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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:l/u"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to cover 2 (door) curtain > doorface="Times New Roman Star"1 покрывать 2 (дверной) занавес > дверь
face="Times New Roman Star"es?u"- 1, es?ik / es?u"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"is?i>k 2face="Times New Roman Star"is?ik 2 (AH, IM), is?u"k (IM), es?ik 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2

face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"i:s?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"i:zi>k, i>zi>k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ez?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"ez?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.s?u"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"algъ, alъk 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ez?ik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"esik 2face="Times New Roman Star"is?i>k 2face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"jes?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"esik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"es?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 256, 260, TMN 2, 183-184, ≈горов 24, Ё—“я 1, 396-398, Ћексика 511-512, 517.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:l/-ylface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 green 2 yellowface="Times New Roman Star"1 зеленый 2 желтыйface="Times New Roman Star"jas?yl (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jas?yl (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jes?il 1face="Times New Roman Star"je|s?el 1face="Times New Roman Star"jas?yl (MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jas?il 1face="Times New Roman Star"jes?il 1face="Times New Roman Star"jahsyl 1face="Times New Roman Star"jas?yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?azyl 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?az?yl (R.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"d/az?yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/ulz/a, s/ulz?|a, s/ъvъls/ 'leaf' ( = Bashk. ja"s?elsa" 'greens, vegetables')face="Times New Roman Star"saha-r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"haha-r- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?asyl 1face="Times New Roman Star"jasyl 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?el 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?as?il 1face="Times New Roman Star"jes?il 1face="Times New Roman Star"jes?li 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?asyl 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?il 1face="Times New Roman Star"jas?yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"Derived from PT *ja:l/ 'young, green vegetables' (OUygh. jas?, MK jas?, Turkm. ja:s?, see Ё—“я 4, 162, EDT 975, 976, ‘едотов 2, 134, Stachowski 93). This root is often mixed with homophonous *ja:l/ 'tear' and *ja:l/ 'age, year', see Ё—“я 4, 161-164 (all three roots have different Altaic etymologies). Turk. > Mong. jasil 'buckthorn' (Clark 1980, 41).
face="Times New Roman Star"*etface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"meatface="Times New Roman Star"м€соface="Times New Roman Star"et (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"et (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"et (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"a"tface="Times New Roman Star"jehtface="Times New Roman Star"a"tface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"a"t ( < Az.?)face="Times New Roman Star"u"tface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"e'tface="Times New Roman Star"e'tface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"jet'face="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"a"htface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 52, EDT 33, Ё—“я 1, 311-312, Ћексика 455, Stachowski 48.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ebface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"houseface="Times New Roman Star"домface="Times New Roman Star"eb (Orkh.), ev (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ev (MK), o"v (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"evface="Times New Roman Star"o"jface="Times New Roman Star"o"j (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"ujface="Times New Roman Star"o"jface="Times New Roman Star"ju"face="Times New Roman Star"evface="Times New Roman Star"o"jface="Times New Roman Star"ibface="Times New Roman Star"em, (Kond.) u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"ha"`vface="Times New Roman Star"av-la-n- 'to marry'

