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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to turn back 2 to show respect 3 to squint; to move to smb.'s side 4 to run towards 5 to go past, aroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 оборачиватьс€ 2 выказывать уважение 3 косить глазами; переходить на чью-л. сторону 4 бежать к 5 обойти, пройти мимоface="Times New Roman Star"qaj- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaj- (MK) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kaj- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"qajla- 4

face="Times New Roman Star"xaj- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaj- (R) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"xaj- 5










face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5 208-209, EDT 674. Stachowski 137 adds Yak. xajys-, Dolg. kan/ys- '(to turn and) look around', which would change the reconstruction to *KAn/-; however, there are no other traces of a nasal in the root, and the comparison looks somewhat dubious.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kalpakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hatface="Times New Roman Star"шапка, шл€па

face="Times New Roman Star"kalpakface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaq (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qalpo|qface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalmaq
face="Times New Roman Star"Galpaqface="Times New Roman Star"xalbax, xalpax



face="Times New Roman Star"xalpa:q


face="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalfaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"qalpaq
face="Times New Roman Star"qalpaqface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 234-235. The word is not attested in OT; cf. however the common Slavic loanword *klobukъ, attested in Russian sources already in the 12th century (in чьрнии клобуци 'black hats' = the Karakalpaks, but with characteristically Bulgarian phonology).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bloodface="Times New Roman Star"кровьface="Times New Roman Star"qan (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qan (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ganface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qa:nface="Times New Roman Star"jonface="Times New Roman Star"xa:nface="Times New Roman Star"ka:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ga(:)nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 360-361, EDT 629-630, Ё—“я 5, 251, ≈горов 349, ‘едотов 2, 486, Stachowski 142. Turk. > WMong. qana- 'to let bleed' (KW 166, TMN 3, 361, ўербак 1997, 133).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Konc?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"top(s) of bootsface="Times New Roman Star"голенище

face="Times New Roman Star"konc?face="Times New Roman Star"qunyc?face="Times New Roman Star"qonc? (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qu.nz?|face="Times New Roman Star"qonz?|aface="Times New Roman Star"qan|c?face="Times New Roman Star"Gunz?|face="Times New Roman Star"Gonc?
face="Times New Roman Star"qos?face="Times New Roman Star"qonc?, qonyc?
face="Times New Roman Star"konz?|a

face="Times New Roman Star"xonc?u
face="Times New Roman Star"qonc?face="Times New Roman Star"qonys?face="Times New Roman Star"qonys?

face="Times New Roman Star"qonc?face="Times New Roman Star"qonc?face="Times New Roman Star"qonys?
face="Times New Roman Star"xonc?face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 6, 58-59, ‘едотов 1, 308.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)an|-(yr)-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nose 2 to snuffle 3 beak, snout 4 parched nose (phras.) 5 nose bridgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 нос 2 гнусавить 3 клюв, морда 4 пересохший (о носе) 5 переносица
face="Times New Roman Star"qan|raq `palate' (MK - ƒ“—)




face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ryq, qarq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gan|s?yravuq 'nasal cavity', Gon|ursa- 'to reek'

face="Times New Roman Star"qan|yryq (Tel.) (R II, 82); qon|yr 5 (R II 521), Tel. (¬ерб.)

face="Times New Roman Star"xan|ynaj- 2; xon|uru:, xan|yry: 5 (ѕек.)
face="Times New Roman Star"xa:j 3, xa:s? 'nasal', qon|zan| 'crook-nosed'face="Times New Roman Star"xa:j 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qan|yryq 4, qon|ursu- 'to reek'

face="Times New Roman Star"qan|g|yryq (dial.) 'hard palate'





