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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*jan-, *jan-tyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (itr.), blaze up 2 to burn (tr.) 3 to kindle 4 to shineface="Times New Roman Star"1 гореть, загоратьс€ 2 жечь 3 зажигать 4 светить
face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jandyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jandyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/on- 1, s/ondar- 2face="Times New Roman Star"san-da:r- 4


face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?an- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jandyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?an- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?an- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 184, EDT 942, 947-948, Ё—“я 4, 112, ‘едотов 2, 136, Ћексика 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAn-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to turn back 2 againface="Times New Roman Star"1 поворачивать назад 2 сноваface="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.), jana 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (MK), jana 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jine, jene 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, je|ne| 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jana 2 (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|n- 1, jana 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jana 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jena" 2face="Times New Roman Star"jene 2face="Times New Roman Star"nan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"nan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan-, d/an- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?an- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an- 1, z?|ana 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?a"ne 2face="Times New Roman Star"jana 2face="Times New Roman Star"ja"na" 2

face="Times New Roman Star"jana, jany, jane 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?a"ne 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 941-942, 943, Ё—“я 4, 111-112, 114-115.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.jn|akface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cheek 2 jawface="Times New Roman Star"1 щека 2 челюсть
face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"janak 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq (Abush., Sangl.) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jo|no|q 2, (Kypch. dial.) z?|ag| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq, jyn|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"janaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"na:x 1face="Times New Roman Star"na:q 1face="Times New Roman Star"d/a:k 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"syn|a:x 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"hyn|a:k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:k 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|a:q 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jan|aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yjaq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"janaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"janax, jajax, jag|aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|ax (——я) 2face="Times New Roman Star"jajaq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 948, VEWT 187, Ё—“я 4, 123, Ћексика 219-220, Stachowski 119.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jA:mc?yk > *ja:nc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"pocket, sash, bagface="Times New Roman Star"карман, мешочек, сумка
face="Times New Roman Star"janc?uq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"janz?|ykface="Times New Roman Star"janc?yqface="Times New Roman Star"janc?uq (Houts., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|nc?iqface="Times New Roman Star"janc?uq

face="Times New Roman Star"ja:nz?|yqface="Times New Roman Star"nanc?yg|, nandyx
face="Times New Roman Star"janc?yq, d/anc?yq



face="Times New Roman Star"c?anc?yq



face="Times New Roman Star"jansyq

face="Times New Roman Star"janc?yq, janc?yx
face="Times New Roman Star"jenz?|uxface="Times New Roman Star"janc?iqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 185, EDT 945, Ё—“я 4, 118 (related to *ja:n 'side' by folk-etymology). The old form is preserved in Osm. jamc?y 'raincoat' etc. (VEWT 184, Ё—“я 4, 110; Turk. > Mong. z?|amc?i, z?|an|c?i).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.nc?- / *jenc?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to crushface="Times New Roman Star"ломатьface="Times New Roman Star"janc?- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"janc?-, jenc?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jenc?-face="Times New Roman Star"je|nc?e-face="Times New Roman Star"jenc?- (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"ja"nc?-face="Times New Roman Star"ja"nc?-

face="Times New Roman Star"jenc?-
face="Times New Roman Star"nas?-


face="Times New Roman Star"sys- / syn/-


face="Times New Roman Star"z?|anc?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ans?y-face="Times New Roman Star"jans?y-


face="Times New Roman Star"janc?-, jenc?-, janc-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ens?-
face="Times New Roman Star"janc?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 944, Ё—“я 4, 184-185. Turk. > WMong. z?|anc?i-, janc?i-, KW 466, ўербак 1997, 122. See also notes to *ja:n(u)- 'threaten'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAn|ylface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mistake, fault 2 to err, make a mistakeface="Times New Roman Star"1 ошибка, вина 2 ошибатьс€face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl- 2, jan|luq 1(Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl- 2, jan|luq 1(MK)face="Times New Roman Star"janlys? 1, janyl- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jalg|ys?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|yl- (Ѕор. Ѕад., Ettuhf., Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|lis?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jen|il-, jan|lis?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"janlys? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaln|ys? 1, jaln|ys?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"na:l- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl-, d/an|yl- 2





face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an|yl- 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?an|yl- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jan|ylys?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jannys? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl-, jan|g|yl- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl-, jan|lys?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 186, EDT 950, 951, Ё—“я 4, 120-121. Suffixless *jan| is poorly attested and probably does not exist.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAp-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a mass of hair or woolface="Times New Roman Star"масса, клубок волос или шерсти
face="Times New Roman Star"jap, japg|ut, japaqu (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"japayface="Times New Roman Star"jabag|aface="Times New Roman Star"japaq (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|abiqa

face="Times New Roman Star"japaq, japag|y (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"japaGy








