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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Elface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?el-tik 4; c?elpik 3 (Red. only)face="Times New Roman Star"cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alpak 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"lpa"k 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5, c?el-tik 6

face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4




face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2, c?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el 2, 'fat under skin', s?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el-te- 'to husk grain'



face="Times New Roman Star"s?elpek 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. c?el-tik > Pers. c?altuk, s?altu:k (despite VEWT 104). Turk. c?elpek > Pers. c?alpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *c?el-pek developed under the influence of the similar *c?apak (see under *c?ap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 bladeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвиеface="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?algy 9, c?algy orag|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|i u.ro|q 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|a 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al(y)- 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6, 7, c?alg|y 9face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 10, 7, 6, c?alGy 5, 11face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6face="Times New Roman Star"s/ol- 4, s/olъk 9face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyn- 'to fall abruptly'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aly- 10
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5, c?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 4, s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alqy 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alym 14face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 1, 4, calqy, calg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 4, c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *c?a:l- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *c?al- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Amface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a backbiting man 2 to exact a fine 3 claim 4 reproach 5 to be offended 6 to be angryface="Times New Roman Star"1 клеветник 2 штрафовать 3 претензия, рекламация (юрид.) 4 упрек 5 обижаться 6 сердитьсяface="Times New Roman Star"c?am 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?amg|uq 1 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?am-la- 'to speak with disgust' (R, Pav. C.)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?`imig 'badly'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?am (dial., R) 4, c?am-da-l- (dial., R) 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?ammal-tur- 'to look nervous, angry'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?am-da-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?am 'that which causes offence', s?am-da-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?am-la-n- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?am 'joke, mockery', c?am-la-n- 6

face="Times New Roman Star"s?am-la-n- 5, s?am-s?yl 'resentful, sensitive'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 421-422, 423, VEWT 98, D-T 97. At least part of the forms may ultimately have a Chinese source (MC z|.a".m 'slander'). Cf. also c?aman 'lazy horse, dog'; Tur. c?amura jat- 'to decline from paying a debt' (slang; lit. 'to lie down in dirt' - perhaps a reanalysis based on the analogy with c?amur 'dirt', cf. also c?amur (metaph.) 'low, humble').
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycombface="Times New Roman Star"1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2, c?apla 3, c?apa 4, c?apak 12face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 6, 1, c?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|p- 5, 7, c?o|pqi 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqu 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'p- 1, 5, 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2, c?apGy 4, c?apGyr 9face="Times New Roman Star"sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpy, sapxy 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 6, s?apqy 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqy 10, 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/up- 1, 11, s/opkas/ 14face="Times New Roman Star"saba:- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 2, s?ap-ta- 15face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-ty 17, s?apty-la- 16face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 7, 1, c?apqy 4, 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ab- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apanaq 18face="Times New Roman Star"cap- 1; c?ap- 1, 5, c?apa 19face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-, c?a'- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, c?apg|y 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to plaster 2 eye pus 3 to puncture (a tumour, furuncle)face="Times New Roman Star"1 мазать, залеплять, обмазывать 2 глазной гной 3 прокалывать (опухоль, нарыв)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?apak 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?api- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-li- 1, c?apaq 2






face="Times New Roman Star"s/op- 'заворачивать пирог'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 'to pour water and stamp (ground)'(?)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-ta- 1, c?abaq-ta- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?abaq-ta- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?abaq-s?a-la- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"(aq) c?ap- 'to blanch, pipeclay'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Ашм. XII, 248. Turk. > Hung. csipa 'eye pus' (<*c?apag|), see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epil/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a half-year or 1-year-old kidface="Times New Roman Star"(полу)годовалый козленок
face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis?, c?epic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivic?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"pis?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebis?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apis? ( < Az.?)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?emic?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 399, Щербак 1961, 120. Cf. also Chag. c?iber 'mountain goat' (R). The reflex -b- in Turkm. and Uygh. may be an indication of original vowel length (?) Shcherbak's hypothesis of the word being borrowed < Iranian is dubious; Pers. c?apis?, c?apus? itself may well be borrowed < Turkic. In any case, the Persian form cannot be a regular IE match for Lat. caper. Cf. WH 1, 157, sub caper: "Np. c?apis?...lautlich unmo"glich"; indeed, Common Iranian -p- (< IE -p-) > Mod. Pers. and NW-Iran. -b-, in exceptional cases -v- (Расторгуева ЗИФ 114-115); a parallel for caper may perhaps be found in Sak. cau_, Osset. ca"v 'goat' (see Аб. 1, 307, Bailey 105). One should mention the problematic "Wanderformen" Rum. cap, Alb. tsap, Ital. dial. cappo, Crim.-Goth. stap, Slav. *ca//pъ 'he-goat'; cf. also Oyr. c?a:p 'one year-old roebuck' ( < Mong.?). See Трубачев 1960, 89-90, Orel 47 with literature; note especially Hubschmid's (1954, 49) hypothesis of the Turkic origin of this Wanderwort.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?arface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 whetstone 2 sickle 3 to whetface="Times New Roman Star"1 точильный камень 2 серп 3 точить