face="Times New Roman Star"The root is no doubt archaic, although not widely attested. On its modern reflexes see VEWT 232, Ћексика 215-216 (some of the listed forms are < Mong., but certainly not all.), Ё—“я 6, 66.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sack 2 to surroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 мешок 2 окружать
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MA, IM), qaba- 'to besiege' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1, dial. qaba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gabface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:p 1, Ga:ba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xappar 1 (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap/b- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, TMN 3, 366-367, EDT 578 (should be separated from *kab!) Ё—“я 5, 159, 266-267 (with a partial confusion with another root, probably of Mongolian origin, see under *KAmug), 266-267. Despite Doerfer (ibid.) the resemblance with *Ka:puk 'bark' is only superficial. See also notes to *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak 'forehead, eyebrow/eyelid'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 arm 2 forearm 3 shin-bone of animal 4 various measures of lengthface="Times New Roman Star"1 рука (верхн€€ часть) 2 предплечье 3 голенна€ кость животного 4 различные меры длиныface="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"karu-z?|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qara 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1 (Vam.), qary 1 (Abush.), 2 (Houts.), 4 (in all sources)face="Times New Roman Star"qari 1,4, qara 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qeri 4, qaja 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2face="Times New Roman Star"gari 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"Gary 3,4
face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"xor 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"xary, xara 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"qar 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4

face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 3, 461-2, Ё—“я 5, 278-283, ƒыбо 160-164, ƒыбо 1989, ‘едотов 2, 361, Ћексика 246-247. The usage of *Kary as a measure ('cubit') may seem natural, but in fact reflects a merger with a different root, see under *K(i)aryl/. Turk. > Hung. kar 'arm', see Ligeti 1933, MNyTESz 2, 369.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.rynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bellyface="Times New Roman Star"животface="Times New Roman Star"qaryn (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaryn (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qaryn (Sangl., Houts., AH, MA, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|rinface="Times New Roman Star"qerinface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"Garynface="Times New Roman Star"Garynface="Times New Roman Star"xarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarnyface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qa:rynface="Times New Roman Star"xyrъmface="Times New Roman Star"xaryn 'rumen; belly'
face="Times New Roman Star"xyrynface="Times New Roman Star"xyrynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"qaryn-tas? 'a relative' (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qarynface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 238, EDT 661, Ё—“я 5, 321-322, Ћексика 277.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:ta-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stick into 2 nailface="Times New Roman Star"1 вонзать(с€) 2 гвоздь

face="Times New Roman Star"kada- 1, kadak 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- (Abush., Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qado|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qatag| 2face="Times New Roman Star"GadaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"Gadaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xudav 2 (Anatri)face="Times New Roman Star"xata:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kata:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadag| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qado: 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2



face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 217-8, Ё—“я 5, 180-182, TMN 3, 420-422, јшм. XIV, 257, Stachowski 141. Because of the lack of ancient attestation one cannot exclude a borrowing < Mong. (although the variant qadag|a is very poorly represented there, and may itself be borrowed < Turk.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)amak / *K(i)apakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 forehead 2 front part 3 eyelid 4 eyebrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 лоб 2 передн€€ часть 3 веко 4 бровь
face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kabak 'bald', dial. kabag 1, 2, 'face', 'skull'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z qabag|y 3, dial. taw qabag|y 'mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1, 2 (Sangl., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|vo|q 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qawaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qavaq 'nose bridge' (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"GabaG 2, (poet.) 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:baG 3face="Times New Roman Star"xamax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 4, dial. 1



face="Times New Roman Star"xavaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 4face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'pitfall'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'place under the forehead; edge of shore'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'precipice'


face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'cleft'
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z qabag|y 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, Ё—“я 5, 161, Ћексика 199-200. An extremely complicated case: forms meaning 'eyelid' are traditionally analysed as derived from *Kap- 'to cover' - but the Turkm., Uzb. and Uygh. forms clearly contradict such a derivation by displaying unmistakable vowel length. A trace of the original meaning 'forehead, eyebrow' (later shifted to 'eyelid') in the Kypchak languages (not distinguishing vowel length) may be found in expressions meaning 'to frown (one's forehead, eyebrows)': Kirgh. qabaq tu"j-, bu"rko"-, Kaz., KKalp. qabaq tu"j-. The form *Ka:pak may have been additionally influenced by PT *Ka:p 'sack; to surround' (v. sub *k[a:]p`a/), *Ka:p(ak) 'caul, hymen' (v. sub *k`a:p`a/). The variation of *-m- and -p- (cf. the archaic Siberian reflexes with -m-) is parallelled by a similar variation in TM and Japanese and may reflect an original cluster, but may have been an innovation due to the contaminations with *Kap- and *Ka:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kab-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to unite, bring together 2 be brought togetherface="Times New Roman Star"1 объедин€ть, собирать 2 собиратьс€face="Times New Roman Star"qavyr- 1 (OUygh.), qavys?- 2 (Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qavur- 1 (MK, KB), qavys?- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kavus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qawys?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qavus?- 2 (Qutb, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|wus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qavus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qawys- 2face="Times New Roman Star"Govus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"Govur- 1, Govus?- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qabyr- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"> Danube Bulg. koubraton 'collector, unifier (of lands)'

