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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)ajaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rock 2 mountain 3 slopeface="Times New Roman Star"1 скала 2 гора 3 склонface="Times New Roman Star"qaja (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja (Houts., AH, Ettuhf., Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qo|je| 1face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qija 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gaja 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Ga:ja, Gaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 2face="Times New Roman Star"kaja 2face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"xaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1, qyja 3 ('oblique slope' - through contamination with *kyj- 'oblique')
face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaja 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyja 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 221, TMN 3, 565, EDT 674-5, Ё—“я 5, 198-199, Ћексика 96, Stachowski 133.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hit, knock, tearface="Times New Roman Star"бить, стучать, рвать
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kak-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq- (Houts., AH, Qutb, MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|q-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gax-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-, qaqyl-face="Times New Roman Star"xax-
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-


face="Times New Roman Star"kakryj- 'break into small pieces'face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qa'q-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 223, Ё—“я 5, 221-222, Stachowski 135.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)aly-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sky 2 to clear up (of sky)face="Times New Roman Star"1 небо 2 про€сн€тьс€ (о небе)face="Times New Roman Star"qalyq (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"(ko"k) qalyq 1 (MK)











face="Times New Roman Star"? jъl- 'to shine, glitter'face="Times New Roman Star"kilej-xalaj 'shining', xalyn- 2, xalla:n 'clear sky, good weather'face="Times New Roman Star"kalla:n 1











face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 226, Ћексика 60-61, Stachowski 135.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kiamface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shaman 2 to shamanize, come into movementface="Times New Roman Star"1 шаман 2 камлать, приходить в движениеface="Times New Roman Star"qam 1, qamla- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qam (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kam 1face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1 (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1 (AH, IM, Pav. C.), qamla- 2 (Sangl.)




face="Times New Roman Star"xam 1, xamna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1face="Times New Roman Star"qam 1, qamda- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jomъs/, jumъz/@ 1face="Times New Roman Star"xam-na:- (xam-sa:-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kamna:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xam 1face="Times New Roman Star"xam 1





face="Times New Roman Star"qamz|y 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, TMN 3, 402-406, Ё—“я 5, 240-241, ≈горов 348-349, ‘едотов 1, 486, Stachowski 136.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be satisfiedface="Times New Roman Star"быть удовлетвореннымface="Times New Roman Star"qan- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan- (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"kan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) qan- (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|n-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gan-face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:n-face="Times New Roman Star"xan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-

face="Times New Roman Star"xan-face="Times New Roman Star"kan-face="Times New Roman Star"xan-
face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-

face="Times New Roman Star"qan-
face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 632, VEWT 230, Ё—“я 5, 251-252, Stachowski 136.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:j-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to slide 2 to swim 3 skisface="Times New Roman Star"1 скользить 2 плавать 3 лыжи

face="Times New Roman Star"kaj-, dial. kajp- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaj- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:j- 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qaj- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xajyhar 3face="Times New Roman Star"kan/yhar, ka:n/yhar, xa:har 3face="Times New Roman Star"xaj- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qajpy- 1








