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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"ru"-, *bu"r-ke-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to cover upface="Times New Roman Star"покрывать, закрывать
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"n- 'to be covered' (MK, KB), bu"rkek 'cloudy', bu"rku"r- 'to become cloudy' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"- (also of clouds), bu"rge, bu"rgu" 'kerchief, thin curtain'face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rke|-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke- (MA, Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"burka-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"(r)ka"-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"re-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"rge-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"rge-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-
face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|rke-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"j-; bu"rku"j- 'to become cloudy'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"j-; bu"rku"k 'cloudy'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rge- (also of clouds)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rhu"-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rko"-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rka"-n- 'to be covered', bo"rko"u" 'stifling'
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke- (also of clouds)face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 363, 367, ДТС 133, VEWT 92, ЭСТЯ 2, 296-298, Stachowski 68. The form in -ke- is an intensive and can hardly be regarded as a mongolism.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"rku"tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 aquila fulva 2 eagleface="Times New Roman Star"1 беркут 2 орел


face="Times New Roman Star"bu">rki>t 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rku"t (Бор. Бад., Abush., Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"burgut 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rku"t 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rgu"t 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rku"t, mu"rku"t 1
face="Times New Roman Star"p@rg@t 1

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rgu"t 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rku"t 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rki>t 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu">rku">t 2


face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rkit 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 2, 300, Лексика 169, TMN 2, 331-333. Turk. > Mong. bu"rgu"d 'eagle', Russ. беркут. As suggested in ЭСТЯ the original stem may have been *bu"r- (preserved in Kaz., KKalp. bu"r- 'to grasp prey (of an eagle)').
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"r/- / *bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to wrinkleface="Times New Roman Star"морщиться
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (MK, KB), bu"z- (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (dial.), bu"z-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"buris?-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"(r)-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"z-, bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-, bu"z-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"r-


face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|r-



face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"r-

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 92, EDT 355, ЭСТЯ 2, 294-296 (contaminates with *bu"r- 'to cover'). Егоров 157, Федотов 1, 421.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a k. of cloak 2 lap, skirt 3 used clothing 4 bedding under the saddle 5 woman's gown 6 gown 7 gusset (in clothes)face="Times New Roman Star"1 род плаща 2 подол, фалда 3 старая, потертая одежда 4 подстилка под седло, чепрак 5 женский халат 6 халат 7 клин (в одежде)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apg|ut 'a padded garment' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aput 3, c?aprak 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1, c?apraq 4, c?abu 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1 (R; Pav. C. jamag|lyg| c?apan 'mended cloak'), c?abuq 2 (Pav. C.), (OKypch.) c?apg|ut 3 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|po|n 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyt 5, c?apan 6, c?apy 'ornamental trimming for clothes' lap'face="Times New Roman Star"sabyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyr 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abug| 'trimmed section on a woman's tunic'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?avyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu: 7; c?apan 6, c?apan-c?apqyt 'upper clothes', c?opqut 'quilted coat under armour; expensive costume'face="Times New Roman Star"s?abu 2, s?apan 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 'gusset-like front part of gown's laps'face="Times New Roman Star"sapan 6, sabyw 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apraq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 7, s?apan 6, s?obyt 'used things', s?opqyt 'rags'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyw 7, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 396, TMN 3, 47, Аникин 643. Several derivations are clearly distinguishable: a) *c?ap-gut 'upper clothes, garment' (with later development > 'used clothes'); b) *c?ap-rak 'bedding under the saddle'; c) *c?ap-an 'cloak, gown'; d) *c?ap-gu 'lap, gusset' - all clearly related to each other.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ad(b)anface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"scorpionface="Times New Roman Star"скорпион
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ad|an (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan, c?yjan 'сколопендра'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan, (R, Буд. - Kas.) c?ejban 'millipede'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan, c?yjan (Abush., Sangl.), c?iban (R - Calc. Wb., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajo|nface="Times New Roman Star"c?ajan