face="Times New Roman Star"z?|abag|aface="Times New Roman Star"z?abag|yface="Times New Roman Star"jabag|yface="Times New Roman Star"jabag|yface="Times New Roman Star"z?|abag|y, zabag|yface="Times New Roman Star"japa:face="Times New Roman Star"japag|aface="Times New Roman Star"z?abag|y
face="Times New Roman Star"jabag|yface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 870, 874-875, Ё—“я 4, 125-126. Turk. > Hung. gyapju/ (< *z?|apag|u), see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to smooth, level 2 flatface="Times New Roman Star"1 выравнивать, сглаживать 2 плоский
face="Times New Roman Star"japur- (MK) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"japalaq 2 (R.)
face="Times New Roman Star"japilaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"japyG 2







face="Times New Roman Star"c?y`pyt 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|apalaq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"japalaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"japalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 4, 16-17, 130, EDT 879.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.p-yl/c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to glue, stick toface="Times New Roman Star"приклеиватьс€, прилипатьface="Times New Roman Star"japys?- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"japus?-, japys?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-face="Times New Roman Star"jabys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?- (AH, Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|pis?-face="Times New Roman Star"jepis?-, jopus?-
face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-


face="Times New Roman Star"japus?-face="Times New Roman Star"s/ybъs/-face="Times New Roman Star"sysyn- s?yba: - 'to plaster, smear'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y'ps?yn-
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|abys?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?abys-face="Times New Roman Star"jabys-face="Times New Roman Star"ja"bes?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?abys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-, japus?-, jabus?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?abys-
face="Times New Roman Star"jabus?-, jabys?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 187, Ё—“я 4, 132-133, EDT 880-881. The deriving stem *ja.p- is probably preserved in Karakh. (MK) jap- 'stick to', Az. jap- 'to model dung for drying' and *jap-ma 'modelled dung' (see Ё—“я 4, 130, 133); thus the analysis of *ja.p-yl/c?- as reciprocal from *jap- 'make, create' or 'cover' (EDT ibid.) is certainly incorrect.
face="Times New Roman Star"*japur-gakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"leafface="Times New Roman Star"листface="Times New Roman Star"japyrg|aq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"japurg|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"japrakface="Times New Roman Star"jafraqface="Times New Roman Star"japyrg|an (Abush.), j[a]praq (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"japro|qface="Times New Roman Star"jopurmaq
face="Times New Roman Star"jarpaGface="Times New Roman Star"japraq

face="Times New Roman Star"d/albyraq

face="Times New Roman Star"sebirdexface="Times New Roman Star"hebirdekface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"ree 'bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"'pra"a" 'bark'face="Times New Roman Star"z?|albyraqface="Times New Roman Star"z?apyraqface="Times New Roman Star"japyraqface="Times New Roman Star"japraqface="Times New Roman Star"c?apraqface="Times New Roman Star"japraqface="Times New Roman Star"japraxface="Times New Roman Star"z?apyraqface="Times New Roman Star"ja"rfyx|face="Times New Roman Star"japraqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 188, EDT 879-80, Ё—“я 4, 130-132, Ћексика 111-112, Stachowski 100. Clauson derives *japur-gak from *japur- 'to smoothe, level', which is an obvious contamination - just as the contamination with *jalpy- 'flat' (v. sub *de>\lp`a\) in some languages.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (tr.) 2 light, ray 3 to produce fireface="Times New Roman Star"1 жечь 2 свет, луч 3 высекать огонь
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jaqty 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|q- 1, jo|g|du 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jag|ty 2


face="Times New Roman Star"ja:q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/ot- 1, s/o-dъ 2face="Times New Roman Star"saq- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jaqty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq- 1, z?aqty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 180, TMN 4, 201-202, EDT 897, Ё—“я 4, 62, 81-82, ‘едотов 2, 146, Ћексика 362. This stem should be distinguished from *jan- 'to burn (intr.)'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to come near 2 near 3 to come near to each other, pass 3 goodface="Times New Roman Star"1 приближатьс€ 2 близкий 3 приближатьс€, подходить 4 хорошийface="Times New Roman Star"jaq- (OUygh.) 1, jaqyn (OUygh.) 2, jaqys?- (OUygh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- (MK, KB) 1, jaqyn (MK) 2, jaqys?- (MK) 3, jax|s?y (MK) 4face="Times New Roman Star"jakyn 2, jakys?- 3, jaks?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaxs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn (MA) 2, jax|s?y 4 (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"jaqin 2, jaxs?i 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jeqin 2, jaqs?i 4face="Times New Roman Star"jahGyn 2, jaxs?(i) 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaxyn 2, jaxs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jaqy:n 2, jaGs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yn 2, c?axsy 4





face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|y: 'close to'face="Times New Roman Star"c?y'xa- 'to press to'face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aqyn 2, z?|aqs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"z?aqyn 2, z?aqsy 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaxs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaqs?y 4
face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaqys?- 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaqs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"z?aqyn 2, z?aqsy 4face="Times New Roman Star"jax|yn 2, jax|s?y 4
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 178, 180, EDT 896-9, 901, 904, 908-9, Ё—“я 4, 63-64, 81, 84, TMN 4, 179.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jara-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be beneficial, useful, successfulface="Times New Roman Star"годитьс€, быть годным, полезнымface="Times New Roman Star"jara- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jara- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara- (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-, d/ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"s/oras/- 'to reconcile'



