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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAl/uk / *KAlgakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 spoon 2 oar, shovelface="Times New Roman Star"1 ложка 2 весло, лопаткаface="Times New Roman Star"qas?uq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas?uq, qas?yq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kas?yk 1, dial. kalak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2 > Chuv.face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq (IM), qas?uq (Houts., AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|s?iq 1, qo|lo|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos?uq, dial. qas?uq 1, qalaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"Gas?yG 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xazyx 1, xalg|ax 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaz?yq 1, qalaq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"qah/ik 1, qalg|aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qasyq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qasyq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qasyq 1, qalaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 225, 241, Ё—“я 5, 231-232, 353-354. Turk. > Russ. Siber. kas?i/k, see јникин 277.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAlbaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wild garlic, leekface="Times New Roman Star"черемшаface="Times New Roman Star"? qalma 'a k. of food' (Rach.)








face="Times New Roman Star"xalbaface="Times New Roman Star"qalbaface="Times New Roman Star"qalma



face="Times New Roman Star"xylba










face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 227. Cf. an OT (MK) Hapax keleb 'a tender plant which grows in the Turk's summer pastures and fattens livestock quickly' (EDT 716), keleb-le- 'to be covered by this plant (of a mountain)', for which cf. also Sak. kalarba" 'a k. of plant, whose root is used in medicine' (Bailey 35). See also —теблин- аменский 1982, 77, comparing the Sak. form with Pers., Tadzh. kalam 'cabbage' (> Turkm. kelem) - these all may be variously transformed substratum loanwords, cf. also Greek kramba": 'cabbage, radish, rutabaga' - according to Frisk possibly < Pelasg.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kiamface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shaman 2 to shamanize, come into movementface="Times New Roman Star"1 шаман 2 камлать, приходить в движениеface="Times New Roman Star"qam 1, qamla- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qam (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kam 1face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1 (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1 (AH, IM, Pav. C.), qamla- 2 (Sangl.)




face="Times New Roman Star"xam 1, xamna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1, qamda- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jomъs/, jumъz/@ 1face="Times New Roman Star"xam-na:- (xam-sa:-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kamna:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xam 1face="Times New Roman Star"xam 1





face="Times New Roman Star"qamz|y 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, TMN 3, 402-406, Ё—“я 5, 240-241, ≈горов 348-349, ‘едотов 1, 486, Stachowski 136.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)amak / *K(i)apakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 forehead 2 front part 3 eyelid 4 eyebrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 лоб 2 передн€€ часть 3 веко 4 бровь
face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kabak 'bald', dial. kabag 1, 2, 'face', 'skull'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z qabag|y 3, dial. taw qabag|y 'mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1, 2 (Sangl., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|vo|q 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qawaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qavaq 'nose bridge' (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"GabaG 2, (poet.) 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:baG 3face="Times New Roman Star"xamax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 4, dial. 1



face="Times New Roman Star"xavaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 4face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'pitfall'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'place under the forehead; edge of shore'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'precipice'


face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'cleft'
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z qabag|y 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, Ё—“я 5, 161, Ћексика 199-200. An extremely complicated case: forms meaning 'eyelid' are traditionally analysed as derived from *Kap- 'to cover' - but the Turkm., Uzb. and Uygh. forms clearly contradict such a derivation by displaying unmistakable vowel length. A trace of the original meaning 'forehead, eyebrow' (later shifted to 'eyelid') in the Kypchak languages (not distinguishing vowel length) may be found in expressions meaning 'to frown (one's forehead, eyebrows)': Kirgh. qabaq tu"j-, bu"rko"-, Kaz., KKalp. qabaq tu"j-. The form *Ka:pak may have been additionally influenced by PT *Ka:p 'sack; to surround' (v. sub *k[a:]p`a/), *Ka:p(ak) 'caul, hymen' (v. sub *k`a:p`a/). The variation of *-m- and -p- (cf. the archaic Siberian reflexes with -m-) is parallelled by a similar variation in TM and Japanese and may reflect an original cluster, but may have been an innovation due to the contaminations with *Kap- and *Ka:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.p-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to catch fireface="Times New Roman Star"загоратьс€


face="Times New Roman Star"qap-, qabyn-
face="Times New Roman Star"qo|pin-



face="Times New Roman Star"xabyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qamyn-face="Times New Roman Star"qamyn-
face="Times New Roman Star"xyp-

face="Times New Roman Star"qy'p-face="Times New Roman Star"qy'p-
face="Times New Roman Star"qabyn-face="Times New Roman Star"qabyn-, dial. qamyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qabyn-




face="Times New Roman Star"qabun-face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAmugface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"all, togetherface="Times New Roman Star"все, вместеface="Times New Roman Star"qamug| (OUygh.), qamag| (Orkh., OUygh.), qamyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qamug| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kamu
face="Times New Roman Star"qamug| (Qutb., Ѕуд.), qamuq (Abush.)




