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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"rtface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flame 2 to burn (tr.) 3 steppe fire 4 to get burntface="Times New Roman Star"1 плам€ 2 жечь 3 степной пожар 4 обгоратьface="Times New Roman Star"o"rt 1, 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"rt 1, 3 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"u"rt 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"rt 1, 3 (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"o"rte- 4face="Times New Roman Star"o"rt 3, o"rte- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"virt 3face="Times New Roman Star"o"rt 3
face="Times New Roman Star"o"rtet- 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"'rt 'wood fire'face="Times New Roman Star"o"rt 1








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 375, EDT 201, 208-9, Ё—“я 1, 550-551, Ћексика 357-358.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ba:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 there is, there are 2 existence, goods 3 allface="Times New Roman Star"1 есть, имеетс€ 2 весь, всеface="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), barc?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, barc?a 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"var 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, 3, barc?a 3, barsy 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, 3, barc?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"bo|r 1, 2, bo|ric?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"ba(r) 1, 2, 3, baric?a" 3face="Times New Roman Star"par 1face="Times New Roman Star"var 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ba:r 1, 3; barc?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"par 1, 2, parc?an 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"va:r 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"por 1, 'any', 3, 'rich', por@s? 3face="Times New Roman Star"ba:r 1, 2, bar(y) 3face="Times New Roman Star"ba:r 1, 2, bar(y) 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, bary 2face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 'rich', barc?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 'rich', bary 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 'rich', bary 3face="Times New Roman Star"var 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, 3, barca, barc?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 2, bars?a 3face="Times New Roman Star"ba:r, par, va:r 1, bar, par 'rich' (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"bar 1, 3, 'rich', bary 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 62, EDT 353, 356-7, Ё—“я 2, 61-63, Ћексика 326-327, 332-333, ‘едотов 1, 444-445, Stachowski 52, 53, 56. Syntactically it is an abstract noun frequently acting as a predicate.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gejikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wild animal 2 bird 3 roeface="Times New Roman Star"1 дикое животное 2 птица 3 ланьface="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1face="Times New Roman Star"gejik 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1 (Ѕор. Ѕад.), kijik (MA, Abush.)
face="Times New Roman Star"kijik 1

face="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1face="Times New Roman Star"ki:k 1


face="Times New Roman Star"kajъk 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"kijik 1

face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"kijyx 'wild goat' (——я)
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 247, EDT 755, Ё—“я 5, 21-23, Ћексика 151-152.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ic?ig (/*c?yc?yg)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 female sheep 3 sheep tail 4 roasted sheep tail 5 roasted fatface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (женска€) 2 овцематка 3 курдюк 4 жареный курдюк 5 жареный жир


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz?yq (R, Ѕуд. - Kas.), c?yz|yq (R - Tob.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ig| 2, 3 (R - Vam.), c?yc?yg|, c?yc?yq 4 (R - Zenker)








face="Times New Roman Star"c?@z?|@ 1













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110. An onomatopaeic root, attested late - but possibly archaic because of the external evidence. The assumed semantic development in Chag. and Tat. is 'udder' > 'roasted udder' > 'fat roasted piece of meat'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dumface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cold 2 cold, fluface="Times New Roman Star"1 холодный 2 простудаface="Times New Roman Star"tumlyg| 1 (OUygh.), tumag|u 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tum, tumlyg| 1 (MK), tumag|u (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dumag|, duma 2, (Osm.) tumlu 1face="Times New Roman Star"tomaw 2face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 2 (MA)
face="Times New Roman Star"tumu 2

face="Times New Roman Star"du"mev 2face="Times New Roman Star"tymo 2



face="Times New Roman Star"tymny: 1, tumu: 2face="Times New Roman Star"tymny: 1face="Times New Roman Star"duma: 2face="Times New Roman Star"tuma: 2









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 498, EDT 503, 505, 506, Ё—“я 3, 326, Ћексика 14-15, Stachowski 238. Turk. > WMong. tomug|u, Khalkha tomu: 'influenza'. A probable derivative is Turk. *duman 'fog' (Ё—“я 3, 295-296, Ћексика 33, Stachowski 230), see TMN 2, 568.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, ≈горов 201-201, ‘едотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.jyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 salt steppe 2 sandbank 3 gravel 4 sandface="Times New Roman Star"1 солончак 2 песчаный берег 3 гравий 4 песок
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 1, 4 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"kajyr 2
face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) qajyr (Houts. 94, AH 74)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qe|jir 3


face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Gajyr 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"xъjъr 4face="Times New Roman Star"xajyr ta:s 3
face="Times New Roman Star"xajyr 1

face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 4



face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 221-222, EDT 678, Ё—“я 5, 206, 217, Ћексика 97. Turk. > WMong. qajir, Kalm. xa":r (KW 180).
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dig 2 to tear, rip open 3 to row 4 to swim 5 to throw awayface="Times New Roman Star"1 копать 2 рвать 3 грести 4 плавать 5 выкидывать

face="Times New Roman Star"es?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"is?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"es?- 1 (Abush.)


