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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, Егоров 201-201, Федотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?igit / *c?ygyt ( ? -k-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"cotton seed(s)face="Times New Roman Star"хлопковое семя, семена
face="Times New Roman Star"c?igit (MK - Argu)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yt, c?ig|it 'seed; freckle'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?igit (Sangl., Pav. C); c?yg|yt 'spots on a pregnant woman's face' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?igitface="Times New Roman Star"c?igit
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijidface="Times New Roman Star"c?igit 'seed'








face="Times New Roman Star"c?igitface="Times New Roman Star"s?ijit




face="Times New Roman Star"s?igit

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 414, TMN 2, 88, Лексика 116.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yj, *c?yj-ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wet, soaking, moist 2 dew 3 moisture 4 rawface="Times New Roman Star"1 мокрый 2 роса 3 влага, влажный 4 сырой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/c?y 3 (MK), c?y-la- 'to moisten' (MK), c?yq- 'to absorb moisture' (MK), c?yg|-la-n- 'to be half-cooked' (MK), c?ig 4 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|, c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq 2 (dial.), c?y:g| 1 (Xo|razm)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 'raw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:g 1, c?y:G 2face="Times New Roman Star"syx 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"si:k 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"hi:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, 'meadow', s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij-ki 4, c?yq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 4, s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sej 4, ysyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yj, cij 4, c?yx 2, 'hoar-frost'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-c?u 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 406,408, 413, 418, VEWT 107, Лексика 39, Stachowski 106. The actual reflexes are best explained if we postulate an opposition *c?yj 'wet, raw' - *c?yj-yk 'dew, moisture' (with further contractions). Some forms, however, could be secondarily borrowed from Mong. (see Kal/. MEJ 34).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:gan/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 poor 2 mischief 3 impolite, roughface="Times New Roman Star"1 бедный 2 беда, несчастье 3 грубый, неучтивыйface="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|an/ (Orkh.), c?yg|aj (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (MK), c?yg|an (MK - Argu) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj, c?yg|an (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (R), c?yg|an (R, Pav. C.) 1




face="Times New Roman Star"sa:j 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?a:j 2












face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr 2 (with an unexplained -r)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yn 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 107, EDT 408-409, Лексика 334. Chuv. c?uxan 'poor' may be of different origin (cf. an aberrant reflex of *g), cf. c?ux 'mediocre', c?uxъ 'poor' ( < *jok?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ek- ( ? -i-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"silk bead embroideryface="Times New Roman Star"вышивка бисером по шелку
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin 'embroidered brocade' (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?igen 'golden embroidery' (R - Kas.); c?ig- 'to embroider'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin 'floral designs embroidered in silk' (Sangl.)
















face="Times New Roman Star"sige- 'to embroider'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij tigis? 'вышивание гладью'




face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 415-416, ДТС 143. Despite Clauson, cannot be < Chin.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go out, come outface="Times New Roman Star"выходить
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"syx-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|aryj- 'to move, be displaced' (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"syq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 405-406, VEWT 107-108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ykanakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"lock, pivotface="Times New Roman Star"засов, стержень


face="Times New Roman Star"cyg|anak (Sib.)







face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|anak, dial. c?a:naq (Верб.)