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, Ё—“я 5, 197-198, Stachowski 137 (nasalization in Dolg. is unclear).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cover (n.) 2 gate, door 3 to closeface="Times New Roman Star"1 крышка 2 ворота, дверь 3 закрыватьface="Times New Roman Star"qapag|, qapyg| (Orkh., OUygh.) 2, qapg|y (Orkh.) 2, qapaq (OUygh.) 1, qap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qapug| (MK, KB), qapg|aq (MK) 1, qapug| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kapak 1, kapy 2, kapa- 3, kap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qapqaq 1, qapqa 2, qapla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabag| (Qutb.) 1, qapu (Houts., Pav. C.) 2, qabug| (Qutb.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|pe|qo|q 1, qo|pqe| 2, qo|ple|- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qap(q)aq 1, dial. qobug| 2, qapla- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"GapaG 1, Gapy 2, Gapa- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gapaq 1, Gapy 2, dial. Gap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xaxpax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xobъ 1, xop(la)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xappax 1face="Times New Roman Star"kappakta:- 'to cover'face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qapqaq 1, qapqa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1, qapy 2, qaqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 1, qapy 2, qap(l)a- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qapqa 2, qapla- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1, qapy 2, qaqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qa:vu 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qapu 2, qabaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 203, TMN 3, 369, Ё—“я 5, 160, 263-264, 274-275, Ћексика 510, ‘едотов 2, 358-359, Stachowski 138 (there is also a variant *Ka:p- - due to merger with another root *Ka:p-, v. sub *k[a:]p`a/; the meaning 'cover' here is probably secondary). Turk. > Mong. qabqag| 'cover' (whence Evk. kapkak, see Doerfer MT 125), qabqa 'gate', see TMN 3, 371, 415, Hung. kapu 'gate', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"blackface="Times New Roman Star"черныйface="Times New Roman Star"qara (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qara (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qara (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|face="Times New Roman Star"qara, dial. qareface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"xoraface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, TMN 3, 426-432, EDT 643-4, Ё—“я 5, 286-289, 299-100, Ћексика 592-593, Stachowski 138, ‘едотов 2, 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")face="Times New Roman Star"1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращениеface="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z karasy 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|c?iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar(i)c?uq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z Garasy 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2, dial. xarac?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ xori 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2face="Times New Roman Star"karak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaras?yq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, Ё—“я 5, 295-296, јшм. VII, 36, Ћексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. go"z karasy result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see Ё—“я 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarys 'care, wariness', Dolg. karysta:- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)arba-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to grope (for smth.) 2 to grasp (with hands or teeth) 3 to swim (grope through water with hands and feet) 4 to rake upface="Times New Roman Star"1 нащупывать 2 хватать (руками или зубами) 3 плавать (хвататьс€ за воду руками и ногами) 4 сгребатьface="Times New Roman Star"qarva- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qarva- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kavra- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- (Qutb)



face="Times New Roman Star"Gabra- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xarba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qarba- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"xarba:- 2,3,4face="Times New Roman Star"karba:- 'to row, swim'face="Times New Roman Star"qarban- 3










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 646, VEWT 243, Ё—“я 5, 302-303, ћудрак 103 (with a wrong attribution of Tuva xyr-). Despite Kal/. MEJ 42, Stachowski 139, forms like Yak. xarba:- are hardly borrowed < Mong. qarma- (on which see under *k`ar/a).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 opposite 2 be opposite, meet 3 banditface="Times New Roman Star"1 противоположный 2 встречатьс€ 3 разбойникface="Times New Roman Star"qars?y (OUygh.) 1; qaraqc?y (OUygh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"qars?u (MK, KB), qars?y (KB) 1, qaraqc?y (KB) 3, qaraqla- (MK) 'to rob'
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Abush.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"qe|re|qc?i 3


face="Times New Roman Star"Gars?y- 2; Garaq 3



face="Times New Roman Star"xir@s/- 2; xorax 3face="Times New Roman Star"xar, xa:r 1 (ѕек.); xar-da 'retaliation'; xarys- 'to fight (with each other)'face="Times New Roman Star"kar-da 'retaliation', karys- 'to fight'

face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqc?y 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3


face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqs?y 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, Ё—“я 5, 294-295, 326-327, јшм. XVI, 219-220, ‘едотов 2, 365-366, Stachowski 139, 140. Chuv. xir@s/- may actually reflect a different root (see *geru"l/-), or a contamination. Turk. qars?y > Mong. qarsi (Clark 1980, 41). Cf. also *Karma 'robbery'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dig 2 to scrape, scratch 3 planeface="Times New Roman Star"1 копать 2 скрести, царапать 3 рубанокface="Times New Roman Star"qaz- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- (KB), qazy- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kaz- 1,2, kazy- 2, kazag|y 3face="Times New Roman Star"qazy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- (AH, Houts., MA, IM, Pav. C.) 1, (Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1, qazi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gaz- 1,2, Gazy- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"Gaz- 1, Gaza- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. xas- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xas- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"kas- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qazy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qad|y- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qaz- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 243, Ё—“я 5, 185-186, ћудрак 103, Stachowski 140. Chuv. -y- is not quite clear here.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/, *Kar/-dyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark 2 scales 3 dandruff 4 to peel bark 5 to husk nutsface="Times New Roman Star"1 кора 2 чешу€ 3 перхоть 4 сдирать кору 5 лущить орехиface="Times New Roman Star"qadyz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaz, qad|yz 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qajry 1, dial. qajyz 1; qajyzla- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qazg|o|q 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qazdyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xastyryx 1


