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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"winterface="Times New Roman Star"зимаface="Times New Roman Star"qys? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qys? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys? (AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qis?face="Times New Roman Star"qis?face="Times New Roman Star"qysface="Times New Roman Star"Gys?face="Times New Roman Star"Gys?face="Times New Roman Star"xysface="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"x@lface="Times New Roman Star"kys, kyhynface="Times New Roman Star"kyhynface="Times New Roman Star"qy`s?
face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qysface="Times New Roman Star"qysface="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"qys
face="Times New Roman Star"qys?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 670, VEWT 268, TMN 3, 479, Ћексика 75-76, Ё—“я 6, 253-254, Stachowski 167-168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.jyn-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to boil (Intr.)face="Times New Roman Star"варитьс€face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qajna- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna- (Qutb., IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|jne|-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gajna-face="Times New Roman Star"Gajna-face="Times New Roman Star"xajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-

face="Times New Roman Star"ky:j- (kyn/n/y-)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjnar-, ky:jnar- (trans.)face="Times New Roman Star"xajyn-face="Times New Roman Star"xe:in-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 222, Ё—“я 5, 203-205, Stachowski 168, 171.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:jnface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 punishment, fine, guilt 2 to punish 3 cruelty, tyranny 4 to condemn 5 hard, difficult 6 to torture 7 insult, offence 8 to offend 9 harm, torture 10 sin 11 to annoy, anger 12 to beatface="Times New Roman Star"1 наказание, штраф, вина 2 наказывать 3 жестокость, тирани€ 4 осуждать, порицать 5 трудный, т€желый 6 мучить 7 обида 8 обижать 9 беда, мучение 10 грех 11 сердить, раздражать 12 битьface="Times New Roman Star"qyjnyg| (acc.) (Orkh.), qyjn, qyn (OUygh.) 1, qyna- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyn, qyjyn (KB) 1, qyna- 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjyn, kyjync? 3, kyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 5, qyjyna- 'to make difficult, hard'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn (Abush., Ѕор. Ѕад., MA), qyn (Pav. C.), qyna- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qy:n 5, qy:na- 'to make difficult, torture'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjyx 7, xyjal 9face="Times New Roman Star"qyjal 9, 10, qyjyq-ta- 8, qyjnag| 9 (*qyn/-lag|)face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qyjna- 6, qyjal 10, dial. (Ѕаск. “уба) qyj- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"x@n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:nn/a:-, kyjaxa:- 11, kyj- 'to pain, ache'face="Times New Roman Star"kyjn|a- 11, kyj- 'to kill'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjyt- 'to make difficult, troublesome', qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6, qynz?-yl- 'to be distressed'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qejin 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 264. EDT 631, Ё—“я 6, 218-219, Stachowski 168. Turk. *Ky:jna- > MMong. qina- 'to torture' (ўербак 1997, 165). Nasalless forms (like Yak. kyjaxa:- etc.) may result from a reanalysis of the form *Ky:jn as *Kyjyn, interpreted as a deverbative noun. Turk. > Hung. ki/n 'torture, suffering' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hairface="Times New Roman Star"волосface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"x@l@xface="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"kyl 'sealine'face="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl
face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 262, TMN 3, 574-5, EDT 614, Ћексика 196, Ё—“я 6, 204-205, Stachowski 168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 thin 2 shortface="Times New Roman Star"1 тонкий 2 короткий









face="Times New Roman Star"xylbys
face="Times New Roman Star"qylbyq, qylbys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@ld@rke 'худой, хилый, тонкий'face="Times New Roman Star"kylgas 2face="Times New Roman Star"kylgas 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qylmyj-face="Times New Roman Star"qylmyj-







face="Times New Roman Star"On the rare reflexes of this root see VEWT 263, Stachowski 168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:jnatface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wing 2 finface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыло 2 плавникface="Times New Roman Star"qanat (OUygh.- YB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Abush., MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qano|t 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qejnat 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ganad, ga"na"d (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2, qanar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/onat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kynat, kyjyat 1face="Times New Roman Star"kynat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Kakuk,——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 518, EDT 635, Ё—“я 5, 252-253, ‘едотов 2, 137, Ћексика 149-150, Stachowski 168. Initial s/- in Chuv. is unclear (effect of *-j-?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyp-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to press together 2 scissors 3 tongs 4 to cut (with scissors)face="Times New Roman Star"1 сжимать 2 ножницы 3 клещи
face="Times New Roman Star"qyftu (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kypty (dial.) 2, ky(r)p- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qypty 2 (Houts., Ettuhf.)


