 1155.
face="Times New Roman Star"*im-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 public gathering 2 to gather 3 collective workface="Times New Roman Star"1 народное собрание 2 собирать 3 помочь, общий трудface="Times New Roman Star"imer- 2face="Times New Roman Star"imren (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"imez?|e 3

























face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 633-634.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo":g, *bo":g-en, *bo":g-c?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 insect 2 phalanx, tarantula 3 gad-fly 4 wolfface="Times New Roman Star"1 насекомое 2 фаланга, тарантул 3 слепень 4 волк
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"g, bo"j 2 (MK), bij 2 (MK - Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"bo"g| 2, bu"g|e, bu"g|e-lek 3, bo"z?|ek 1, (dial.) 4face="Times New Roman Star"bo"je| 2, bo"z?|e|k 1face="Times New Roman Star"bew 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bij 2

face="Times New Roman Star"bo"v 2face="Times New Roman Star"mo":j 2, bij 2, mo":z?|ek 4



face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|van 3



face="Times New Roman Star"bo":, bo"j, bo"ju", bo"jo"n 3face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ji 2face="Times New Roman Star"bij 2, 'queen bee', bo"z?|ek 'beetle'face="Times New Roman Star"bo"jo" 2, bo"z?|a"k 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"z?|ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"bij 2face="Times New Roman Star"mij 2
face="Times New Roman Star"mija 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 323, VEWT 82-3, Ћексика 184. Partly contaminated with *bo"ke-l 'gad-fly ' (v. sub *pi_u>/k`i/). The form in -c?ek is a diminutive. Turk. > Hung. bo"go"ly 'gad-fly', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ger/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 notch of an arrow 2 aim (of a gun)face="Times New Roman Star"1 насечка на стреле 2 прицел (ружь€)
face="Times New Roman Star"kez (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"gez 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kez 'arrow shaft' (Abush., Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"ga"z 1face="Times New Roman Star"gezlik 'small knife'






face="Times New Roman Star"kes 1face="Times New Roman Star"kes 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kez 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kid|e (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ke:z 2



face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 756, 760, VEWT 260, Ё—“я 5, 20-21, TMN 4, 2-4.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"n|-ed-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to tune (an instrument) 2 to recuperate 3 to remedyface="Times New Roman Star"1 настраивать (инструмент) 2 выздоравливать 3 лечитьface="Times New Roman Star"o"n|ed- 2, o"n|edtu"r- (caus.) 3 (OUygh.)












face="Times New Roman Star"(Anatri) @ner- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o"n|de- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"n|de- 2




face="Times New Roman Star"o"n|de- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 179, 182, ≈горов 64, ћудрак 135. ‘едотов 1, 153 compares the Chuv. form with OT on|ar- 'to correct', which is phonetically worse.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)arba-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to grope (for smth.) 2 to grasp (with hands or teeth) 3 to swim (grope through water with hands and feet) 4 to rake upface="Times New Roman Star"1 нащупывать 2 хватать (руками или зубами) 3 плавать (хвататьс€ за воду руками и ногами) 4 сгребатьface="Times New Roman Star"qarva- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qarva- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kavra- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- (Qutb)



face="Times New Roman Star"Gabra- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xarba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"xarba:- 2,3,4face="Times New Roman Star"karba:- 'to row, swim'face="Times New Roman Star"qarban- 3










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 646, VEWT 243, Ё—“я 5, 302-303, ћудрак 103 (with a wrong attribution of Tuva xyr-). Despite Kal/. MEJ 42, Stachowski 139, forms like Yak. xarba:- are hardly borrowed < Mong. qarma- (on which see under *k`ar/a).
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)aly-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sky 2 to clear up (of sky)face="Times New Roman Star"1 небо 2 про€сн€тьс€ (о небе)face="Times New Roman Star"qalyq (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"(ko"k) qalyq 1 (MK)











face="Times New Roman Star"? jъl- 'to shine, glitter'face="Times New Roman Star"kilej-xalaj 'shining', xalyn- 2, xalla:n 'clear sky, good weather'face="Times New Roman Star"kalla:n 1