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1, 'mill stone', c?ar-la- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-la- 3 (Pav. C.)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/orla 2face="Times New Roman Star"sardag|a, sarda:na 'short heavy arrow with a broad head' (Пек.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sar 1


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:r- 'to cut, stick in' (ССЯ: Udzh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1, 'spool'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99-100, Егоров 221, Федотов 2, 143 (borrowing < FU *s/orva 'horn' is hardly credible). Bulg. > Hung. sarlo/ 'sickle', see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 494-495. The root is certainly genuine, although some influence of the Iranian c?aryk, c?arx 'wheel' could have existed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to bind, fetters, harnessface="Times New Roman Star"связывать, оковы, упряжь

face="Times New Roman Star"c?akyl- 'to be bound, fastened' (of yoke animals), c?ag|an 'camel fetters'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|an 'camel fetters'






face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqy 'stick for binding horses'










face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyldaq 'rope harness'



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 94, 96 (but Oyr. c?aky is regarded as borrowed < Mong. c?aqu, on which see *c?`ak`V).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Aj-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to chew 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 жевать 2 кусать

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ne-, c?ejne- 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|jne|- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"dajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"jna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:ne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"cajna-, c?ajna-, c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene-, c?a"ina"- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Рас. ФиЛ 168. Forms with t- in some Siberian languages are rather enigmatic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)a:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fame, good reputation, newsface="Times New Roman Star"слава, хорошая репутация , новости
face="Times New Roman Star"c?av (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?av
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aw (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab-lag| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-tyg| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"c?apface="Times New Roman Star"c?ov (may be < Az.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, EDT 393. Final -p in Siberian languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?a:jface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small river 2 sand, pebbles 3 flood, freshet 4 shallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 речка 2 песок, галька 3 половодье, наводнение 4 мелководный

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1, c?eke 2


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:j 1, c?a":ge 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajyq 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj-r-am 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 2 (?)





face="Times New Roman Star"saj 'a river weed' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj (in the hydronym qarac?aj)




face="Times New Roman Star"The word is poorly attested (almost only in some modern Oghuz languages and Chag., see VEWT 95, Лексика 94; the Yakut parallel is phonetically unclear - borrowed from Tuva or Altai?). Turk. *c?a:j-ka (Turkm. c?a":ge, Chag. c?eke) > Kalm. ceke|: (KW 426). The forms (despite semantic difference) may have an Iranian origin: Pers. (Pekhl.) c?a:h 'well, spring' < *c?a:t|a > Av. c?a:ta, Kurd. c?a:l, Bel. c?a:t, Osset. c?ad 'lake', Wakhi c?ot 'pond' (Horn 97, Аб. 1, 285, 329, Расторгуева 1990, 191, ЭСВЯ 130); a certain Persian loan is Khal. c?a: 'Brunnen, Grube'. Osset. c?'aj 'well' is regarded by Abaev as a borrowing from Pers. through Georgian (c?.a 'well'). The relationship to the verbal stem c?a:j- 'to swill' (ОСНЯ 3, 59-60) ( < 'wash water off from the surface'?) is yet to be determined.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eke-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branchface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
face="Times New Roman Star"s?eki-r-tu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eki-r-dek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?iki 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke-r-dek, c?ekide| 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 7 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?et ag|as? 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege-dek, c?ege-l-dek 8
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ege-r 7
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekerdek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirdek, c?ekirdek 3, c?eger 'blackthorn'


