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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*kEmu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bone 2 spongy bone 3 cartilageface="Times New Roman Star"1 кость 2 губчата€ кость 3 хр€щ

face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kimek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemu"k (MA) 3, ko"mu"k (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko|mik, ge|mik (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ke:mik 3





face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kimek 2face="Times New Roman Star"gemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kemyk 1face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"gemik 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251, EDT 722, Ё—“я 5, 36-38, Ћексика 261-262. Turk. > Mong. kemik 'cartilage' (see ўербак 1997, 126; but the derivation of the Turk. form from *gemu"r- 'to gnaw' (v. sub *ke>\ma) is a folk etymology, although some contaminations were possible: Yak. ko"mu"ru"o" 'spongy bone' semantically continues *kemu"k, but formally is derived from *gemu"r-. MK has kemdi- 'to cut meat from the bones' and kemdu"k 'bone with meat cut off' - forms that may be related both to *kemu"k and *gemu"r-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyd-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 edge, border, seashore, frontier 2 margin, edgingface="Times New Roman Star"1 край, граница, берег 2 опушка, каймаface="Times New Roman Star"qydyg| (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd|yg| (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyjy, kyj 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyg| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyg| 2face="Times New Roman Star"quju 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r@ 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyty: 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qydyg| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyju: 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyw 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyjuw 2



face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyw 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyw 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 598, VEWT 261, Ћексика 94, Ё—“я 6, 196-197, 203. The root is also attested in verbal function (*Kydy- 'to border, hem'), see Ё—“я 6, 196.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bodo-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to paint, dye 2 dyeface="Times New Roman Star"1 красить 2 краскаface="Times New Roman Star"bodug| 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bod|o- (MK) 1, bod|og| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, boja 2face="Times New Roman Star"buja- 1, bujaw 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- (Abush., Sangl.) 1, bojag|/q 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu.ja- 1, bu.jo|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"boju-/a- 1, bojaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, boja, bojaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, boja, bojaG 2

face="Times New Roman Star"pojo- 1 (√јя), poju- (dial. - Ѕаск.  ум.)face="Times New Roman Star"boda- 1, bodag| 2face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|ve- 1face="Times New Roman Star"butuj- 1, butuk 2
face="Times New Roman Star"budu- 1, buduq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bojo- 1, bojoq 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, bojau 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, bojaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buja- 1, hary bujaq 'серпуха' (a dying plant)face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, bojaw 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, boja 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, boja 2face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, bojaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"bojax| 2 (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"boja- 1, bojaw 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 300, VEWT 77, Ё—“я 2, 178-179, ≈горов 155. Despite EDT, Tel. bodu- is a Mongolian loanword. Chuv. -v- instead of *-r- is not quite clear here (perhaps it is a trace of the archaic *-gd-cluster?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Tygra- / *Tygyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 firm, tough 2 narrow, compact, firmface="Times New Roman Star"1 крепкий, плотный 2 узкий, тесный, плотныйface="Times New Roman Star"tyg|ra-q 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyg|raq 1 (MK)






face="Times New Roman Star"dyqyz 1 (a contamination with dyq- `to stuff')

face="Times New Roman Star"tu:s 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|vъw|r 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyjys 2


face="Times New Roman Star"tyg|yz 2

face="Times New Roman Star"tyg|yz 1, 2





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 477, EDT 471.
face="Times New Roman Star"*u:c?aface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rump 2 back 3 loins, buttocksface="Times New Roman Star"1 крестец 2 спина 3 задница, €годицыface="Times New Roman Star"uc?a (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"uc?a (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"uz?|a 'hip'face="Times New Roman Star"u>c?a 1face="Times New Roman Star"uz?|a (AH), uc?a (AH, Pav. C.) 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"uc?a 2face="Times New Roman Star"uz?|a, uc?a 1
face="Times New Roman Star"u:z?|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"uc?a 2face="Times New Roman Star"uc?a 1face="Times New Roman Star"uc?a 2
face="Times New Roman Star"v@w|z?|@w| 1face="Times New Roman Star"uz?|un|ax 3
face="Times New Roman Star"uz?a 1
face="Times New Roman Star"uc?a 1
face="Times New Roman Star"us?a 1face="Times New Roman Star"u>sa 1





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 20, Ё—“я 1, 566-567. The Yak. form has an irregular -z?|-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kek- / *Kak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 curved 2 stick with a hook 3 latch 4 to bend 5 to bend one's neckface="Times New Roman Star"1 кривой 2 палка с крюком 3 щеколда 4 гнутьс€ 5 выгибать шею

face="Times New Roman Star"keke, dial. gege 2face="Times New Roman Star"ke|kre, ke|jre 1, 2, ke|kre|j- 4, (Sib.) ke|ge| 3
face="Times New Roman Star"kekkaj-, qaqqaj- 5





face="Times New Roman Star"kekej- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"kagъr 2, 3, kagъr-t- 5face="Times New Roman Star"keg|ij-, kekej- 5


face="Times New Roman Star"qaqaj-, kekej- 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"qaqaj-, kekirej- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"ka"kere 1, ka"kera"j- 4, ka"ka"-n|-la"- 'извиватьс€ о змее', qaqaj- 5


face="Times New Roman Star"qaqaj-, kejkej- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 248.
face="Times New Roman Star"*oryface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shout, outcry 2 to make a noise, shout 3 to shout togetherface="Times New Roman Star"1 крик, выкрик 2 шуметь, кричать 3 кричать вместеface="Times New Roman Star"orla- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ory 1, orlas?- 3 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"ory (IM)




face="Times New Roman Star"orlas- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"orla- 'to moo', orlas- 3