face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 226, Ћексика 60-61, Stachowski 135.
face="Times New Roman Star"*osa-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 careless, dilatory 2 bad, evil 3 to be careless, negligent 4 negligence, harmface="Times New Roman Star"1 небрежный, медлительный 2 плохой, злой 3 быть небрежным, беспечным 4 небрежность, беспечность, увечьеface="Times New Roman Star"osal 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"osal 1, osan- 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2 (dial.), usan- 3face="Times New Roman Star"usal 2face="Times New Roman Star"osal 1 (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o.sal 2face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2
face="Times New Roman Star"osal 1 (dial.), usan- 3face="Times New Roman Star"osal 1



face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2face="Times New Roman Star"ohol 4


face="Times New Roman Star"osol 2face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2face="Times New Roman Star"usal 2face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2
face="Times New Roman Star"osal 1, 2, usan- 3face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2
face="Times New Roman Star"osal 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 365-366, EDT 247, 248, Ё—“я 1, 479-481, 608 (distinguishes osal and usan- - but the narrowing osan- > usan- is a local Oghuz phenomenon and probably secondary, due to interdialectal loans), ≈горов 277, ‘едотов 2, 290. Turk. > Mong. osal (MMong. (SH) osolda-), see TMN 2, 149, Clark 1980, 39, not vice versa - despite ўербак 1997, 207.
face="Times New Roman Star"*aglakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lonely, uninhabited (place) 2 unemployed, out of work 3 fieldface="Times New Roman Star"1 незаселенное место 2 безработный, лишенный службы 3 поле, степьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (OUygh. - Buddh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (MK), ag|la-ju 1 (MK; deverb. from *ag|la- 'to be deserted' (unattested)), ag|la-t- (MK) 'to send away (people)'face="Times New Roman Star"aylak 2; ag|lak (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ag|lax 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ulax 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o:laq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlaq, hajlaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 84, 85, VEWT 8, Ё—“я 1, 64. Turk. > WMong. ag|laq, ag|lag|a id. (KW 3, ўербак 1997, 95). Tends to contaminate with *a:b-lag 'hunting lands'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sAr/ak / *sArk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to become numb 2 hoar-frost 3 cold windface="Times New Roman Star"1 неметь, цепенеть 2 иней 3 холодный ветер
face="Times New Roman Star"sarq- 1, sarqym 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) sazaq, sazag|an 3
face="Times New Roman Star"(Xwar., MKypch.) sarq- 1 (Qutb, AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"sazaG 3
face="Times New Roman Star"sarnax 3 (Kach.)





face="Times New Roman Star"sarg|y- 'to nag, feel pain'

face="Times New Roman Star"sazar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sazar- 'to be bored'






face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 848, 849. Ћексика 42, 43. Despite EDT 847, the basic meaning is not "weak downward movement with no force behind it": in fact we have here a confusion of several originally different roots (see *sark- 'overflow, drip'; *sal- 'put down, lower', with the derivative *salk- which has influenced the meaning of *sark- in some languages).
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"g-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 unrelated; step-relative 2 other, differentface="Times New Roman Star"1 неродной; приемный родственник (пасынок, мачеха) 2 другой, отличныйface="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1 (MK), o"gu"n 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"u"vej 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"gi 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1 (Pav. C.), o"gu"n 2 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"o.gej 1

face="Times New Roman Star"o"ga"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej, o"vej 1face="Times New Roman Star"o":j 1face="Times New Roman Star"o":j 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"egian 2face="Times New Roman Star"egin-egin 2

face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"ga"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"va" 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1
face="Times New Roman Star"o"gej 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 109, 119, VEWT 369, 306, Ё—“я 1, 495-496, TMN 2, 159, Stachowski 43 (with some confusion of the Yakut variants egin, egian and en|in; on the latter see *en|). In Az. one would rather expect *o"ja"j; -g- is probably preserved due to dissimilation.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.l-t-, -c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to bring, carry 2 to lead, drive, sendface="Times New Roman Star"1 нести 2 вести, посылатьface="Times New Roman Star"elt- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"elt-, elet- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ilet- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ilt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"elt- (Houts.) 2, ilet- (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"elt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ilt- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"elt- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"elt- 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"jes/- , les/- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ilt- 1, 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ilt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"elt- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"elt- 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"elt- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 132, VEWT 41, Ё—“я 1, 267-269, Stachowski 125, 126. Turk. > Mong. elde-, Kalm. eld@- (KW 119).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 skilless, talentless, careless 2 simpleface="Times New Roman Star"1 неумелый, небрежный 2 простой
face="Times New Roman Star"ulyn- 'to be bewildered' (MK)





face="Times New Roman Star"olmaja 'an expression of warning, bewilderment'
face="Times New Roman Star"olan|aj 2


face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|li-z?ali 1face="Times New Roman Star"oloj- 'to make a stupid face'
face="Times New Roman Star"olutpaj 'lazy'
face="Times New Roman Star"oldoqson 1, oloq, olog|oj 'one-eyed'face="Times New Roman Star"olaq 1