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aja:n








face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajanface="Times New Roman Star"s?ajanface="Times New Roman Star"s?ajanface="Times New Roman Star"sajan


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajan

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 94, EDT 403, Лексика 64, 184-185. Turk. > Kalm. caj@ `crayfish' (?), see Щербак 1997, 111.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 bladeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвиеface="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?algy 9, c?algy orag|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|i u.ro|q 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|a 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al(y)- 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6, 7, c?alg|y 9face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 10, 7, 6, c?alGy 5, 11face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6face="Times New Roman Star"s/ol- 4, s/olъk 9face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyn- 'to fall abruptly'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aly- 10
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5, c?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 4, s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alqy 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alym 14face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 1, 4, calqy, calg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 4, c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *c?a:l- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *c?al- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)aly-(gan)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bush, shrub 2 nettle 3 thornface="Times New Roman Star"1 куст 2 крапива 3 колючка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alag|an 2 (R - Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alo|w 'ковыль волосистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'солянка кустарниковая'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|yn, (R) s?alg|anaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqanc?aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alu 'eine Pflanze zum Verbrennen'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqan 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'blackthorn; thorn'



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, Лексика 110. Clauson (EDT 420) relates here OT (МК) c?alqan 'spread of an injury' which is not quite probable (rather a derivative from the polysemic c?al-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turban 2 noose, lasso 3 to plait, wrap 4 to bind by throwing the rope 5 to become entangled 6 to entangle 7 band, strap 8 to bind around, wrap around 9 to plaitface="Times New Roman Star"1 тюрбан 2 аркан, лассо 3 заплетать, заворачивать 4 связывать захлестом, наметывать 5 заплетаться 6 запутать 7 тесьма, завязка 8 обвязывать, обматывать 9 плести

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, 'flask fastened to the saddle' (Pav. C., Sangl.), 'apron' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al-(mo|q) 4, c?alma 1; band, facingface="Times New Roman Star"c?al-ma-s?- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 3, c?als?yq 'entangled (of a rope)'face="Times New Roman Star"salba (Sag.) 'лычко для метания камней'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 2, dial. (Leb.) c?aly- 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?alba 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?alys?qaq 'criss-crossing'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alg|yc? 7, c?alma 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?alma 1, s?aluw 7face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 8, salma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 9, c?alman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 8, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 8, calma 1, calman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 9, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 420, VEWT 97, Лексика 395. Turk. > Mong. c?alma, salma 'lasso', see TMN 4, 316-317, Щербак 1997, 163 (although the meaning 'lasso' is not widely spread in Turkic, Doerfer suggests that it may have been the original, pre-Islamic, meaning of the derivative *c?al-ma). Note Chuv. c?ъw|lg|a- 'to entangle' - usually derived as a loanword < Tat. c?ulg|a- < PT *c?og-la-, but in this case one would rather expect c?ulg|a- - so the Chuv. form may actually reflect PT *c?ial-. The root is attested late, but does not seem to be borrowed, or a specialized development of *c?al- 'hit, chop' (as suggested in TMN).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycombface="Times New Roman Star"1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2, c?apla 3, c?apa 4, c?apak 12face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 6, 1, c?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|p- 5, 7, c?o|pqi 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqu 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'p- 1, 5, 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2, c?apGy 4, c?apGyr 9face="Times New Roman Star"sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpy, sapxy 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 6, s?apqy 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqy 10, 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/up- 1, 11, s/opkas/ 14face="Times New Roman Star"saba:- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 2, s?ap-ta- 15face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-ty 17, s?apty-la- 16face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 7, 1, c?apqy 4, 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ab- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apanaq 18face="Times New Roman Star"cap- 1; c?ap- 1, 5, c?apa 19face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-, c?a'- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, c?apg|y 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strike fire 2 flint, fire steelface="Times New Roman Star"1 высекать огонь 2 кремень, огнивоface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq-tas? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yn 'spark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|-/saq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-/c?aq- 'to produce sparks, shoot from a flint gun'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 'to pull the trigger', c?aqma 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, TMN 3, 80-81, Лексика 373. Kypch. > Chuv. c?akma 'fire steel', whence > Mari, Udm. (Федотов 2, 387). The verb is usually regarded as one of the meanings of *c?ak- 'hit, strike', but the semantics 'strike fire' is attested quite early and allows to use the Turkic material in the Altaic comparison.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?akyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"light grey, greyish blueface="Times New Roman Star"светло-серый, серовато-голубой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr (MK, Tefs.) (of eyes)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akyrface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yr (of eyes)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|ir-qano|t 'a white-eyed dunbird, нырок белоглазый'face="Times New Roman Star"c?eqir (of eyes)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr 'dried in the sun, bleached'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr 'yellow'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekir 'grey (of eyes), wall-eye'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'grey (of eyes, horses)', s?egir 'grey (of eyes)'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'colourless (of eyes)'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'whitish'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yr 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr
face="Times New Roman Star"s?egir (of eyes)

