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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to snatch, take 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 брать, хватать 2 кусатьface="Times New Roman Star"qap- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- (AH, IM, Pav. C., Qutb) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"Gap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"Gap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"xap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"xyp- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"xap- 1,2

face="Times New Roman Star"qa'p- 'to grab with one's mouth; bite (of fish)'face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qab- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, EDT 580, Ё—“я 5, 264-265, TMN 3, 373-374.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sack 2 to surroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 мешок 2 окружать
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MA, IM), qaba- 'to besiege' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1, dial. qaba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gabface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:p 1, Ga:ba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xappar 1 (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap/b- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, TMN 3, 366-367, EDT 578 (should be separated from *kab!) Ё—“я 5, 159, 266-267 (with a partial confusion with another root, probably of Mongolian origin, see under *KAmug), 266-267. Despite Doerfer (ibid.) the resemblance with *Ka:puk 'bark' is only superficial. See also notes to *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak 'forehead, eyebrow/eyelid'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hit, knock, tearface="Times New Roman Star"бить, стучать, рвать
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kak-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq- (Houts., AH, Qutb, MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|q-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gax-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-, qaqyl-face="Times New Roman Star"xax-
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-


face="Times New Roman Star"kakryj- 'break into small pieces'face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qa'q-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 223, Ё—“я 5, 221-222, Stachowski 135.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"blackface="Times New Roman Star"черныйface="Times New Roman Star"qara (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qara (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qara (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|face="Times New Roman Star"qara, dial. qareface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"xoraface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, TMN 3, 426-432, EDT 643-4, Ё—“я 5, 286-289, 299-100, Ћексика 592-593, Stachowski 138, ‘едотов 2, 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")face="Times New Roman Star"1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращениеface="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z karasy 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|c?iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar(i)c?uq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z Garasy 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2, dial. xarac?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ xori 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2face="Times New Roman Star"karak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaras?yq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, Ё—“я 5, 295-296, јшм. VII, 36, Ћексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. go"z karasy result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see Ё—“я 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarys 'care, wariness', Dolg. karysta:- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.rga-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to swear, curseface="Times New Roman Star"ругать, проклинатьface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|an- (recipr.) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-, qyrg|a- (MK, KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a- (Qutb, Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|rg|e|-face="Times New Roman Star"qa(r)g|a-

face="Times New Roman Star"GarGa-face="Times New Roman Star"xarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"xъrrъn (Adv.) 'angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"kyra:-face="Times New Roman Star"kyra:-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-


face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 655, VEWT 237, Ё—“я 5, 304-305, Stachowski 169.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KArgaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"crowface="Times New Roman Star"воронаface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a (Houts., AH, IM, Qutb., Pav. C.), qarqa (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|rg|e|face="Times New Roman Star"qa(r)g|a
face="Times New Roman Star"Garg|aface="Times New Roman Star"GarGaface="Times New Roman Star"xarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a



face="Times New Roman Star"qa:rg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a

face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a, g|arg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|aface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 237, TMN 3, 384, Ё—“я 5, 303-304, Ћексика 171. Turk. > Mong. qarg|a (ўербак 1997, 134).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/, *Kar/-dyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark 2 scales 3 dandruff 4 to peel bark 5 to husk nutsface="Times New Roman Star"1 кора 2 чешу€ 3 перхоть 4 сдирать кору 5 лущить орехиface="Times New Roman Star"qadyz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaz, qad|yz 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qajry 1, dial. qajyz 1; qajyzla- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qazg|o|q 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qazdyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xastyryx 1


face="Times New Roman Star"xujъr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qatyryk 1; xasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"kasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"qazyryq 2, qazy- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qa's- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajry, dial. qajyd| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 218, 243, EDT 608, 665, Ё—“я 5, 211-212, 328, ‘едотов 2, 352, Ћексика 107. The original form here is *Kar/; a suffixed form was *Kar/dy(r/), later simplified to *Kadyr/. This can be clearly seen from forms like SUygh. and Khak. Another possible explanation could be an early dissimilation (*Kar/-yr/ > *Kadyr/ = *Kad|yr/, or already after the zetacism, *Kazyz > *Kad|yz). There is some confusion between *Kar/ and *Kas, *Kasuk in Old Turkic, but MK definitely spells the word as qaz.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kasyrkuface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whirlwindface="Times New Roman Star"вихрь
face="Times New Roman Star"qasyrqu (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kasyrg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) qasyrqa (Houts.), qasurg|a (AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"Gasyrg|a