face="Times New Roman Star"o"gface="Times New Roman Star"o"g|face="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"jevface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"j
face="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 34, EDT 3-4, Ё—“я 1, 287-288, 513-514, ≈горов 21, Ћексика 500. The word for 'woman' in some languages goes back to PT *eb-c?i ("housewife"), see EDT 6; borrowed in Mong. as ebsi 'female of a big bear', see Clark 1980, 43).
face="Times New Roman Star"*e>.dn|e-rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"saddleface="Times New Roman Star"седло
face="Times New Roman Star"ed|er (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"eyerface="Times New Roman Star"ije|rface="Times New Roman Star"e.gerface="Times New Roman Star"egarface="Times New Roman Star"eg@(r)face="Times New Roman Star"ezerface="Times New Roman Star"ja"ha"rface="Times New Roman Star"ejerface="Times New Roman Star"izerface="Times New Roman Star"ezerface="Times New Roman Star"e:r
face="Times New Roman Star"j@nerface="Times New Roman Star"yn|y:rface="Times New Roman Star"yn|y:rface="Times New Roman Star"ezerface="Times New Roman Star"e'zer (–ас. ‘иЋ 183)face="Times New Roman Star"e:rface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"ijerface="Times New Roman Star"eja"rface="Times New Roman Star"ijerface="Times New Roman Star"je:rface="Times New Roman Star"jerface="Times New Roman Star"jerface="Times New Roman Star"en|er (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 63, VEWT 36, Ё—“я 1, 241-242, 658-659, Ћексика 539, Stachowski 261. Reflexes of the cluster are complicated by borrowings: e.g. Tuva, Tof. is < Khak. Turk. *edn|er-c?ak 'pack saddle' > MMong. in|g|irc?aq, WMong. jan|g|irc?aq id. (TMN 2, 128-129, ўербак 1997, 164, јникин 88).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jen|gu"-l, jen|i-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"lightface="Times New Roman Star"легкийface="Times New Roman Star"jenik, jo"n|u"l (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ju"n|u"l (Tefs., IM), jenik 'light', jeni- 'to become light' (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"jeni, ju"nu"l, jejniface="Times New Roman Star"z?|in|elface="Times New Roman Star"jen|gil (Sangl.), ju"ngu"l (MKypch. - Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jen|ilface="Times New Roman Star"jenik, jen|ilface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ig (<*jen|ig)face="Times New Roman Star"ju"ngu"l, jejinface="Times New Roman Star"jen|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ni:k (< *jen|ik)
face="Times New Roman Star"d/en|ilface="Times New Roman Star"jin|gil, jejinface="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|mъw|l

face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:k (< *jen|ik)face="Times New Roman Star"nin|es?face="Times New Roman Star"z?|en|ilface="Times New Roman Star"z?en|ilface="Times New Roman Star"jen|ilface="Times New Roman Star"jen|elface="Times New Roman Star"z?|en|gil, z?engil, zengilface="Times New Roman Star"jilinface="Times New Roman Star"jen|il, jen|gil, jenilface="Times New Roman Star"z?en|il
face="Times New Roman Star"jen|ilface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 948, 950, VEWT 198, Ё—“я 4, 188, 184, Ћексика 340. Turk. > Hung. gyenge 'weak', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*il(i)kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"front, before, Eastface="Times New Roman Star"перед, впереди, востокface="Times New Roman Star"ilki (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ilk (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ilkface="Times New Roman Star"i>li>kface="Times New Roman Star"ilk (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"ilk

face="Times New Roman Star"ilk, ilkiface="Times New Roman Star"ilki


face="Times New Roman Star"ilga"rface="Times New Roman Star"@l@kface="Times New Roman Star"il-in, il-in| (ilik 'one who is not yet...')face="Times New Roman Star"ilin; ilik 'not yet', iligine 'before'face="Times New Roman Star"elek



face="Times New Roman Star"i>li>k
face="Times New Roman Star"jilkface="Times New Roman Star"ilk


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 140, VEWT 170, Ё—“я 1, 347-350, ≈горов 62-63, Stachowski 125.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go downface="Times New Roman Star"спускатьс€, идти внизface="Times New Roman Star"en- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"en- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"in-, dial. en-face="Times New Roman Star"in-, in|-face="Times New Roman Star"en- (MA, IM, Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"i:n-face="Times New Roman Star"in-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.n-face="Times New Roman Star"an-face="Times New Roman Star"enie