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 360, ƒ“— 609 (EDT 149 only quotes OT ulyn- 'to be twisted' which is probably a different root).
face="Times New Roman Star"*te:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 odd 2 only, solitary 3 understanding nothing 4 zero 5 vain, in vainface="Times New Roman Star"1 нечетный 2 единственный, только 3 ничего не понимающий 4 ноль 5 напрасный, напрасноface="Times New Roman Star"tek 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tek 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tik 2face="Times New Roman Star"tek 2 (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"ta"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta":k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tik 3face="Times New Roman Star"tek 5




face="Times New Roman Star"tik 3, tek 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"tek 5face="Times New Roman Star"tek 2face="Times New Roman Star"tek 2face="Times New Roman Star"tik 2face="Times New Roman Star"tegaran 2face="Times New Roman Star"tek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tek 2face="Times New Roman Star"tegin 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tek 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 470, TMN 2, 660, EDT 475. Turk. > Mong. Khalkha teg `zero', Kalm. teg 'kurz, niedrig' (KW 389).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lowerface="Times New Roman Star"1 низ, нижн€€ сторона 2 нижнийface="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (Yen. ѕћ  90, OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (dial., яЅ“ 126)


face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1 (я∆” 14)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"ald 1, altyg|y 2; alty 1 {(Ѕаск. “уба)}face="Times New Roman Star"a[:]lt 1face="Times New Roman Star"old(ъ) 'gusset'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'ldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldyn 'в низовье реки' (–ас. ‘иЋ 153)face="Times New Roman Star"ald(y) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (K)


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, Ё—“я 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *a:l 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but alty 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk alty 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see ƒыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-ty- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *a>l is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alas?a 'low, low place' ( —““ 100). Another possible old derivative in -c?ak may be PT *al/(c?)ak (Karakh. as?aq, Turkm. as?a:q etc., see Ё—“я 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *a:l/- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-c?ak (see Ё—“я 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alc?aq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' ( —““ 101), Turkm. alc?ak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alc?ak 'mean, vile', alc?a- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alyg, see under *a:\le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alc?aq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alc?aq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -c?ak from the root al- (which is why -lc?- did not yield -s?- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alc?a-gar, alc?a-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alc?aji- 'to spread legs apart'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"rpeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 new-born 2 new-born lambface="Times New Roman Star"1 новорожденный 2 новорожденный €гненок
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ku.rpe| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"(r)pe| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpa" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe 1


face="Times New Roman Star"kurpe, kirpe|




face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpo" 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rpe| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rpe 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 293, TMN 3, 637, Ё—“я 5, 116-118, Ћексика 391.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)an|-(yr)-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nose 2 to snuffle 3 beak, snout 4 parched nose (phras.) 5 nose bridgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 нос 2 гнусавить 3 клюв, морда 4 пересохший (о носе) 5 переносица
face="Times New Roman Star"qan|raq `palate' (MK - ƒ“—)




face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ryq, qarq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gan|s?yravuq 'nasal cavity', Gon|ursa- 'to reek'

face="Times New Roman Star"qan|yryq (Tel.) (R II, 82); qon|yr 5 (R II 521), Tel. (¬ерб.)

face="Times New Roman Star"xan|ynaj- 2; xon|uru:, xan|yry: 5 (ѕек.)
face="Times New Roman Star"xa:j 3, xa:s? 'nasal', qon|zan| 'crook-nosed'face="Times New Roman Star"xa:j 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qan|yryq 4, qon|ursu- 'to reek'

face="Times New Roman Star"qan|g|yryq (dial.) 'hard palate'





face="Times New Roman Star"The root is no doubt archaic, although not widely attested. On its modern reflexes see VEWT 232, Ћексика 215-216 (some of the listed forms are < Mong., but certainly not all.), Ё—“я 6, 66.
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cet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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