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, TMN 2, 77, EDT 409, Федотов 2 387. Despite Fedotov c?okur 'variegated' is not related, it is < Mong. c?obkur (v. sub *s?op`e/). Despite Ra"sa"nen borrowed from Mong. can be only Yak. c?akyr 'white (of a horse)' (cf. also Dolg. c?akyr, see Stachowski 72), and perhaps the front-row forms (Kirgh. c?ekir, Kaz. s?egir, KKalp. s?egir - because of their restriction to the Kypch. area); but Mong.. c?akir / c?ekir 'whitish' is itself an obvious Turkism (see TMN ibid., Clark 1977, 134 with doubts). The root should be distinguished from nasalized forms: Oyr. c?an|qyr, Chuv. senker, Yak. c?en|gir, z?|en|gir, Kirgh. c?enkil, c?an|yl with the same set of meanings ('whitish, blue', often of eyes) = Mong. (Khalkha) cenxer id.; those should be compared with Tokh. A, B tsem. 'blue (of eyes)', Pers. zanga:r 'verdigris', whence Tat. za"n|ga"r (from Pers. zang 'rust', further derived with *za:'to leave, remain', Sak. ysa:ya" 'rust', Osset. zga", see Bailey 348-349). This is most probably an Iranian loanword in Turkic, Tokh. and Mong. (although a Chinese origin - cf. MC chien| 'blue' - is also possible). Cf. VEWT 104 (Turk. < Mong.), 531.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ia:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 time, measure 2 precisely, exactlyface="Times New Roman Star"1 время, пора 2 точно, впоруface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2 (late OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) c?aq 'when (conj.)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|q 1, c?o|qum 'certainly'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:G 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 1, sag|a 'about (the time when, the size of)'face="Times New Roman Star"haga 'about (the time when, the size of)'; sagyna 'while'face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, s?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"saq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, c?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:q, c?aq 'up to'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| (K), caq (H) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Егоров 327, Лексика 67, EDT 404, ДТС 139, Федотов 2, 425, Stachowski 92-93, 208. Forms like Chag. c?ag|, Uygh. c?ag| or Tof. s?ag| 'time' are borrowed < Mong., but this cannot be assumed for most other forms quoted above.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"new-born childface="Times New Roman Star"новорожденный ребенок, детеныш

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|a (dial.); c?ag|a 'young of birds' (Old Osm. XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?aqa (Pav. C.), (Xwar.) c?aqa 'young of birds' (Фазылов 2, 511)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqalo|q, (Tashk.) c?aqaface="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children' (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:Ga








face="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children'face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"bala-s?ag|a 'children'



face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, Менгес 1979, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?a:jface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small river 2 sand, pebbles 3 flood, freshet 4 shallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 речка 2 песок, галька 3 половодье, наводнение 4 мелководный

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1, c?eke 2


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:j 1, c?a":ge 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajyq 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj-r-am 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 2 (?)