face="Times New Roman Star"es?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ijs?-gek `oar'face="Times New Roman Star"is- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"ha"s?u"-face="Times New Roman Star"alt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"es-, is- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"es?ti- 4, es?- 3face="Times New Roman Star"es?-, e'hit- 3face="Times New Roman Star"es?- 1








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 51, EDT 255-6, Ё—“я 1, 315-316, ћудрак ƒисс. 95. Chuv. is?- 'to row; to swim; to demolish, tear' is evidently borrowed from Tat. (as opposed to the genuine al-t- ). Khal. h- is unclear here (external evidence clearly points to *0-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*si:l/ / *sy:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 tooth 2 sharp stickface="Times New Roman Star"1 зуб 2 вертел, острый колышекface="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es? 2face="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s@s 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъl 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?es? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 424, TMN 3, 324, EDT 856-7. Turk. > Kalm. c?is?, s?is? (KW 442). An interesting common Turkic derivative is *si:l/-le > *si:le 'судак' (fish name), as "fish with teeth" (Turkm. si:le, Chuv. s?ъla etc., see Ё—“я 7; Turk. > Hung. su"llo?, see MNyTESz 3, 628): such derivation may be postulated on analogy with KKalp. ti>sli, Uzb. tis?li (balyq) 'судак', lit. 'fish with teeth'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to step 2 to walk 3 step (n.)face="Times New Roman Star"1 шагать 2 ходить 3 шаг

face="Times New Roman Star"adym 3, adym at-, Osm. ad- 1face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3, aty 'step'face="Times New Roman Star"adym (Pav. C.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|dim, dial. adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atli- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"adym at- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. a:t-, a":t-, a":t-le- 1, a":dim, dial. a:dym 3face="Times New Roman Star"alta- 1, atyx- 'to jump'
face="Times New Roman Star"alta- 1 (< atla-)
face="Times New Roman Star"odъm 3, ot- 2face="Times New Roman Star"atylla:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"atylla:- 'to jump, hop'

face="Times New Roman Star"atta- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, ad|ym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"a'tla- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 31, Ё—“я 1, 88-89, 322, ‘едотов 2, 293-294, Stachowski 39.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 girl 2 womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 девушка 2 женщинаface="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gy:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"xys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r 1, x@r-(arъm) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269, TMN 3, 569-70, EDT 679-80, Ћексика 295, 318, Ё—“я 6, 190-191, Stachowski 172. For PT one should reconstruct variants *ky:r//*ky:r (they are reflected in several derivatives, e.g. *Ky:r-kyn, see Ћексика 317-318, Ё—“я 6, 237, *Kyr-nak, see TMN 3, 456, Ё—“я 6, 240).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(o)-l/
face="Times New Roman Star"here, this (deictic particle)face="Times New Roman Star"вот, это (дейктическа€ частица)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?uface="Times New Roman Star"s?u-l









face="Times New Roman Star"s/a-




face="Times New Roman Star"so-lface="Times New Roman Star"so-lface="Times New Roman Star"s?u-l


face="Times New Roman Star"so-l

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 366, EDT 254-5.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to rise, raiseface="Times New Roman Star"поднимать(с€)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"tu"r- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"tu"r- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"tu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"te|r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ter- (Abush., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.tar-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ta"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ter- (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"go"t-face="Times New Roman Star"go"ter-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"d@r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"du"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"du"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ketu"r-, ketir-
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"t-; ko"to"r 'bird'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"t- 'to fly; run'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"du"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'tu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"to"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ter-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ter-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ta"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"tu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"go"tu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ter-

face="Times New Roman Star"go"ter-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 294, EDT 706, Ё—“я 3, 86-88, Stachowski 158. Cf. also Karakh. ko"tki 'hill', ko"tu" 'the roof of a house' (MK, EDT 701).
face="Times New Roman Star"*tum-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hat, cap 2 snout 3 beak 4 noseface="Times New Roman Star"1 шапка 2 морда 3 клюв 4 носface="Times New Roman Star"tomag|a 1 (OUygh. - XIV ), tums?uq 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tums?uq 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"toms?uk 3face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 1 ( —““), toms?yq 3, ( —““) 4face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 1 (Pav. C.), tums?uq (MA, Abush.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"tumo|q 1, tums?uq 2, 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 1, tums?uq 2, 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"tymsyq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tums?uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"tumzux 2, 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"tunc?uq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tubaq 1 (Leb.), tumc?uq 2, 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"tumus 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tumus 'cape'face="Times New Roman Star"dumc?uq 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"tun'c?uq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 1, tums?uq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tymaq 1, tumsyq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tumsyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"toms?oq 2, 3