face="Times New Roman Star"xamyxface="Times New Roman Star"qamyqface="Times New Roman Star"qamyq



face="Times New Roman Star"xamyq










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 627, Ё—“я 5, 243-244. Modern forms like Kirgh., Kaz. qama- 'to surround, besiege', qamala- id., 'to gather in a crowd' etc. (see Ё—“я 5, 159) should be rather regarded as mongolisms.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.maface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 beaver 2 otterface="Times New Roman Star"1 бобер 2 выдра


face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2


face="Times New Roman Star"xam-nos, xam c?at (¬ерб.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamna(g|y) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qamdu 2
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|ma 'beaver, marten'






face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2


face="Times New Roman Star"qama 2

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 242, Ћексика 162, ћудрак ƒисс. 145. Also PT *Kam-tur/ 'beaver, otter' (VEWT 228, Ћексика 162) (*Kam-tur/ may be a compound < *Kama + *utyr/ 'otter' q. v. sub *o/n|du; Ћексика ibid., however, suggests rather *Kam-luc?, with a diminutive *-luc?. There is also a variant *Kun-tur/ (with *Kunu 'wolverine'? - see, however, TMN 3, 524, with a suggestion of Turk. < Pers.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bloodface="Times New Roman Star"кровьface="Times New Roman Star"qan (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qan (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ganface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qa:nface="Times New Roman Star"jonface="Times New Roman Star"xa:nface="Times New Roman Star"ka:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ga(:)nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 360-361, EDT 629-630, Ё—“я 5, 251, ≈горов 349, ‘едотов 2, 486, Stachowski 142. Turk. > WMong. qana- 'to let bleed' (KW 166, TMN 3, 361, ўербак 1997, 133).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be satisfiedface="Times New Roman Star"быть удовлетвореннымface="Times New Roman Star"qan- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan- (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"kan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) qan- (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|n-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gan-face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:n-face="Times New Roman Star"xan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-

face="Times New Roman Star"xan-face="Times New Roman Star"kan-face="Times New Roman Star"xan-
face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-

face="Times New Roman Star"qan-
face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 632, VEWT 230, Ё—“я 5, 251-252, Stachowski 136.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:jnatface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wing 2 finface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыло 2 плавникface="Times New Roman Star"qanat (OUygh.- YB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Abush., MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qano|t 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qejnat 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ganad, ga"na"d (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2, qanar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/onat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kynat, kyjyat 1face="Times New Roman Star"kynat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Kakuk,——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 518, EDT 635, Ё—“я 5, 252-253, ‘едотов 2, 137, Ћексика 149-150, Stachowski 168. Initial s/- in Chuv. is unclear (effect of *-j-?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)an|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 vehicle, cart 2 skis, sleighface="Times New Roman Star"1 повозка 2 лыжи, саниface="Times New Roman Star"qan|ly (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ly (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kag|ny, dial. kanny, kangylly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ly (Sangl., Houts., AH) 1




face="Times New Roman Star"xan|a: 1face="Times New Roman Star"qan|na 2




face="Times New Roman Star"xa:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ha 2 (‘иЋ 91)







face="Times New Roman Star"g|an|ly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 3, 531, EDT 638, Ё—“я 5, 259-260, Ћексика 533.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sack 2 to surroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 мешок 2 окружать
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MA, IM), qaba- 'to besiege' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1, dial. qaba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gabface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:p 1, Ga:ba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xappar 1 (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap/b- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, TMN 3, 366-367, EDT 578 (should be separated from *kab!) Ё—“я 5, 159, 266-267 (with a partial confusion with another root, probably of Mongolian origin, see under *KAmug), 266-267. Despite Doerfer (ibid.) the resemblance with *Ka:puk 'bark' is only superficial. See also notes to *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak 'forehead, eyebrow/eyelid'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"snowface="Times New Roman Star"снегface="Times New Roman Star"qar (Orkh., Yenis., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qar (Sangl., Qutb., Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|rface="Times New Roman Star"qar, qaa
face="Times New Roman Star"Garface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:rface="Times New Roman Star"xarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qar
face="Times New Roman Star"jorface="Times New Roman Star"xa:rface="Times New Roman Star"ka:rface="Times New Roman Star"xarface="Times New Roman Star"xarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qa:r
face="Times New Roman Star"qar
face="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 284-285, EDT 641, VEWT 235, ≈горов 350, ‘едотов 2, 490, Ћексика 27, Stachowski 142.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"blackface="Times New Roman Star"черныйface="Times New Roman Star"qara (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qara (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qara (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|face="Times New Roman Star"qara, dial. qareface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"xoraface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, TMN 3, 426-432, EDT 643-4, Ё—“я 5, 286-289, 299-100, Ћексика 592-593, Stachowski 138, ‘едотов 2, 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KArakanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"acaciaface="Times New Roman Star"акаци€
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqan (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqan[a] (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|ro|g|o|n