face="Times New Roman Star"syg|anaq, dial. syg|ansaq





face="Times New Roman Star"Дыбо 171. It is also necessary to note Kaz. s?ege, Kirgh. c?ege 'nail', possibly going back to the same root.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ym-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pinch 2 a pinch, thimblefulface="Times New Roman Star"1 щипать, брать щипком 2 щипок, щепотка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik, c?imz?|ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?e-t-, c?emc?e-n- 1, c?emc?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1, c?imdik 2 (Pav. C.), (CCum.) c?ymdy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im-, c?imc?i-, c?imc?i-la-, c?imdi-, c?imi-t- 1, c?imdi-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi-, c?imqi- 1, c?ymdim 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|/ume- 'to pick out, pull out'face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik-le- 1, c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mmu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|y-la- 1, c?ymc?yx 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?imc?i- 1, s?imc?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y- 1, c?ymc?y-m 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?@b@t- 1, c?@pt@m, c?@pk@m 2 (?)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymc?y- 1, s?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymz?|y- 1, s?ymz?|ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y-, c?ymc?y-la- 1, c?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymty- 1, s?ymqym 2face="Times New Roman Star"semte- 1, semte-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imde- 1, c?imdik 2, cymda-, c?ymda- 'to bite'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1, s?ym, s?yms?ym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 108, TMN 3, 99, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413. Chuv. c?@b@t- is phonetically strange; it may reflect a secondary denasalization (Мудрак Дисс. 50), but may actually be a trace of a different root, cf. PA *c?`i/p`u/ or *c?`abo.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bodily heaviness, constipation (euphem.) 2 rotten, foul 3 to rot 4 illness 5 dirt 6 to be sick, ill 7 rot 8 glue 9 anguish, sorrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 запор (эвфем.) 2 гнилой, сгнивший 3 гнить 4 болезнь 5 грязь 6 болеть, хворать 7 труха, гниль 8 клей 9 тоска, скорбь
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 1 (MK), c?er-le-n- 'to be constipated; to suppurate (of eyes)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, c?irk 5, c?iris? 'flour paste'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 4, c?irla"- 4, c?ere- 3, c?erek 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 'tumeur, clou', c?ire- 'se de/gou/\ter'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irk 'snuff; hardened wheel ointment'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"r 'horse's heart attack', c?a"rla"- 6, c?irk 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?irk '(dirty) spot; insult', c?errik 'illness (of cattle)'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir, dial. c?e.r 4, s/@r- 3, 6, s/@r@k 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 9, 'hard tumour', c?erle- 'to be anguished', c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irenc? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, 9, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"sir 4, sere- 3, serek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iris? 8face="Times New Roman Star"ciri-, c?iri- 3, cirik, c?irik 2, c?yrys? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 9, s?ir- 3, s?irik 2, s?iris? 'slime'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, 9, c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irkew 'maggots in rotten food'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 427, 430, TMN 1077, Егоров 211-212, 326, Федотов 2,111-112, 420. As Doerfer notes, Turkic forms of the type c?irkin 'dirty, nasty, ugly' (Chag., Tur., Gag., Tat., Uzb.) are rather borrowed from Persian c?irkin (which itself is derived from c?irk, borrowed < Turkic).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ir/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drawface="Times New Roman Star"чертитьface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iz- (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-, syz- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-(mo|q)face="Times New Roman Star"siz-(maq)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-yr- 'to scrape, plane'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/yz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?@r- 'to draw, scrape, tear'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-, syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"hyd|-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"cyz-, c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-
face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 112, EDT 432, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413-414. The variant *syr/- is probably due to assimilation.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)aly-(gan)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bush, shrub 2 nettle 3 thornface="Times New Roman Star"1 куст 2 крапива 3 колючка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alag|an 2 (R - Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alo|w 'ковыль волосистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'солянка кустарниковая'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|yn, (R) s?alg|anaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqanc?aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alu 'eine Pflanze zum Verbrennen'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqan 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'blackthorn; thorn'



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, Лексика 110. Clauson (EDT 420) relates here OT (МК) c?alqan 'spread of an injury' which is not quite probable (rather a derivative from the polysemic c?al-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 buds 2 lily 3 sphere, globe, fistface="Times New Roman Star"1 почки 2 лилия 3 шар, округлость, кулак











face="Times New Roman Star"c?omur 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|mъw|r 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?omur 1 (Рас. ФиЛ 89, 231)









face="Times New Roman Star"The Chuvash form points to *-y-. The root is very localized, but seems to be distinct from *c?ym- / *c?um- 'top; stick with a knob' (although a contamination was of course possible).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sparrowface="Times New Roman Star"воробей, мелкая птица
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?apc?uq, c?ypc?yq (AH), s?yps?yq (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?ek, (dial.) c?abc?yk, c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?yq, dial. c?ypyjface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?uq, c?upc?uq (MA, Abush., Pav. C.), c?imc?ik (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umc?uqface="Times New Roman Star"tumuc?uq

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq, dial. c?ypz?|yq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?iges? 'titmouse' (Верб., Upper-Kond.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibilc?ik (dial.) 'a k. of bird' (R, Верб., Kumd.)