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 197, 230.
face="Times New Roman Star"*d(i)akyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 additionally, and others, plus 2 again, once moreface="Times New Roman Star"1 кроме того, к тому же, и другие, больше, вдобавок 2 оп€ть, еще разface="Times New Roman Star"taqy 1, 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"taqy 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"daha 1, bir daha 2 (taky as a clitic)face="Times New Roman Star"tag|yn 2, 'in order to'face="Times New Roman Star"daxy, taqy 1 (Abush., Sangl.), dag|y (MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"tag|in 2face="Times New Roman Star"texi 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta'qi, dag|i 2face="Times New Roman Star"da"xi 'too'face="Times New Roman Star"daGy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ta:, da: 1
face="Times New Roman Star"daa 'although' (√јя)face="Times New Roman Star"taqy 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"dag|any 1
face="Times New Roman Star"da: 1, da:n 'wholly, always', ta:n 'very, excessively'
face="Times New Roman Star"daa, dag|y, tag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tag|y 2face="Times New Roman Star"tag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tag|y 2face="Times New Roman Star"dag|y-da 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta: 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"daa (K) 1, 2, dag|y (H, T) 1, 2, dag|yn (H,K) 2, daxy (K) 1, daxa (K) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"dag|y 'although', tag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta:g|y, taxi 1, 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"dag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 457, EDT 466, Ё—“я 3, 122-123. Phonology is somewhat uncertain because the stem is functioning as a clitic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jum-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 round 2 ball of wool, threadface="Times New Roman Star"1 круглый 2 клубок
face="Times New Roman Star"jumg|aq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jumak 2, jumru 1face="Times New Roman Star"jomry 1, jomg|aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"jumru 1 (Pav. C.), jumqaq 2 (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"jumalo|q 1face="Times New Roman Star"jumlaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jumru 1, jumaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"jumaq 2, jumry 1face="Times New Roman Star"nyn|max 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jumg|aq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|mg|a 2



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|umuru 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?umaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jomoro 1, jomg|aq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jumaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"jumg|aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?umry 1, z?umaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"jumax 2face="Times New Roman Star"jummaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"One of expressive common Turkic roots meaning 'round, spherical'. See VEWT 210, EDT 871, 873, 877, 936, 937-8, Ё—“я 4, 246-247, 249-250. The root has also a variant (expressive?) *jub-, see Ё—“я 4, 237-238, Stachowski 114.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tom-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 round, convex 2 ball, smth. round 3 somersault 4 thick, bulging 5 to swellface="Times New Roman Star"1 круглый, выпуклый 2 шарик, кольцо 3 кувырком 4 толстый, пухлый 5 пухнуть, вздуватьс€

face="Times New Roman Star"tomak 2

face="Times New Roman Star"to.mto|q 'stump, blunt'

face="Times New Roman Star"tombul 4, dombalaG 3face="Times New Roman Star"tommaq 'knob, round end of stick', dommar- / tommar- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tomyr, tombyr 'blunt'


face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|mat 'stubby'face="Times New Roman Star"tomtorg|o 'ring-formed ornament'


face="Times New Roman Star"tompoq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tompaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tompaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tomraj- (dial.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"tomalaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tombarlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tomalaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"dumalaq 1, tompaq 4, tompaj- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tombyx 'blunt' (“ен.——я)face="Times New Roman Star"tompaj- 5, tomaq 'blunt'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 487, Ё—“я 3, 261-262. Variants with *d- in Oghuz are most probably expressive (or reflect a secondary assimilation *dom-ba- < *tom-ba-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*en|ir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to spin 2 to surroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить 2 окружатьface="Times New Roman Star"en|ir- (OUygh.) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"en|ir- (Ѕуд.) 2











face="Times New Roman Star"e:r- 1










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 113, VEWT 37.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, ≈горов 201-201, ‘едотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:jnatface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wing 2 finface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыло 2 плавникface="Times New Roman Star"qanat (OUygh.- YB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Abush., MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qano|t 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qejnat 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ganad, ga"na"d (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2, qanar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/onat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kynat, kyjyat 1face="Times New Roman Star"kynat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Kakuk,——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 518, EDT 635, Ё—“я 5, 252-253, ‘едотов 2, 137, Ћексика 149-150, Stachowski 168. Initial s/- in Chuv. is unclear (effect of *-j-?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ku"l/u"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rat 2 moleface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыса 2 крот