face="Times New Roman Star"en-, dial. en|-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"in-
face="Times New Roman Star"jin-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"en-
face="Times New Roman Star"in-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 43, Ё—“я 1, 353-354, ≈горов 26.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jyp / *jipface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"threadface="Times New Roman Star"ниткаface="Times New Roman Star"jyp (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jyp (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ipface="Times New Roman Star"z?|epface="Times New Roman Star"jip (AH, Ettuhf.), ip (Pav. C., AH)
face="Times New Roman Star"jipface="Times New Roman Star"jip, jepface="Times New Roman Star"ipface="Times New Roman Star"ju"pface="Times New Roman Star"c?@pface="Times New Roman Star"c?ipface="Times New Roman Star"jip, d/ipface="Times New Roman Star"jipface="Times New Roman Star"s/ipface="Times New Roman Star"sip 'hook on a fishing rod', sippe 'thread'


face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ipface="Times New Roman Star"z?ip
face="Times New Roman Star"jepface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ib, zipface="Times New Roman Star"jipface="Times New Roman Star"jipface="Times New Roman Star"z?ipface="Times New Roman Star"jipface="Times New Roman Star"jipface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 870, VEWT 204, Ё—“я 4, 268-269. Cf. also the derivative *jipek id. (Ё—“я 4, 269-270).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ji:r- / *jy:r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to split lengthwise 2 to break, tearface="Times New Roman Star"1 расщепл€ть вдоль 2 ломать, разрывать
face="Times New Roman Star"je/ir- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jir- 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) jir- 1 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jir-, z?|ir- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jir- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?@r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"si:r- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?yr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jyr- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jir- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?yr- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jyr- 'to dig through'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 198, EDT 955, Ё—“я 4, 203-204.
face="Times New Roman Star"*iri-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to rot 2 pus 3 to turn sour, coagulateface="Times New Roman Star"1 гнить 2 гной 3 прокисать, створаживатьс€face="Times New Roman Star"jiru"- 1 (OUygh.), irin| 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"iri- 1, irin| 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"irin 2face="Times New Roman Star"i>ri>- 3, i>ri>n 2face="Times New Roman Star"irin| 2face="Times New Roman Star"iri- 1, jirin| 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|irin| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"irin 2face="Times New Roman Star"irin| 2face="Times New Roman Star"i>ri>- 1, 3, i>ri>n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"iri- 3, irin| 2

face="Times New Roman Star"iren|e 2face="Times New Roman Star"iren|e 2face="Times New Roman Star"iri- 1, irin| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"iri- 1, 3, irin| 2face="Times New Roman Star"i>ri>- 1, 3, i>ri>n 2face="Times New Roman Star"irin 2face="Times New Roman Star"i>ri>- 3, i>ri>n 2face="Times New Roman Star"irin 2face="Times New Roman Star"jirin 2face="Times New Roman Star"irin 2face="Times New Roman Star"iri- 1, 3, irin| 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 198, 233, Ё—“я 1, 372-374, Stachowski 128.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ek-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to decrease, be insufficient 2 common, ordinary, low class; fault, faultyface="Times New Roman Star"1 уменьшатьс€, быть недостаточным 2 обычный, низкородный; недостаток, недостаточныйface="Times New Roman Star"egsu"- 1, egil 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"egsu"- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"eksi-, eksil- 1, eksik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"eksu"- 1 (Abush.), o"ksu"-, o"ksu"l- 1 (Pav. C.), o"ksu"k 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"o"gsu"- 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"a"skik 2face="Times New Roman Star"egis-, egsil- 1, egsik 2



face="Times New Roman Star"iks@l- 1, j@ksek 2



face="Times New Roman Star"o"ksu"- 1, o"ksu"k 2



face="Times New Roman Star"jisil- 1face="Times New Roman Star"eksil- 1, eksik 2


face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 257-258, ≈горов 77, ћудрак ƒисс. 199; EDT 106, 117. The Chuv. Anlaut is not quite clear (iks@l- < *j@ks@l-?; one of the cases with prothetic j-, so the openness / closedness of the vowel in PT remains unknown); ‘едотов 1, 193 derives Chuv. j@ksik from PT *jek (v. sub *l/a:\k`e\), but this is phonetically impossible.
face="Times New Roman Star"*it-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to push, hitface="Times New Roman Star"толкать, удар€ть
face="Times New Roman Star"it- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"i>t-face="Times New Roman Star"it- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"itar-face="Times New Roman Star"ita"r-face="Times New Roman Star"it-
face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"i>t-face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"it-, ijt-