face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 1, tumsyq 2, 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 499, TMN 2, 642, EDT 509-10, Ћексика 216, 483, Radloff 3, 1518, Stachowski 230.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 chalk 2 earth 3 clayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мел 2 земл€ 3 глина

face="Times New Roman Star"bor 2face="Times New Roman Star"bur 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo.r 1face="Times New Roman Star"bo(r) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"dial. bo:r 1face="Times New Roman Star"por 1


face="Times New Roman Star"purъ, por 1face="Times New Roman Star"buor 2face="Times New Roman Star"buor 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"por 3face="Times New Roman Star"bor 'солонцы'face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bur 1

face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor, por 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 80, Ё—“я 2, 192-193, Ћексика 100, 376, ‘едотов 1, 444, Stachowski 66-67. Turk. > Kalm. bor@, Bur. bor.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go":kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 blue 2 green ("macro-blue" according to Wierzbicka)face="Times New Roman Star"1 синий 2 зеленыйface="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1 (MK, KB), 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1 (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"go":k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ki:ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|vak 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"o"x 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"o"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gux 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 287, TMN 3, 640-642, EDT 708-9, Ё—“я 3, 66-68, Ћексика 60, 604, Stachowski 165. In most languages the root also means 'sky'. Turk. > Hung. ke/k 'blue', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tepo" (-u")face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hill, top; top of headface="Times New Roman Star"холм, вершинаface="Times New Roman Star"to"pu"face="Times New Roman Star"tepe (Tefs.), to"pu" (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tepe, dial. depeface="Times New Roman Star"tu"be|face="Times New Roman Star"tepe, to"pe (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tepaface="Times New Roman Star"to"pa"
face="Times New Roman Star"ta"pa"face="Times New Roman Star"depe

face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"
face="Times New Roman Star"tu"b@, to"be (NW)face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"face="Times New Roman Star"t`ej
face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"face="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"tu"be|face="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"tepeface="Times New Roman Star"tebeface="Times New Roman Star"to"be
face="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 494, 505, TMN 2, 450-452, EDT 436, Ё—“я 3, 197-199, Ћексика 201, Stachowski 227. The original meaning was probably 'crest, top of head': cf. Kirgh. tu"po"k 'бунчук', Chuv. t@w|bek 'crest, top of head'. Forms with d- in Oghuz may be a trace of a different root (see below); but Kirgh. do"bo" and Uygh. do"wa" are most probably < Mong. do"be.
face="Times New Roman Star"*topykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 knee cap 2 knee 3 ankle-boneface="Times New Roman Star"1 коленна€ чашечка 2 колено 3 лодыжкаface="Times New Roman Star"topyq 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"topyq 3 (MK), 1 (KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"topuk 3face="Times New Roman Star"tubyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) topuq (Houts., AH) 3face="Times New Roman Star"to.piq 3face="Times New Roman Star"topuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"to:q 1face="Times New Roman Star"topuG 3face="Times New Roman Star"topuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tomyx 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"topuq, tomuq 1, 3

face="Times New Roman Star"tobuk 2face="Times New Roman Star"tobuk 2face="Times New Roman Star"dowuq 1face="Times New Roman Star"to'puq 1face="Times New Roman Star"topuq, tomuq 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobyq 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobyq 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tubyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tobuq 2face="Times New Roman Star"topuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobyq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tobuq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 489, EDT 437-8, Ћексика 286, Stachowski 224. Both Ra"sa"nen and Clauson derive this word from PT *top 'pellet, round thing', but this is not likely because of external evidence.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)ajaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rock 2 mountain 3 slopeface="Times New Roman Star"1 скала 2 гора 3 склонface="Times New Roman Star"qaja (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja (Houts., AH, Ettuhf., Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qo|je| 1face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qija 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gaja 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Ga:ja, Gaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 2face="Times New Roman Star"kaja 2face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1, qyja 3 ('oblique slope' - through contamination with *kyj- 'oblique')
face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyja 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 221, TMN 3, 565, EDT 674-5, Ё—“я 5, 198-199, Ћексика 96, Stachowski 133.
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/akface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pot, cup 2 hole; mouth 3(river) mouthface="Times New Roman Star"1 сосуд, чашка 2 отверстие; рот 3 устье (реки)face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajak 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|q 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajak 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajax 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajax 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"an/a, an/ak 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ajaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 11, Ё—“я 1, 105, TMN 2, 171-2, EDT 270, Stachowski 34. Turk. > Mongor ajaG 'paquet' (SM 16), ZM ajo|:q (14-2a); > Russ. Siber. aja/k (јникин 104).
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