face="Times New Roman Star"Gyrp- 4face="Times New Roman Star"Gyp- 1face="Times New Roman Star"xypty 2, xypla- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qypty 2, qypla- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qypta 2, qypc?yn- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xypc?ъk 3face="Times New Roman Star"kyptyj 2, kybyt-, kybyj- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyptyj- 2





face="Times New Roman Star"qypty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qypty 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 234, EDT 582, Ё—“я 6, 221-222, 224, Stachowski 168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.rga-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to swear, curseface="Times New Roman Star"ругать, проклинатьface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|an- (recipr.) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-, qyrg|a- (MK, KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a- (Qutb, Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|rg|e|-face="Times New Roman Star"qa(r)g|a-

face="Times New Roman Star"GarGa-face="Times New Roman Star"xarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"xъrrъn (Adv.) 'angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"kyra:-face="Times New Roman Star"kyra:-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-


face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 655, VEWT 237, Ё—“я 5, 304-305, Stachowski 169.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 isolated mountain 2 mountain top, mountain ridge 3 steppe, desert, level ground 4 edgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 отдельно сто€ща€ гора 2 вершина горы, гребень горы, возвышенность 3 степь, пустын€, равнина 4 край
face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 1 (MK, KB), 'rising ground' (IM,14 c.)face="Times New Roman Star"kyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyr (Sangl.), qir (Pav. C.) 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qir 2, 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"qir 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"xyr 2, 'roof'face="Times New Roman Star"qyrface="Times New Roman Star"qyr 2, 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"xir 3face="Times New Roman Star"kyrtas 2; kyrdal 'hill'face="Times New Roman Star"kyrdal 'hill'

face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 2, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 641, VEWT 265, Ћексика 95-96, Ё—“я 6, 225, Stachowski 169. Derived is PT *Kyran 'edge, ridge' (Ё—“я 6, 226); but note that modern forms like Turkm. Gyra, Tuva qyra etc. are borrowed < Mong. kira.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hoar-frost 2 thin snowface="Times New Roman Star"1 иней 2 тонкий снегface="Times New Roman Star"qyrag|u 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyrag|u 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kyrag|u 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.), qirau, qirag|u (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiro|w 1face="Times New Roman Star"qija, qira, qiro 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gyrow 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyraw 1, Gyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"xro 1, xyrbyx 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyra: 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@rb@x 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyrya 1, ky:rpax, kyrpaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyrya 1face="Times New Roman Star"xyra: 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qyro: 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qrau 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qra: 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw, qoruw 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265-266, 267, EDT 656, Ё—“я 6, 230-231, 241, Stachowski 169. Turk. > MMong. (HY) kira'u, WMong. kirag|u, Khalkha x/aru: 'hoar-frost' etc. (see Doerfer TMN 3, 569, ўербак 1997, 138, Clark 1977, 147, although the latter's derivation of *kyragu < *kyr 'grey' is hardly acceptable). Cf. also PT *Kyr-lac? 'the coldest time of winter' (see Ё—“я 6, 237-238).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.ryface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 old 2 old woman or man 3 to become oldface="Times New Roman Star"1 старый 2 старуха, старик 3 старетьface="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qary- 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MK, KB) 1, qary- (MK, KB) 3face="Times New Roman Star"kary, kart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary, qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MA, Abush.) 1, qary- (MA, Abush.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"qari 1, qari- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qeri 1,2, qeri- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"Gary, Gart 2,1face="Times New Roman Star"Garry 1, Garra- 3face="Times New Roman Star"kir@ 1, kir@- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qary- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qary- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyry- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyry- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary, qart 1, qary- 3, qart 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary ? qe|ri, qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary, qart 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1,2 (also 'woman')
face="Times New Roman Star"qary, g|arry 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qart 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 644, TMN 3, 440, Ё—“я 5, 311-312, 314-316, Ћексика 84-85, Stachowski 169, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to break, demolish 2 small 3 to scrape, shaveface="Times New Roman Star"1 ломать, разрушать 2 маленький 3 скрести, брить
face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3 'to scrape; to tear out'face="Times New Roman Star"kyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3 (Pav. C.), 1, 'to cut off' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qir- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qi(r)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"xyr- 3, 'to cut'face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265; EDT 643; TMN 3, 567, Ћексика 382, Ё—“я 6, 227-229, Stachowski 168, 170. The Yak. form kyra 'small' is a rather transparent semantical derivative, although it is not usually listed among the reflexes of PT *Kyr-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyrgakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"edgeface="Times New Roman Star"край
face="Times New Roman Star"qyrg|ag| (MK) 'selvage, edge'face="Times New Roman Star"kyrakface="Times New Roman Star"qyryjface="Times New Roman Star"qyryg|, qyrag| (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qirg|o|qface="Times New Roman Star"qi(r)g|aq
face="Times New Roman Star"GyraG
face="Times New Roman Star"xri, xyryj, xyryg|
face="Times New Roman Star"qyryg|face="Times New Roman Star"qyrag|face="Times New Roman Star"x@r@face="Times New Roman Star"kyry:face="Times New Roman Star"kyry:face="Times New Roman Star"qyry
face="Times New Roman Star"qyru:
face="Times New Roman Star"qyraq