face="Times New Roman Star"u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"it-, u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"it-

face="Times New Roman Star"i>jter-
face="Times New Roman Star"i>t-
face="Times New Roman Star"jitir-face="Times New Roman Star"it-face="Times New Roman Star"ijter-

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 38, VEWT 174, Ё—“я 1, 386-387, Stachowski 129, 254.
face="Times New Roman Star"*i:r/ / *y:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 trace 2 furrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 след 2 борозда, межаface="Times New Roman Star"iz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"i>z 1, yzan 2face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1 (Ѕор. Ѕад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"is 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"y:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"i>s 1
face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"j@r 1, jъran 2

face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"i>z 1face="Times New Roman Star"yz 1, yzan 2face="Times New Roman Star"i>d| 1, yd|an 2face="Times New Roman Star"yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"jiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz, yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"iz 1
face="Times New Roman Star"hyzan 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 277, Ё—“я 1, 383-385, 646, 647, VEWT 175, ≈горов 79, 75. There exists a verbal derivative *i:r/-te- 'to follow one's tracks', attested as iste- as early as in OUygh. (see EDT 243) and in many modern languages (see Ё—“я 1, 383); but simultaneously there is a variant *i:r-te- (with *-r/- > -r- according to Helimski's rule), attested already in MK (see EDT 208) and in Yak., Dolg. irde:-, see Stachowski 128.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jylface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"yearface="Times New Roman Star"годface="Times New Roman Star"jyl (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jyl (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"jyl (MA), il (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"jilface="Times New Roman Star"jilface="Times New Roman Star"jilface="Times New Roman Star"ilface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"c?ilface="Times New Roman Star"c?ylface="Times New Roman Star"d/yl