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq; c?imeldirek (South.) 'a small green bird'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybys?yqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yqface="Times New Roman Star"sa"pseq 'wagtail; (dial.) sparrow', sypqaj 'утка-поганка'

face="Times New Roman Star"cyfcyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yq
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|imc?iq, dial. c?imc?ikface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 109, Лексика 176. Turk. > Mong. c?ipc?iqaj (TMN 3, 123, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"new-born childface="Times New Roman Star"новорожденный ребенок, детеныш

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|a (dial.); c?ag|a 'young of birds' (Old Osm. XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?aqa (Pav. C.), (Xwar.) c?aqa 'young of birds' (Фазылов 2, 511)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqalo|q, (Tashk.) c?aqaface="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children' (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:Ga








face="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children'face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"bala-s?ag|a 'children'



face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, Менгес 1979, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ia:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 time, measure 2 precisely, exactlyface="Times New Roman Star"1 время, пора 2 точно, впоруface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2 (late OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) c?aq 'when (conj.)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|q 1, c?o|qum 'certainly'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:G 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 1, sag|a 'about (the time when, the size of)'face="Times New Roman Star"haga 'about (the time when, the size of)'; sagyna 'while'face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, s?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"saq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, c?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:q, c?aq 'up to'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| (K), caq (H) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Егоров 327, Лексика 67, EDT 404, ДТС 139, Федотов 2, 425, Stachowski 92-93, 208. Forms like Chag. c?ag|, Uygh. c?ag| or Tof. s?ag| 'time' are borrowed < Mong., but this cannot be assumed for most other forms quoted above.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:b-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whip-lashface="Times New Roman Star"плеть
face="Times New Roman Star"c?avyg|, c?ag|yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avun 'leather whip'





face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v-la- 'to lash with a rod, whip'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъvъs? 'sound of the whip or rod', c?ъw|vas?-la- 'to lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"? s?avy-la- 'to lash (of branches)'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 395. See also under *c?y:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство


face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.qin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation s?oq!' R 4, 1024)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), c?oqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation c?oq!' (R 3, 2009)
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk 5



face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqyn- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Ra"sa"nen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. c?oqur 'pit' and Taranchi c?oqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from c?ok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to c?o"ku"r- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. c?oq!, Shor s?oq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. c?ok!, Kaz. s?oq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *c?ok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. cso"k 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turban 2 noose, lasso 3 to plait, wrap 4 to bind by throwing the rope 5 to become entangled 6 to entangle 7 band, strap 8 to bind around, wrap around 9 to plaitface="Times New Roman Star"1 тюрбан 2 аркан, лассо 3 заплетать, заворачивать 4 связывать захлестом, наметывать 5 заплетаться 6 запутать 7 тесьма, завязка 8 обвязывать, обматывать 9 плести

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, 'flask fastened to the saddle' (Pav. C., Sangl.), 'apron' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al-(mo|q) 4, c?alma 1; band, facingface="Times New Roman Star"c?al-ma-s?- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 3, c?als?yq 'entangled (of a rope)'face="Times New Roman Star"salba (Sag.) 'лычко для метания камней'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 2, dial. (Leb.) c?aly- 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?alba 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?alys?qaq 'criss-crossing'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alg|yc? 7, c?alma 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?alma 1, s?aluw 7face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 8, salma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 9, c?alman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 8, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 8, calma 1, calman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 9, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 420, VEWT 97, Лексика 395. Turk. > Mong. c?alma, salma 'lasso', see TMN 4, 316-317, Щербак 1997, 163 (although the meaning 'lasso' is not widely spread in Turkic, Doerfer suggests that it may have been the original, pre-Islamic, meaning of the derivative *c?al-ma). Note Chuv. c?ъw|lg|a- 'to entangle' - usually derived as a loanword < Tat. c?ulg|a- < PT *c?og-la-, but in this case one would rather expect c?ulg|a- - so the Chuv. form may actually reflect PT *c?ial-. The root is attested late, but does not seem to be borrowed, or a specialized development of *c?al- 'hit, chop' (as suggested in TMN).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y/im 1, c?imgen 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imen 2, c?im 1; c?emen 'тмин; пажитник'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aman 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?ima"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?emen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym-c?olg|aj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
face="Times New Roman Star"c?emene 'потничная трава'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n, c?ima"n 2 (< Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?em/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym 1; c?emirc?ek 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also c?ymyldyq 'повилика', c?ymyldyryq, c?ymyndyq (dial.) 'чина')face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?imen 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"The primary root is *c?ym 'turf', whence *c?im-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. c?aman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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