face="Times New Roman Star"xavyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"xabyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qo:s?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qawys- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qawys?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qawys?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qavus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qawys- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 216, EDT 585, 588, Ё—“я 6, 14-16. OT also has quvra- 'come together, assemble', with a rather strange vocalism (see EDT 586 - but modern forms like qura- are not related, being borrowed from Mong. qura-, qurija-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/, *Kar/-dyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark 2 scales 3 dandruff 4 to peel bark 5 to husk nutsface="Times New Roman Star"1 кора 2 чешу€ 3 перхоть 4 сдирать кору 5 лущить орехиface="Times New Roman Star"qadyz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaz, qad|yz 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qajry 1, dial. qajyz 1; qajyzla- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qazg|o|q 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qazdyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xastyryx 1


face="Times New Roman Star"xujъr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qatyryk 1; xasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"kasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"qazyryq 2, qazy- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qa's- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajry, dial. qajyd| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 218, 243, EDT 608, 665, Ё—“я 5, 211-212, 328, ‘едотов 2, 352, Ћексика 107. The original form here is *Kar/; a suffixed form was *Kar/dy(r/), later simplified to *Kadyr/. This can be clearly seen from forms like SUygh. and Khak. Another possible explanation could be an early dissimilation (*Kar/-yr/ > *Kadyr/ = *Kad|yr/, or already after the zetacism, *Kazyz > *Kad|yz). There is some confusion between *Kar/ and *Kas, *Kasuk in Old Turkic, but MK definitely spells the word as qaz.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:jnatface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wing 2 finface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыло 2 плавникface="Times New Roman Star"qanat (OUygh.- YB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Abush., MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qano|t 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qejnat 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ganad, ga"na"d (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2, qanar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/onat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kynat, kyjyat 1face="Times New Roman Star"kynat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Kakuk,——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 518, EDT 635, Ё—“я 5, 252-253, ‘едотов 2, 137, Ћексика 149-150, Stachowski 168. Initial s/- in Chuv. is unclear (effect of *-j-?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"redface="Times New Roman Star"красныйface="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzylface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzylface="Times New Roman Star"xyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"x@rl@face="Times New Roman Star"kyhylface="Times New Roman Star"kyhylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyd|ylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzilface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"PT *Kyr/-yl 'red' is derived from *Ky:r/- 'to redden; glow' (Turkm. Gyz-, Tur. kyz- etc.), where length is witnessed by Yak. ky:s-. One has to assume shortening in polysyllabic derivatives (besides *Kyr/yl also *Kyr/-yk-, *Kyr/l-ar-), with secondary analogical shortening in Turkm. Gyz-; see VEWT 269, EDT 681, 683-4, TMN 3, 469, Ћексика 602-603, Ё—“я 6, 187-189, 194-196, Stachowski 167. Cf. also *Ky:r 'grey' (VEWT 265, TMN 3, 567, Ё—“я 6, 229-230).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hairface="Times New Roman Star"волосface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"x@l@xface="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"kyl 'sealine'face="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl
face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 262, TMN 3, 574-5, EDT 614, Ћексика 196, Ё—“я 6, 204-205, Stachowski 168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyly:c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"swordface="Times New Roman Star"мечface="Times New Roman Star"qylyc? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kylyc?, kylyz?|face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc? (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qilic?face="Times New Roman Star"qilic?face="Times New Roman Star"qylys?face="Times New Roman Star"Gylyz?|face="Times New Roman Star"Gylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"xylysface="Times New Roman Star"qylys?face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"Gyli:c?face="Times New Roman Star"x@s/face="Times New Roman Star"kylys, kyly:s