face="Times New Roman Star"sylface="Times New Roman Star"hylface="Times New Roman Star"c?ylface="Times New Roman Star"c?ylface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ylface="Times New Roman Star"z?ylface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"z?ylface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"z?ylface="Times New Roman Star"jelface="Times New Roman Star"jylface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 200, EDT 917, Ё—“я 4, 275, Ћексика 70-71, Stachowski 118.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jy:l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to creep 2 snakeface="Times New Roman Star"1 ползать 2 зме€face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jylan (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jyl- 1, jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jyl- 1 (Vam.), jylan 2 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|il- 1, ilo|n 2face="Times New Roman Star"ilan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jilan 2face="Times New Roman Star"ilan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jyla:n 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yl- 1, c?ylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"d/yl- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/@w|len 2face="Times New Roman Star"sy:l- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yl- 1, c?ylan 2, dial. c?ulanface="Times New Roman Star"c?yl- 1, c?ulan 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yl- 1, z?|ylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"jilyn 2face="Times New Roman Star"jylan 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 200, EDT 930-1, Ё—“я 4, 40-41, 277, Ћексика 180. Turk. > MMong. (MA) jilan (see ўербак 1997, 164). Mong. z?|ilu-, z?|ulu- 'roll away, move away' may be related or borrowed < Turk.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jul-dur/ (*-dyr/)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"starface="Times New Roman Star"звездаface="Times New Roman Star"jultuz (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"julduz (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jyldyzface="Times New Roman Star"joldyzface="Times New Roman Star"julduz (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"julduzface="Times New Roman Star"jultuzface="Times New Roman Star"juldysface="Times New Roman Star"ulduzface="Times New Roman Star"jyldyzface="Times New Roman Star"c?yltysface="Times New Roman Star"c?yltysface="Times New Roman Star"d/yldysface="Times New Roman Star"julduzface="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|ldъw|rface="Times New Roman Star"sulusface="Times New Roman Star"hulusface="Times New Roman Star"syldysface="Times New Roman Star"syltysface="Times New Roman Star"z?|yldyzface="Times New Roman Star"z?u_ldyzface="Times New Roman Star"juldyzface="Times New Roman Star"jondod|face="Times New Roman Star"z?ulduzface="Times New Roman Star"jyldysface="Times New Roman Star"jyldyzface="Times New Roman Star"z?uldyzface="Times New Roman Star"jyldusface="Times New Roman Star"julduzface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 210, TMN 3, 260-1, EDT 922-3, Ё—“я 4, 279-280, Ћексика 53, Stachowski 111.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jumurtkaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"eggface="Times New Roman Star"€йцоface="Times New Roman Star"jumurtg|a, jumurg|a (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jumurtg|a (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jumurtaface="Times New Roman Star"jomyrqaface="Times New Roman Star"jumurtg|a (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"jumurtqa (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"jomutface="Times New Roman Star"jumurtaface="Times New Roman Star"jumurtGaface="Times New Roman Star"nymyrxaface="Times New Roman Star"nybyrtqa, nuburtqa (¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"d/ymyrtqaface="Times New Roman Star"jumurqaface="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|mardaface="Times New Roman Star"symy:tface="Times New Roman Star"hymy:tface="Times New Roman Star"c?uurg|aface="Times New Roman Star"n/umurxaface="Times New Roman Star"z?|umurtqaface="Times New Roman Star"z?u_myrtqaface="Times New Roman Star"jumyrtqaface="Times New Roman Star"jomortqaface="Times New Roman Star"zumurtqaface="Times New Roman Star"jymyrtaface="Times New Roman Star"jymyrta, imyrtxaface="Times New Roman Star"z?umurtqaface="Times New Roman Star"jymu:(r)ddaface="Times New Roman Star"jymyrtqaface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 211, EDT 938, Ё—“я 4, 250-251, Ћексика 149, Stachowski 118.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jym-l/c?a-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"soft, mildface="Times New Roman Star"м€гкийface="Times New Roman Star"jyms?aq (Orkh.), jums?aq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jums?aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jums?akface="Times New Roman Star"joms?aqface="Times New Roman Star"jums?aq (AH, Ettuhf., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"jums?o|qface="Times New Roman Star"jums?aqface="Times New Roman Star"jumsaqface="Times New Roman Star"jums?aGface="Times New Roman Star"jums?aqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|ax, nymzaxface="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?a-face="Times New Roman Star"jymz?aq, d/ymz?aq
face="Times New Roman Star"s/emz/eface="Times New Roman Star"symna-g|asface="Times New Roman Star"hymna-gasface="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?aqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|a- 'to become soft'face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ums?aqface="Times New Roman Star"z?umsaq
face="Times New Roman Star"joms?aqface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ums?aq, z?umus?aqface="Times New Roman Star"jymys?aqface="Times New Roman Star"jyms?aq, jyms?ax

face="Times New Roman Star"jymys?aqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 938, VEWT 201, Ё—“я 4, 252-253, Stachowski 118. The deriving stem *jym-l/c?a- 'to be soft' is also present in most of the above languages.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jyk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to crush, grind; overthrowface="Times New Roman Star"разрушать, размалывать; свалитьface="Times New Roman Star"jyq- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jyq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jyk-face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-face="Times New Roman Star"jyq- (MA, Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jiq-face="Times New Roman Star"jiq-
face="Times New Roman Star"jyx-face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-face="Times New Roman Star"juq-
face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-, d/yq-face="Times New Roman Star"juq-face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъx- (dial.)



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yq-face="Times New Roman Star"z?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-
face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-, jyx-face="Times New Roman Star"z?yq-
face="Times New Roman Star"jyq-, jix-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 200, EDT 897, Ё—“я 4, 273-274.
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