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ara-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"zaras-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 956, VEWT 189, Ё—“я 4, 137-139, TMN 4, 56-57, 144, ‘едотов 2, 141. Turk. caus. *jarat- > Hung. gya/rt- 'to produce' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to shine 2 to dawn 3 light 4 candleface="Times New Roman Star"1 светить 2 рассветать 3 свет 4 свечаface="Times New Roman Star"jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryk 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jary- (AH), jaru- (Abush.) 1, jaruq 3 (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|ri- 1, jo|rug| 3face="Times New Roman Star"joru- 1, joruq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ary- 1, c?aryx 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-, c?ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar-, d/ary- 1, d/aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s/or-da 4face="Times New Roman Star"sara:- 2 (but also syrda:-)face="Times New Roman Star"hyrda:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yry- 1, c?aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar-, z?|ary- 1, z?|aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"jary- 1, jaryq, jaryx 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jarux 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 956, 962, 963, Ё—“я 4, 134-135, VEWT 189 (there are hardly reasons to consider the Chuv. word a borrowing), ‘едотов 2, 145, Stachowski 119. Turk. (Bulg.?) > Hung. gyertya 'candle', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 thin, lean 2 poor 3 flatface="Times New Roman Star"1 тонкий, тощий 2 бедный 3 плоскийface="Times New Roman Star"jarlyg| 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jarlyg| 2 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"jarlyg| 2 (R., Ѕуд.)



face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2 (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"jartyc?aq 3



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aryg|-da- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aro: 1, z?|ardy, z?|arly, z?|aryly 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ara- 1, z?ar(y)ly 2face="Times New Roman Star"jarly- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?arly, zarly 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?arly 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 967, VEWT 189, 190, Ё—“я 4, 143, Ћексика 334-335. The most widely spread form, attested since Old Uyghur, is *jar-ly(g) 'poor'; the evidence of Oyr., Tuva, Kirgh. and Kaz., however, suggests the existence of a primary stem *jar(y)- 'thin, lean'. Turk. > Hung. gyarlo/ 'sinful' (< *jarlyg|), see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAsa-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to determine, govern 2 to createface="Times New Roman Star"1 определ€ть, управл€ть 2 создавать

face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 1 (Ettuhf., Pav. C., Abush.) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aza- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aza- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaza-, d/aza- 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aza- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|asa- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?asa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaha- 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?asa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jasa- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 191, Ё—“я 4, 150-152. The verb has been also read in the Ku"l-Tegin inscription (8th c.), but Clauson (EDT 974) contests the reading. Turk. > Mong. z?|asa- id. (KW 468), whence Evk. z?|asa- etc., see Doerfer MT 61; TMN 4, 92-96, EDT and ўербак 1997, 204, however, regard the Turkic forms as Mongolisms).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.r/tuk / *ja.tr/ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pillow 2 to prop on a pillowface="Times New Roman Star"1 подушка 2 опирать(с€) на подушкуface="Times New Roman Star"jastuq 'pillow-shaped ingot of silver' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jastuq 1, jasta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jastyk 1, jasta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastuq 1 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|stiq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastuq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jassyx (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jassyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?astyx 1, c?asta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?astyq 1, c?asta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq, d/astyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastuq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/ydъr 1face="Times New Roman Star"syttyk 1, sytta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"hyttyk 1face="Times New Roman Star"syrtyq, systyq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|azdyq, z?|astyq 1, z?|azda-, z?|asta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?astyq 1, z?asta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jat|tyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|astyq, zastyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"dastyq 1, z?asta-, dasta- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jastux 1face="Times New Roman Star"jastyq, jastuq 1face="Times New Roman Star"PT *r/ is indicated by the Chuv. form and probably also (with rotacism) Tuva syrtyk. Other forms for the most part reflect an assimilated *jaz-t- > *jast-. See VEWT 191, Ё—“я 4, 154-155, EDT 974, Stachowski 121.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"age; yearface="Times New Roman Star"возраст; годface="Times New Roman Star"jas? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (Ettuhf., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|s?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?asface="Times New Roman Star"c?as?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?, d/as?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"s/olface="Times New Roman Star"sa:s


face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 975-6, Ё—“я 4, 161-163, ‘едотов 2, 130, TMN 4, 97, Ћексика 84.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fresh, rawface="Times New Roman Star"свежий, сыройface="Times New Roman Star"jas? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jas?
face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (AH, Ettuhf.)


face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?as
face="Times New Roman Star"jas?, d/as?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?, z?as?, zas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?


face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 4, 161-163, EDT 975-976, VEWT 192 (one of several *ja:l/ roots). Within Turkic interacts actively (in fact almost completely merges with *ja:l/ 'green' and *ja:l/ 'young' - but all three roots, and, additionally, *ja:l/ 'tear' and *ja:l/ 'age' - seem to have different Altaic origins.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"tearface="Times New Roman Star"слезаface="Times New Roman Star"jas? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"je|s?face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (AH, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|s?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?as
face="Times New Roman Star"d/as?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"kos/-s/ol

face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?

face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 192, EDT 975-976, јшм. VII, 32, Ё—“я 4, 161-163 (because of external evidence should be distinguished both from *ja:l' 'age' and *ja:l' 'fresh, green').
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