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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*ur/y-n, *ur/a-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 long 2 lie; grow 3 far 4 long (time), lateface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 ; 3 4 , face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1 (MK, KB), uzaq (MK) 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzak 3face="Times New Roman Star"ozyn 1, ozaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzo|q 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, ozaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzan- 2, uzaG 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzy:n 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"uza:n- 2, uza:q 3, uzu:.n 1face="Times New Roman Star"vw|rw|m 1, vw|rax 3face="Times New Roman Star"uhun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uhun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1 uza- ''face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"u_zu_n 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"od|on 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzyn 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzyn 1, uzyx| 3
face="Times New Roman Star"PT *ur/y-n 'long', *ur/a-k 'far, long' are derived from *ur/a- 'to be long, prolonged'. See VEWT 518, EDT 281, 283, 288-9, 1, 570-572, Stachowski 241.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to die 2 (*o"l-tu"r-) to killface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 (*o"l-tu"r-) face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1 (Yen., OUygh.), o"lu"r- 2 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1 (MK, KB), o"ldu"r- 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ldu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"l- 1, u"ter- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1 (Sangl.), o"lu"r- 2 (Abush.), o"ltu"r- 2 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"u.l-, u.ldir- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ju"l- 1, ju"lyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ldu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ldu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"der- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"du"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"hil-/he.l-, o"l- 'to die (of animals)' ( < Az.)face="Times New Roman Star"vil- 1, v@w|ler- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"lo"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"lo"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"lu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"lu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"lti_r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltir- 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"l- 1, u"lter- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jo"l- 1, o"ldu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ol/- 1, ol/der- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltir- 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"l- 1, u"ldyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l- 1, o"ltu"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 371; 1, 525-527, TMN 2, 112, 162-3; EDT 125-126, 133-134, 151, Stachowski 199.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to walk, go (away) 2 to come, reachface="Times New Roman Star"1 , 2 , face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"var- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo|r- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ba(r)- 1face="Times New Roman Star"par- 1face="Times New Roman Star"var- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"par- 1face="Times New Roman Star"par- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"var- 1face="Times New Roman Star"pyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"var- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"var-, ba:r-, pa:r- 1 ()face="Times New Roman Star"bar- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 62, 2, 64-65, EDT 354, Stachowski 52. Chuv. -y- is unclear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo:l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to becomeface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"bol- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bol- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ol-face="Times New Roman Star"bul-face="Times New Roman Star"bol- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu.l-face="Times New Roman Star"bo(l)-face="Times New Roman Star"pol-face="Times New Roman Star"ol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"pol-face="Times New Roman Star"pol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"o^.l-face="Times New Roman Star"pol-face="Times New Roman Star"buol-face="Times New Roman Star"buol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-
face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"bul-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"ol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"vol-, vo:-, bo:- (. )face="Times New Roman Star"bol-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 331-332, VEWT 79, TMN 2, 358, 2, 185-188, 1, 442, Stachowski 66. Forms with o- may represent a different root (see *ol-tur-). On the other hand, the geographical distribution of this variant matches quite closely the change *b- > v- in a number of words with grammatical function (for Haladzh cf. vi:er- 'give', va:or 'there is'), so most of the forms with o- may indeed reflect *bol- > *vol- > ol-; the different root *ol- is with more certainty reflected only in Middle Uyghur (At., Tefs., IM - cf. bar, bir- in the same sources) and Middle Kypchak (Bulgat, Ettuhf., see 2, 186).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:n/(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"moon, monthface="Times New Roman Star", face="Times New Roman Star"aj (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"aj; an/ (CCum.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"a:jface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ha:jface="Times New Roman Star"ojxface="Times New Roman Star"yjface="Times New Roman Star"yj 'month'face="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, TMN 2, 169, EDT 265, 1, 98-99 (see there on the reasons of reconstructing *-n/), . 178, 2, 271, 55, 76-77, Stachowski 258.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ana / *en/eface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"motherface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"ana ? ene (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ana ? ene (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"ana (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"eneface="Times New Roman Star"ina"
face="Times New Roman Star"ene
face="Times New Roman Star"an/neface="Times New Roman Star"ijeface="Times New Roman Star"in/eface="Times New Roman Star"ije
face="Times New Roman Star"eneface="Times New Roman Star"ene, ana
face="Times New Roman Star"ina"face="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"ene, anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"anaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 169-170, VEWT 19, 44, TMN 2, 130, 1, 278-281, 28, 298-299, 300-301, Stachowski 127.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"horseface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"at (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"at (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"o|tface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"a'tface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"hatface="Times New Roman Star"utface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"a't
face="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"at, acface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 23, VEWT 30, 1, 197-198, TMN 2, 4-5, 441, . III, 316-320, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whiteface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"aq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"akface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aq ? ag|face="Times New Roman Star"o|qface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"ag|face="Times New Roman Star"a:qface="Times New Roman Star"axface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aq