face="Times New Roman Star"xylys?
face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"qylys?face="Times New Roman Star"qylys?face="Times New Roman Star"qylysface="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"qylys?
face="Times New Roman Star"qylyc?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 618, VEWT 263, Ћексика 570, Ё—“я 6, 212-214. Cf. also *Kyla-gu 'blade' (VEWT 263, Ё—“я 6, 207-208).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:jnface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 punishment, fine, guilt 2 to punish 3 cruelty, tyranny 4 to condemn 5 hard, difficult 6 to torture 7 insult, offence 8 to offend 9 harm, torture 10 sin 11 to annoy, anger 12 to beatface="Times New Roman Star"1 наказание, штраф, вина 2 наказывать 3 жестокость, тирани€ 4 осуждать, порицать 5 трудный, т€желый 6 мучить 7 обида 8 обижать 9 беда, мучение 10 грех 11 сердить, раздражать 12 битьface="Times New Roman Star"qyjnyg| (acc.) (Orkh.), qyjn, qyn (OUygh.) 1, qyna- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyn, qyjyn (KB) 1, qyna- 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjyn, kyjync? 3, kyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 5, qyjyna- 'to make difficult, hard'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn (Abush., Ѕор. Ѕад., MA), qyn (Pav. C.), qyna- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qy:n 5, qy:na- 'to make difficult, torture'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjyx 7, xyjal 9face="Times New Roman Star"qyjal 9, 10, qyjyq-ta- 8, qyjnag| 9 (*qyn/-lag|)face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qyjna- 6, qyjal 10, dial. (Ѕаск. “уба) qyj- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"x@n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:nn/a:-, kyjaxa:- 11, kyj- 'to pain, ache'face="Times New Roman Star"kyjn|a- 11, kyj- 'to kill'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjyt- 'to make difficult, troublesome', qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6, qynz?-yl- 'to be distressed'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qejin 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 264. EDT 631, Ё—“я 6, 218-219, Stachowski 168. Turk. *Ky:jna- > MMong. qina- 'to torture' (ўербак 1997, 165). Nasalless forms (like Yak. kyjaxa:- etc.) may result from a reanalysis of the form *Ky:jn as *Kyjyn, interpreted as a deverbative noun. Turk. > Hung. ki/n 'torture, suffering' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sheath, scabbardface="Times New Roman Star"ножны, чехол
face="Times New Roman Star"qyn (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qyn (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qin, (Khorazm dial.) qyjnface="Times New Roman Star"qinface="Times New Roman Star"qyn (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"Gynface="Times New Roman Star"Gy:nface="Times New Roman Star"xynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qyn
face="Times New Roman Star"j@n@, dial. @n@face="Times New Roman Star"ky:n
face="Times New Roman Star"xyn
face="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qyn
face="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 264, EDT 630-631, ≈горов 79, Ћексика 571, Ё—“я 6, 217-218.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to break, demolish 2 small 3 to scrape, shaveface="Times New Roman Star"1 ломать, разрушать 2 маленький 3 скрести, брить
face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3 'to scrape; to tear out'face="Times New Roman Star"kyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3 (Pav. C.), 1, 'to cut off' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qir- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qi(r)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"xyr- 3, 'to cut'face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265; EDT 643; TMN 3, 567, Ћексика 382, Ё—“я 6, 227-229, Stachowski 168, 170. The Yak. form kyra 'small' is a rather transparent semantical derivative, although it is not usually listed among the reflexes of PT *Kyr-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyrk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to shear, scrapeface="Times New Roman Star"стричь, скрестиface="Times New Roman Star"qyrq- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kyrk-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq- (AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qirq-face="Times New Roman Star"qi(r)q-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"Gyrx-face="Times New Roman Star"Gyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"xyryx-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-, qyrqy-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-
face="Times New Roman Star"kyrt-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyrg|y-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyrq-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 651, VEWT 266, Ё—“я 6, 236-237.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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