face="Times New Roman Star"kozъrga

face="Times New Roman Star"qazyrg|yface="Times New Roman Star"qa'syrg|y









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 240, Ё—“я 5, 332, Ћексика 43, јшм. VII, 20. Chuvash has an irregular form with initial k- (*x- would be expected). But it can hardly be a borrowing from Volga-Kypchak languages.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kadface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wind, whirlwindface="Times New Roman Star"ветер, вихрь
face="Times New Roman Star"qad| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kaj 'rainy weather'
face="Times New Roman Star"qaj (AH, Pav. C., Abush.)



face="Times New Roman Star"Gajface="Times New Roman Star"xas



face="Times New Roman Star"xata:- 'to be cold in spring'
face="Times New Roman Star"xat, xady- 'to be frozen',face="Times New Roman Star"qatface="Times New Roman Star"qajy- 'to be frozen'








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 593, Ё—“я 5, 193-194, Ћексика 46. Borrowing < Sam. *kacu 'whirlwind' is hardly credible, despite Helimski 1995.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kat-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to mix, add, tie toface="Times New Roman Star"смешивать, добавл€тьface="Times New Roman Star"qat- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qat- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat- (Sangl., MA, Pav. C., Qutb.)
face="Times New Roman Star"qat-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gat-face="Times New Roman Star"Gat-face="Times New Roman Star"xat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-
face="Times New Roman Star"xodъs? 'mixture'face="Times New Roman Star"xat- (but kytar- 'to mix')face="Times New Roman Star"kat-face="Times New Roman Star"qa't-face="Times New Roman Star"qa't-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-

face="Times New Roman Star"qat-
face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 594-595, VEWT 241, Ё—“я 5, 336, 337-338, Stachowski 141, ‘едотов 2, 373-374.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kiar/yface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"inner fatface="Times New Roman Star"брюшной жир
face="Times New Roman Star"qazy (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qazy
face="Times New Roman Star"qe|ziface="Times New Roman Star"qezi


face="Times New Roman Star"xazy
face="Times New Roman Star"qazy
face="Times New Roman Star"jor-var 'скоромна€ пища'face="Times New Roman Star"qaha
face="Times New Roman Star"qazyface="Times New Roman Star"qazyface="Times New Roman Star"qazyface="Times New Roman Star"qazyface="Times New Roman Star"qazyface="Times New Roman Star"qad|y


face="Times New Roman Star"qazy

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 243, Ё—“я 5, 189-190, ћудрак ƒисс. 193-194, TMN 3, 359, EDT 681, ‘едотов 2, 491.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/ylgan / *Karlyganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"currantface="Times New Roman Star"смородина


face="Times New Roman Star"qarlyg|an






face="Times New Roman Star"qazyrg|an, qazyr qat (¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"qazylg|an
face="Times New Roman Star"xorlъg|an

face="Times New Roman Star"qazylg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qazylg|an

face="Times New Roman Star"qarlyg|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarlyg|an (dial.)





face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 309-310, ‘едотов 2, 367.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.p-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to catch fireface="Times New Roman Star"загоратьс€


face="Times New Roman Star"qap-, qabyn-
face="Times New Roman Star"qo|pin-



face="Times New Roman Star"xabyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qamyn-face="Times New Roman Star"qamyn-
face="Times New Roman Star"xyp-

face="Times New Roman Star"qy'p-face="Times New Roman Star"qy'p-
face="Times New Roman Star"qabyn-face="Times New Roman Star"qabyn-, dial. qamyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qabyn-