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?o"l (dial.) 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z@l 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z?u"l 2








face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?o"l 1, 2





face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 155. Turk. > Kalm. ku"s?l (KW 248).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ta:mface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 roof 2 wall 3 hutface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыша 2 стена 3 хибараface="Times New Roman Star"tam 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2 (MK), 1 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"dam 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2 ( —““)face="Times New Roman Star"tam 1 (Abush.), 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|m 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"dam 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ta:m 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 'layer (of earth)'

face="Times New Roman Star"da:%m 1 ( < Ogh.)




face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 'dug-out, grave'face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2

face="Times New Roman Star"dam 'shed, barn'
face="Times New Roman Star"tam 'hut'face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 459 (the root has an irregular *t-/*d- variation), Ћексика 529. TMN 2, No 834. Turk. > Bao. dem 'wall'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cover (n.) 2 gate, door 3 to closeface="Times New Roman Star"1 крышка 2 ворота, дверь 3 закрыватьface="Times New Roman Star"qapag|, qapyg| (Orkh., OUygh.) 2, qapg|y (Orkh.) 2, qapaq (OUygh.) 1, qap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qapug| (MK, KB), qapg|aq (MK) 1, qapug| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kapak 1, kapy 2, kapa- 3, kap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qapqaq 1, qapqa 2, qapla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabag| (Qutb.) 1, qapu (Houts., Pav. C.) 2, qabug| (Qutb.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|pe|qo|q 1, qo|pqe| 2, qo|ple|- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qap(q)aq 1, dial. qobug| 2, qapla- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"GapaG 1, Gapy 2, Gapa- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gapaq 1, Gapy 2, dial. Gap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xaxpax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xobъ 1, xop(la)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xappax 1face="Times New Roman Star"kappakta:- 'to cover'face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qapqaq 1, qapqa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1, qapy 2, qaqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 1, qapy 2, qap(l)a- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qapqa 2, qapla- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1, qapy 2, qaqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qa:vu 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qapu 2, qabaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 203, TMN 3, 369, Ё—“я 5, 160, 263-264, 274-275, Ћексика 510, ‘едотов 2, 358-359, Stachowski 138 (there is also a variant *Ka:p- - due to merger with another root *Ka:p-, v. sub *k[a:]p`a/; the meaning 'cover' here is probably secondary). Turk. > Mong. qabqag| 'cover' (whence Evk. kapkak, see Doerfer MT 125), qabqa 'gate', see TMN 3, 371, 415, Hung. kapu 'gate', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*kem, *Ka-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 who 2 whichface="Times New Roman Star"1 кто 2 какойface="Times New Roman Star"kem (OT, OUygh.) 1, qaju (OT, OUygh.), qanu (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kem?kim (MK, KB) qaju (MK, KB) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1face="Times New Roman Star"kem 1, qaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim (Abush., IM) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1, qaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim, kem (dial.) 1, qaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kym 1face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1, qaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kem 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kem 1, qaj 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kam 1face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1, xaja 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1, kaja 2face="Times New Roman Star"qym 1, qajy 2face="Times New Roman Star"qum 1, qai 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1, qaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1, qaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1face="Times New Roman Star"kem 1, qaj (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1face="Times New Roman Star"kym 1face="Times New Roman Star"kim 1face="Times New Roman Star"ka"m 1
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 271, EDT 720-721, Ё—“я 5, 67-68, 191-192, Stachowski 134, 147.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kop-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fist 2 wristface="Times New Roman Star"1 кулак 2 зап€стье











face="Times New Roman Star"qoboq 2



face="Times New Roman Star"qowades 1, Krg. qofades? ( < *Kop-adyl/)
face="Times New Roman Star"qobuq 'arthritis of metacarpus'








face="Times New Roman Star"ƒыбо 194 (though hardly a loanword).
face="Times New Roman Star"*TEk- ?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 yurt poles 2 small yurtface="Times New Roman Star"1 купольные шесты юрты и скрепл€ющий их обод 2 небольша€ юрта









face="Times New Roman Star"tek 'pole, post (for tying horses)' (Abakan, ¬ерб.)







face="Times New Roman Star"aq tiger 1, tegirtmek 2face="Times New Roman Star"aq tyg|yr 1







face="Times New Roman Star"Ћексика 502.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ularface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 partridge 2 snow pheasant 3 wild turkeyface="Times New Roman Star"1 куропатка 2 глухарь 3 горна€ индейкаface="Times New Roman Star"ular 1 (OUygh.- med.)face="Times New Roman Star"ular 'male partridge' (MK)


face="Times New Roman Star"ular (< Russ.?) 3face="Times New Roman Star"ular 3



face="Times New Roman Star"ulary 1 (Chul.)face="Times New Roman Star"ular 'vulture'

face="Times New Roman Star"ular 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ular 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ular 3face="Times New Roman Star"ular 3







face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 150, VEWT 512 (Mong. ularu < Turk.), Ћексика 173. Turk. > Russ. улар.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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