face="Times New Roman Star"qyryj

face="Times New Roman Star"qyryjface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265, EDT 653, Ё—“я 6, 242-244, Stachowski 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kysyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 barren (cow) 2 barren mareface="Times New Roman Star"1 €лова€ (корова) 2 €лова€ кобыла
face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1, qysraq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kysyr 1, kysrak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr (Pav. C.) 1, qysyraq 2 (Houts., Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"qisir 1face="Times New Roman Star"qisir 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysyraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"Gysyr 1, GysraG 2face="Times New Roman Star"Gysyr 1, Gysraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"xyzyr 1, xyzyrax 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@z@r 1, k@sre 2face="Times New Roman Star"kytara:- 'стать стародойною, €ловеть'face="Times New Roman Star"kytarak 'barren'face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyr 1, qyzyraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1, qysyraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1, qysyraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyt|yr 1, qyt|yraq (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1, qysyraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1, qysyraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1, qysyraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qysyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 668-669, VEWT 267, 268, Ё—“я 6, 249-251, Stachowski 170. Turk. > Kalm. ki:sr, KW 234 (but Doerfer TMN 3, 476 objects, saying that Kalm. is a "dialektische Variante von ku":sr < ke'u"-ser"); > Mong. qusuran| / kisuran| 'barren (cow)' > Man. kisari.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hardface="Times New Roman Star"твердыйface="Times New Roman Star"qatyg| (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qatyg| (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"kat (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qatyface="Times New Roman Star"qatyg| (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|tiqface="Times New Roman Star"qetiq
face="Times New Roman Star"Gatyface="Times New Roman Star"Gat, Gatyface="Times New Roman Star"xatyg|face="Times New Roman Star"qadyg|face="Times New Roman Star"qatu:
face="Times New Roman Star"xydъface="Times New Roman Star"kyta:naxface="Times New Roman Star"kyta:nakface="Times New Roman Star"qa'dyg|
face="Times New Roman Star"qatu:face="Times New Roman Star"qattyface="Times New Roman Star"qatface="Times New Roman Star"qaty


face="Times New Roman Star"qatty
face="Times New Roman Star"qatyface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 597-598, VEWT 241, Ё—“я 5, 334-335, Stachowski 170. Yak. xat-, Dolg. kat- 'to dry up' (Stachowski 140) < Mong. qata- id. Khak. xatyg| also probably has -t- under Mong. influence.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:.rt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"falcon, hawkface="Times New Roman Star"сокол, €стреб

face="Times New Roman Star"kartal
face="Times New Roman Star"qartal (Houts., AH, Sangl.)