face="Times New Roman Star"qabun-face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to break, demolish 2 small 3 to scrape, shaveface="Times New Roman Star"1 ломать, разрушать 2 маленький 3 скрести, брить
face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3 'to scrape; to tear out'face="Times New Roman Star"kyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3 (Pav. C.), 1, 'to cut off' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qir- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qi(r)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"xyr- 3, 'to cut'face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265; EDT 643; TMN 3, 567, Ћексика 382, Ё—“я 6, 227-229, Stachowski 168, 170. The Yak. form kyra 'small' is a rather transparent semantical derivative, although it is not usually listed among the reflexes of PT *Kyr-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 arm 2 forearm 3 shin-bone of animal 4 various measures of lengthface="Times New Roman Star"1 рука (верхн€€ часть) 2 предплечье 3 голенна€ кость животного 4 различные меры длиныface="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"karu-z?|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qara 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1 (Vam.), qary 1 (Abush.), 2 (Houts.), 4 (in all sources)face="Times New Roman Star"qari 1,4, qara 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qeri 4, qaja 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2face="Times New Roman Star"gari 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"Gary 3,4
face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"xor 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"xary, xara 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"qar 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4

face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 3, 461-2, Ё—“я 5, 278-283, ƒыбо 160-164, ƒыбо 1989, ‘едотов 2, 361, Ћексика 246-247. The usage of *Kary as a measure ('cubit') may seem natural, but in fact reflects a merger with a different root, see under *K(i)aryl/. Turk. > Hung. kar 'arm', see Ligeti 1933, MNyTESz 2, 369.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.ryface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 old 2 old woman or man 3 to become oldface="Times New Roman Star"1 старый 2 старуха, старик 3 старетьface="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qary- 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MK, KB) 1, qary- (MK, KB) 3face="Times New Roman Star"kary, kart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary, qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MA, Abush.) 1, qary- (MA, Abush.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"qari 1, qari- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qeri 1,2, qeri- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"Gary, Gart 2,1face="Times New Roman Star"Garry 1, Garra- 3face="Times New Roman Star"kir@ 1, kir@- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qary- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qary- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyry- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyry- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary, qart 1, qary- 3, qart 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary ? qe|ri, qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary, qart 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1,2 (also 'woman')
face="Times New Roman Star"qary, g|arry 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 644, TMN 3, 440, Ё—“я 5, 311-312, 314-316, Ћексика 84-85, Stachowski 169, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 girl 2 womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 девушка 2 женщинаface="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gy:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"xys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r 1, x@r-(arъm) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269, TMN 3, 569-70, EDT 679-80, Ћексика 295, 318, Ё—“я 6, 190-191, Stachowski 172. For PT one should reconstruct variants *ky:r//*ky:r (they are reflected in several derivatives, e.g. *Ky:r-kyn, see Ћексика 317-318, Ё—“я 6, 237, *Kyr-nak, see TMN 3, 456, Ё—“я 6, 240).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kys-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 short 2 narrow 3 to squeezeface="Times New Roman Star"1 короткий 2 узкий 3 сдавливатьface="Times New Roman Star"qysg|a (Orkh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys- 3 (MK, KB), qysyg| 2 (MK), qysqa 1 (KB), qysg|a 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kysa 1, kys- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1, qys- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1 (Abush.), qys- (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qisqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qisqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"GysGa, qysGa 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gysa 1face="Times New Roman Star"GysGa 1, Gys- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xysxa 1, xys- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@z@k 2, x@s- 4face="Times New Roman Star"kyhaj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"kyhalga 'straits, sorrow' ( = Yak. kyhalga)face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1, qy's- 4, qyzy: 2face="Times New Roman Star"qy'sqa 1, qy's- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysxa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qsyqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysGa 1
face="Times New Roman Star"PT *Kys-ga 'short' is derived from PT *Kys- 'to press, squeeze'. See VEWT 267, EDT 665-7, Ё—“я 6, 251-253, Stachowski 167.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"redface="Times New Roman Star"красныйface="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzylface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzylface="Times New Roman Star"xyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"x@rl@face="Times New Roman Star"kyhylface="Times New Roman Star"kyhylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyd|ylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzilface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"PT *Kyr/-yl 'red' is derived from *Ky:r/- 'to redden; glow' (Turkm. Gyz-, Tur. kyz- etc.), where length is witnessed by Yak. ky:s-. One has to assume shortening in polysyllabic derivatives (besides *Kyr/yl also *Kyr/-yk-, *Kyr/l-ar-), with secondary analogical shortening in Turkm. Gyz-; see VEWT 269, EDT 681, 683-4, TMN 3, 469, Ћексика 602-603, Ё—“я 6, 187-189, 194-196, Stachowski 167. Cf. also *Ky:r 'grey' (VEWT 265, TMN 3, 567, Ё—“я 6, 229-230).
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