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dyk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with s?-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. c?eke| 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. c?akanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. c?a"ka"nda" 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. c?akanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. c?a"kil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. c?ekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. c?a"ka"lda"k 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?a:rba- (*c?a:rma-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 squirrel 2 sable, martenface="Times New Roman Star"1 белка 2 соболь, куница









face="Times New Roman Star"sarbax 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?arbaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yrbyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sa:rba 2












face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 100, 403. A regional Siberian root.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ec?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flower 2 chicken-poxface="Times New Roman Star"1 цветок 2 оспаface="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c?e|k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ak 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?/`uz?|/ugface="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/es/ke 'цветок, листок'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2; aq c?ec?ek 'a k. of tree', c?ec?ekej 'crystalline lens'face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, s?es?ekej 2face="Times New Roman Star"sa"sa"k 2, sa"ska" 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek, c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ex (ССЯ) 1, 'bud'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Лексика 120. Turk. > Mong. c?ec?eg, see TMN 3, 57, Щербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. c?ec?c?e, c?ec?ek (see Егоров 322, Федотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva c?ec?ek, perhaps also Oyr. c?ec?ek and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strike fire 2 flint, fire steelface="Times New Roman Star"1 высекать огонь 2 кремень, огнивоface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq-tas? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yn 'spark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|-/saq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-/c?aq- 'to produce sparks, shoot from a flint gun'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 'to pull the trigger', c?aqma 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, TMN 3, 80-81, Лексика 373. Kypch. > Chuv. c?akma 'fire steel', whence > Mari, Udm. (Федотов 2, 387). The verb is usually regarded as one of the meanings of *c?ak- 'hit, strike', but the semantics 'strike fire' is attested quite early and allows to use the Turkic material in the Altaic comparison.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eknface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"part of shoulder between the neck and shoulderbladeface="Times New Roman Star"часть плеча между шеей и лопаткойface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekin, dial. c?eg|in, c?eg|n
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (Abush., Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijinface="Times New Roman Star"c?igin


face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:nface="Times New Roman Star"s/an 'body'













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 415, VEWT 103, Дыбо 129-130, Лексика 238-239 (see there about details of phonetic reconstruction).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 snow dust 2 fogface="Times New Roman Star"1 пороша 2 туман
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?as 2face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?ars 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?as 2 (dial.)







face="Times New Roman Star"dial. (Leb.) s?ars?a 1








face="Times New Roman Star"sar 'animal trace on snow'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ars 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ars 2face="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 29, 35. The derivative *c?ar-s is somewhat peculiar morphologically and could be a loanword - from the (unattested) Mong. *c?ar-su(n) (?). {Oyr. c?arym was removed from this etymology, but probably unjustly: the Komi source c/are?m 'snow crust', as well as c/ars id. are much better explained as borrowed from Turkic than vice versa. The form is traced back to Ur. *s/arV in UEW 464, but the consonantism is quite irregular; other parallels proposed by Helimsky are Saam. c?arava - with irregular vocalism - and Selk. c?/o|:rpy, closely resembling Tofalar c?arpyn|. A complicated case, but explanation of the existing scattered Uralic forms from Turkic is at least not preferable to vice versa.}
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 furuncle 2 rash, pimpleface="Times New Roman Star"1 фурункул 2 сыпь, прыщ
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqan (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwan 1, c?ebi 'цыпки'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipqo|n 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iban1, c?ivza" 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?y:ban 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyrg|an 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybytqan, (dial. - Верб.) c?ibis?ke 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|ban, s/ъw|van 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ivis?ki 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ibis?ki 2, 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjqan 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjqan, dial. s?uba 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'обметать губы', sebes?ke 'цыпки'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban 1face="Times New Roman Star"cyban, c?yban 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 106, EDT 396, TMN 3, 1151, Егоров 208, Федотов 2, 96. The Kaz. and Nogh. forms may be < Mong. (although they differ semantically).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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