face="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"ax|face="Times New Roman Star"aqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 12, TMN 2, 84-5, 1, 116-117, EDT 75, 598-599.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bile (bula)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"with, together, alsoface="Times New Roman Star" , , face="Times New Roman Star"bile, bilen (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bile (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bile 'even'face="Times New Roman Star"bele|nface="Times New Roman Star"bile (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bilanface="Times New Roman Star"bila"nface="Times New Roman Star"bile(n)face="Times New Roman Star"bila" (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bile, bilenface="Times New Roman Star"mynan|face="Times New Roman Star"mine 'here, now'face="Times New Roman Star"byla (dial., . )face="Times New Roman Star"bila"face="Times New Roman Star"-bala(n)face="Times New Roman Star"-ynan (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"bile
face="Times New Roman Star"minenface="Times New Roman Star"-benface="Times New Roman Star"-benface="Times New Roman Star"-benenface="Times New Roman Star"blaface="Times New Roman Star"-jlanface="Times New Roman Star"bylaface="Times New Roman Star"benenface="Times New Roman Star"bileface="Times New Roman Star"bulanface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 364-365, 2, 140-142. Phonetic variants are explained by the transformation of the root into a postposition and, further, into a case ending. The form bile is attested quite early and therefore can be hardly treated as an assimilation < bir-le (derived from bir '1', cf. bir-ge, bir-c?e with a similar meaning).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu(-n)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thisface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"bu, bun- (Orkh.), bu, mun- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu, mun- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bu, mun- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"puface="Times New Roman Star"puface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bo
face="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bu (mun-)face="Times New Roman Star"boface="Times New Roman Star"boface="Times New Roman Star"bu(l)face="Times New Roman Star"bu-lface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"by-lface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bu, muface="Times New Roman Star"bu-lface="Times New Roman Star"bu, vuface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 85, EDT 291-292, 2, 225-228, Stachowski 63.
face="Times New Roman Star"*el, -igface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"handface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"elig (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"elig (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"el
face="Times New Roman Star"el, elig (Abush., MA, . ., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ilik (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"ilik (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ylyg|face="Times New Roman Star"a"lface="Times New Roman Star"el
face="Times New Roman Star"ilik (.), ilgilik 'mitten'
face="Times New Roman Star"a"`lface="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"ili:, eli:face="Times New Roman Star"ili:
face="Times New Roman Star"eldik 'mitten'




face="Times New Roman Star"jel/

face="Times New Roman Star"el
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 39, EDT 140-1, 1, 260-261, 251, 24, Stachowski 125-126.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"manface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"er (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"er (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"irface="Times New Roman Star"er (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"a"rface="Times New Roman Star"jerface="Times New Roman Star"a"r 'husband'face="Times New Roman Star"a":rface="Times New Roman Star"irface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"ha"rface="Times New Roman Star"arface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"er



face="Times New Roman Star"irface="Times New Roman Star"er
face="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"er adamface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"erface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 46, TMN 2, 178-9, EDT 192, 1, 290-291, 303, 561, 30, Stachowski 46, 128.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bloodface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"qan (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qan (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ganface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qa:nface="Times New Roman Star"jonface="Times New Roman Star"xa:nface="Times New Roman Star"ka:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ga(:)nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 360-361, EDT 629-630, 5, 251, 349, 2, 486, Stachowski 142. Turk. > WMong. qana- 'to let bleed' (KW 166, TMN 3, 361, 1997, 133).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"blackface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"qara (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qara (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qara (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH, . .)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|face="Times New Roman Star"qara, dial. qareface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"xoraface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, TMN 3, 426-432, EDT 643-4, 5, 286-289, 299-100, 592-593, Stachowski 138, 2, 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge.l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to comeface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"kel- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kel- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"gel-face="Times New Roman Star"kil-face="Times New Roman Star"ke.l- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"ka"l-/kil-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"ga"l-face="Times New Roman Star"gel-face="Times New Roman Star"kil-face="Times New Roman Star"kel- (R)face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"ka"l-face="Times New Roman Star"kil-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kil-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"gel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"kel-face="Times New Roman Star"gel-, gej-face="Times New Roman Star"gel-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 248; EDT 715, 3, 14-16, 31-32, Stachowski 143. The Chuv. and Yak. vowels correspond irregularly.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge:(j)t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go (away)face="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"ket- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ket/d|- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"git-face="Times New Roman Star"kit-face="Times New Roman Star"ke.t- (Abush., Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ka"t-
face="Times New Roman Star"get-face="Times New Roman Star"git-