face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Gartalface="Times New Roman Star"xartyg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qartag|a


face="Times New Roman Star"ky:rt, ky:rdajface="Times New Roman Star"ky:rtface="Times New Roman Star"xartyg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"qartyg|a







face="Times New Roman Star"qartaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 239, Ё—“я 5, 316-318, Ћексика 169, Stachowski 172. Turk. *kartygaj > MMong. qarc?igaj (SH qarc?iqai), WMong. qarc?ig|ai (see TMN 1, 404), whence again late MTurk. qarc?yg|aj (see TMN 1, 404-405, ўербак 1997, 208). Loans from Mong. are Man. qarc?in 'kite' and MKor. karc?ik@i 'yellow falcon' (see Lee 1958, 119, 1964, 191).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 girl 2 womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 девушка 2 женщинаface="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gy:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"xys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r 1, x@r-(arъm) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269, TMN 3, 569-70, EDT 679-80, Ћексика 295, 318, Ё—“я 6, 190-191, Stachowski 172. For PT one should reconstruct variants *ky:r//*ky:r (they are reflected in several derivatives, e.g. *Ky:r-kyn, see Ћексика 317-318, Ё—“я 6, 237, *Kyr-nak, see TMN 3, 456, Ё—“я 6, 240).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kol/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pair, couple, one of a couple 2 to join, uniteface="Times New Roman Star"1 пара, один из пары 2 соедин€ть(с€)face="Times New Roman Star"qos?- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qos? 1, qos?- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qus? 1, qus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos? 1, qos?- 2 (AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo.s? 1, qo.s?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos? 1, qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"Gos? 'a couple of oxen', Gos?- 'to add'face="Times New Roman Star"xos 1, xos- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qos?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"xos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xos 'double; again', xohuj- 2, xoho:n 'poem'face="Times New Roman Star"koho:n 'poem'face="Times New Roman Star"qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo's?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos? 1, qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos 1, qos- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos 1, qos- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qywys? 1, qus?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos? 1, qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos 1, qos- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos? 1, qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 283; EDT 670, Ћексика 611, ‘едотов 2, 375, Ё—“я 6, 90-94, Stachowski 150. Turk. > MMong. (HY) qos?i, WMong. qos, Kalm. xos? 'pair' (KW 189, TMN 3, 364, Clark 1980, 41, 42, ўербак 1997, 142).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Koju-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thick, saturatedface="Times New Roman Star"толстый, густойface="Times New Roman Star"qojug| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qojug| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kojuface="Times New Roman Star"qujy
face="Times New Roman Star"qujuqface="Times New Roman Star"qojuq

face="Times New Roman Star"Gojyface="Times New Roman Star"xojyg|face="Times New Roman Star"qojyg|face="Times New Roman Star"qoju

face="Times New Roman Star"xoju:face="Times New Roman Star"koju:face="Times New Roman Star"xojug|face="Times New Roman Star"xojug|face="Times New Roman Star"quju:face="Times New Roman Star"qojuface="Times New Roman Star"qojyface="Times New Roman Star"qujy
face="Times New Roman Star"qojuface="Times New Roman Star"qoju, quju


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 676, TMN 3, 562, Ё—“я 6, 32-33, Stachowski 150. The deriving stem *Koj(u)- 'to become viscous, thick' is attested in Oyr. qoj-, KKalp. qojy-, Khak. xojy-, Tuva xoju- (see ibid.). The reconstruction *Kon/- is proposed in VEWT 276, but is based only on the not quite reliable Tofalar nasalization; the Yakut and OT evidence does not support it.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kolface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 arm 2 handface="Times New Roman Star"1 рука (от локт€ до плеча) 2 рука (кисть)face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kol 1face="Times New Roman Star"qul 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2 (Abush., Sangl., MA, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qu.l 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gol 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gol 1face="Times New Roman Star"xol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1face="Times New Roman Star"xol 'shoulder'face="Times New Roman Star"xol 1face="Times New Roman Star"kol 'shoulder'face="Times New Roman Star"xol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qul 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1face="Times New Roman Star"qol 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 276, EDT 614-5, TMN 3, 556, ƒыбо 146-153, ‘едотов 2, 353, Ћексика 244-245, Ё—“я 6, 37-43, Stachowski 150.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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