face="Times New Roman Star"GaraGan 'сол€нка древовидна€'face="Times New Roman Star"xarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qaraqan


face="Times New Roman Star"xarag|an, Todzh. qarag|an
face="Times New Roman Star"qarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarag|an
face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qarag|an





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 657, Ё—“я 5, 293-294, TMN 1, 275. Turk. > Mong. qarag|ana, whence again into Turk. (Khak. xarg|ana etc., see Ё—“я ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")face="Times New Roman Star"1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращениеface="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z karasy 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|c?iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar(i)c?uq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z Garasy 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2, dial. xarac?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ xori 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2face="Times New Roman Star"karak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaras?yq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, Ё—“я 5, 295-296, јшм. VII, 36, Ћексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. go"z karasy result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see Ё—“я 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarys 'care, wariness', Dolg. karysta:- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)arba-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to grope (for smth.) 2 to grasp (with hands or teeth) 3 to swim (grope through water with hands and feet) 4 to rake upface="Times New Roman Star"1 нащупывать 2 хватать (руками или зубами) 3 плавать (хвататьс€ за воду руками и ногами) 4 сгребатьface="Times New Roman Star"qarva- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qarva- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kavra- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- (Qutb)



face="Times New Roman Star"Gabra- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xarba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"xarba:- 2,3,4face="Times New Roman Star"karba:- 'to row, swim'face="Times New Roman Star"qarban- 3










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 646, VEWT 243, Ё—“я 5, 302-303, ћудрак 103 (with a wrong attribution of Tuva xyr-). Despite Kal/. MEJ 42, Stachowski 139, forms like Yak. xarba:- are hardly borrowed < Mong. qarma- (on which see under *k`ar/a).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karmakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fishing rod 2 hookface="Times New Roman Star"1 удочка 2 крюк
face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq (KB) 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"karmuk 2, dial. garmag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq (IM, MA) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qe|rmo|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"qa(r)maq 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"GarmaG 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"Garmaq 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"xarmax 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qarbaq 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2



face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qarmaq 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2


face="Times New Roman Star"qarmaq 1,2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 238, Ё—“я 5, 309-310 (usually considered to be derived from *Karba-, but this is phonetically dubious).
face="Times New Roman Star"*KArgaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"crowface="Times New Roman Star"воронаface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a (Houts., AH, IM, Qutb., Pav. C.), qarqa (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|rg|e|face="Times New Roman Star"qa(r)g|a
face="Times New Roman Star"Garg|aface="Times New Roman Star"GarGaface="Times New Roman Star"xarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a



face="Times New Roman Star"qa:rg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a

face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a, g|arg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 237, TMN 3, 384, Ё—“я 5, 303-304, Ћексика 171. Turk. > Mong. qarg|a (ўербак 1997, 134).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 arm 2 forearm 3 shin-bone of animal 4 various measures of lengthface="Times New Roman Star"1 рука (верхн€€ часть) 2 предплечье 3 голенна€ кость животного 4 различные меры длиныface="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"karu-z?|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qara 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1 (Vam.), qary 1 (Abush.), 2 (Houts.), 4 (in all sources)face="Times New Roman Star"qari 1,4, qara 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qeri 4, qaja 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2face="Times New Roman Star"gari 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"Gary 3,4
face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"xor 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"xary, xara 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"qar 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4

face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 3, 461-2, Ё—“я 5, 278-283, ƒыбо 160-164, ƒыбо 1989, ‘едотов 2, 361, Ћексика 246-247. The usage of *Kary as a measure ('cubit') may seem natural, but in fact reflects a merger with a different root, see under *K(i)aryl/. Turk. > Hung. kar 'arm', see Ligeti 1933, MNyTESz 2, 369.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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