face="Times New Roman Star"ket- (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"kajt-



face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"kit-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"get-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"Gi:/i- (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"get-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 258, EDT 701, 3, 39-40, 49-50. Vowel length can be reconstructed on indirect evidence (voicing -t- > -d- in forms like Az. gedis? 'going away' etc.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"redface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"qizilface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzylface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzylface="Times New Roman Star"xyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"x@rl@face="Times New Roman Star"kyhylface="Times New Roman Star"kyhylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyd|ylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"Gyzilface="Times New Roman Star"qyzylface="Times New Roman Star"PT *Kyr/-yl 'red' is derived from *Ky:r/- 'to redden; glow' (Turkm. Gyz-, Tur. kyz- etc.), where length is witnessed by Yak. ky:s-. One has to assume shortening in polysyllabic derivatives (besides *Kyr/yl also *Kyr/-yk-, *Kyr/l-ar-), with secondary analogical shortening in Turkm. Gyz-; see VEWT 269, EDT 681, 683-4, TMN 3, 469, 602-603, 6, 187-189, 194-196, Stachowski 167. Cf. also *Ky:r 'grey' (VEWT 265, TMN 3, 567, 6, 229-230).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kul-kakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"earface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"qulqaq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qulaq, qulqaq, qulxaq (MK), qulaq, qulg|aq (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kulakface="Times New Roman Star"qolaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaq (MA), qulag| (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"qulo|qface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"GulaGface="Times New Roman Star"Gulaqface="Times New Roman Star"xulaxface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"xw|lg|aface="Times New Roman Star"kulga:kface="Times New Roman Star"kulga:kface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qolaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"qulaxface="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"Gulax|face="Times New Roman Star"qulaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 298, EDT 620, 204-205, 6, 124-127, Stachowski 160.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kumface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sandface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"qum (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qum (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kumface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qum (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qum, qomface="Times New Roman Star"Gumface="Times New Roman Star"Gumface="Times New Roman Star"xumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qum
face="Times New Roman Star"xw|mface="Times New Roman Star"kumaxface="Times New Roman Star"kumakface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"xumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qu_mface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"Gum
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 299, EDT 625, 102, 6, 133-134, Stachowski 160. Turk. > WMong. qum, Kalm. xum 'sand' (KW 196; TMN 3, 508), Hung. homok (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ku:ry-k,-gakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dry 2 dry (crumbs, bread)face="Times New Roman Star"1 2 face="Times New Roman Star"qury- 'to dry' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qurug|, qur 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kuru 1face="Times New Roman Star"qory 1face="Times New Roman Star"qury- 'to dry' (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"quruq 1face="Times New Roman Star"quruq, qurg|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qurug|, quruq 2face="Times New Roman Star"Guru 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gu:ry 1face="Times New Roman Star"xurug| 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru- 'to dry' (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"quru- 'to dry'face="Times New Roman Star"qurru- 'to dry'face="Times New Roman Star"xw|rw|k 2face="Times New Roman Star"kura:naq 1face="Times New Roman Star"kura:nak 1face="Times New Roman Star"qurg|ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qurg|ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qurg|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qu_rg|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qury, qurlaj 1face="Times New Roman Star"qoro 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru 1face="Times New Roman Star"qurg|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"Guru, Gury 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru- 'to dry'face="Times New Roman Star"Derived from PT *Ku:r(y)- 'to dry up'. See VEWT 302, 303; EDT 652-3, 646, 658, 6, 154-155, Stachowski 162, 163. Turk. qu:rut 'dry cheese' > Mong. qurud > Manchu kuru etc., see Doerfer MT 131; Turk. > Hung. ko/ro/ 'dry stalk', see Gombocz 1912.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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