face="Times New Roman Star"saj 'a river weed' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj (in the hydronym qarac?aj)




face="Times New Roman Star"The word is poorly attested (almost only in some modern Oghuz languages and Chag., see VEWT 95, Лексика 94; the Yakut parallel is phonetically unclear - borrowed from Tuva or Altai?). Turk. *c?a:j-ka (Turkm. c?a":ge, Chag. c?eke) > Kalm. ceke|: (KW 426). The forms (despite semantic difference) may have an Iranian origin: Pers. (Pekhl.) c?a:h 'well, spring' < *c?a:t|a > Av. c?a:ta, Kurd. c?a:l, Bel. c?a:t, Osset. c?ad 'lake', Wakhi c?ot 'pond' (Horn 97, Аб. 1, 285, 329, Расторгуева 1990, 191, ЭСВЯ 130); a certain Persian loan is Khal. c?a: 'Brunnen, Grube'. Osset. c?'aj 'well' is regarded by Abaev as a borrowing from Pers. through Georgian (c?.a 'well'). The relationship to the verbal stem c?a:j- 'to swill' (ОСНЯ 3, 59-60) ( < 'wash water off from the surface'?) is yet to be determined.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"grey, grey-headedface="Times New Roman Star"серый, седой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"c?al 'grey hair'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al 'having grey hair amid black hair' (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|l 'old man'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:lface="Times New Roman Star"c?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al

face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyr 'light-bay (horse); pepper-and-salt (hair)'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"s?al 'old man'face="Times New Roman Star"s?alface="Times New Roman Star"salface="Times New Roman Star"c?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"s?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 417, VEWT 96, TMN 2, 31, Аникин 640. Turk. > WMong. c?al, Kalm. cal, Khalkha cal bu:ral 'grey-haired, roan'; Russ. чалый.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sia:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wild 2 to be astonished 3 to slanderface="Times New Roman Star"1 дикий 2 быть изумленным 3 клеветать
face="Times New Roman Star"sas? 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"s?as?- 2




face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:s?- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?as?qa- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?uldra 'pert'













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 405.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)a:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fame, good reputation, newsface="Times New Roman Star"слава, хорошая репутация , новости
face="Times New Roman Star"c?av (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?av
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aw (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab-lag| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-tyg| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"c?apface="Times New Roman Star"c?ov (may be < Az.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, EDT 393. Final -p in Siberian languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:b-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whip-lashface="Times New Roman Star"плеть
face="Times New Roman Star"c?avyg|, c?ag|yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avun 'leather whip'





face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v-la- 'to lash with a rod, whip'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъvъs? 'sound of the whip or rod', c?ъw|vas?-la- 'to lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"? s?avy-la- 'to lash (of branches)'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 395. See also under *c?y:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epil/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a half-year or 1-year-old kidface="Times New Roman Star"(полу)годовалый козленок
face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis?, c?epic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivic?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"pis?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebis?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apis? ( < Az.?)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?emic?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 399, Щербак 1961, 120. Cf. also Chag. c?iber 'mountain goat' (R). The reflex -b- in Turkm. and Uygh. may be an indication of original vowel length (?) Shcherbak's hypothesis of the word being borrowed < Iranian is dubious; Pers. c?apis?, c?apus? itself may well be borrowed < Turkic. In any case, the Persian form cannot be a regular IE match for Lat. caper. Cf. WH 1, 157, sub caper: "Np. c?apis?...lautlich unmo"glich"; indeed, Common Iranian -p- (< IE -p-) > Mod. Pers. and NW-Iran. -b-, in exceptional cases -v- (Расторгуева ЗИФ 114-115); a parallel for caper may perhaps be found in Sak. cau_, Osset. ca"v 'goat' (see Аб. 1, 307, Bailey 105). One should mention the problematic "Wanderformen" Rum. cap, Alb. tsap, Ital. dial. cappo, Crim.-Goth. stap, Slav. *ca//pъ 'he-goat'; cf. also Oyr. c?a:p 'one year-old roebuck' ( < Mong.?). See Трубачев 1960, 89-90, Orel 47 with literature; note especially Hubschmid's (1954, 49) hypothesis of the Turkic origin of this Wanderwort.
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