face="Times New Roman Star"xujъr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qatyryk 1; xasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"kasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"qazyryq 2, qazy- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qa's- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajry, dial. qajyd| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 218, 243, EDT 608, 665, Ё—“я 5, 211-212, 328, ‘едотов 2, 352, Ћексика 107. The original form here is *Kar/; a suffixed form was *Kar/dy(r/), later simplified to *Kadyr/. This can be clearly seen from forms like SUygh. and Khak. Another possible explanation could be an early dissimilation (*Kar/-yr/ > *Kadyr/ = *Kad|yr/, or already after the zetacism, *Kazyz > *Kad|yz). There is some confusion between *Kar/ and *Kas, *Kasuk in Old Turkic, but MK definitely spells the word as qaz.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kat-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to mix, add, tie toface="Times New Roman Star"смешивать, добавл€тьface="Times New Roman Star"qat- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qat- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat- (Sangl., MA, Pav. C., Qutb.)
face="Times New Roman Star"qat-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gat-face="Times New Roman Star"Gat-face="Times New Roman Star"xat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-
face="Times New Roman Star"xodъs? 'mixture'face="Times New Roman Star"xat- (but kytar- 'to mix')face="Times New Roman Star"kat-face="Times New Roman Star"qa't-face="Times New Roman Star"qa't-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"qat-

face="Times New Roman Star"qat-
face="Times New Roman Star"qat-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 594-595, VEWT 241, Ё—“я 5, 336, 337-338, Stachowski 141, ‘едотов 2, 373-374.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Katface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"layerface="Times New Roman Star"слойface="Times New Roman Star"qat (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qat (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"katface="Times New Roman Star"qatface="Times New Roman Star"qat (Houts., AH, IM, MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|t, dial. qe|tface="Times New Roman Star"qat
face="Times New Roman Star"Gatface="Times New Roman Star"Gatface="Times New Roman Star"xat
face="Times New Roman Star"qat
face="Times New Roman Star"xutface="Times New Roman Star"xat 'double, X times'face="Times New Roman Star"kat 'X times'face="Times New Roman Star"qa't
face="Times New Roman Star"qat

face="Times New Roman Star"qat


face="Times New Roman Star"qat
face="Times New Roman Star"qatface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 241, Ё—“я 5, 335-336, TMN 3, 419, Stachowski 140, јшм. XVI, 250-255, ‘едотов 2, 371-372. The original meaning must have been "one of two layers" - as witnessed by the Yak. meaning and by external evidence.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:ta-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stick into 2 nailface="Times New Roman Star"1 вонзать(с€) 2 гвоздь

face="Times New Roman Star"kada- 1, kadak 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- (Abush., Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qado|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qatag| 2face="Times New Roman Star"GadaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"Gadaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xudav 2 (Anatri)face="Times New Roman Star"xata:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kata:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadag| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qado: 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2



face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 217-8, Ё—“я 5, 180-182, TMN 3, 420-422, јшм. XIV, 257, Stachowski 141. Because of the lack of ancient attestation one cannot exclude a borrowing < Mong. (although the variant qadag|a is very poorly represented there, and may itself be borrowed < Turk.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kadyn|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"birch treeface="Times New Roman Star"береза
face="Times New Roman Star"qad|yn| (MK), qajyn| (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kajyn 'beech tree'face="Times New Roman Star"qajynface="Times New Roman Star"qajyn (Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|jinface="Times New Roman Star"qejin
face="Times New Roman Star"Gajyn 'maple tree'face="Times New Roman Star"Gajyn|face="Times New Roman Star"xazyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qazyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn|
face="Times New Roman Star"xorъnface="Times New Roman Star"xatyn|face="Times New Roman Star"katyn|face="Times New Roman Star"xadyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qadyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn|face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn


face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn|

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 218, TMN 3, 183, Ё—“я 5, 214-215, Ћексика 122, ‘едотов 2, 366, Stachowski 141.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to stay behind, remainface="Times New Roman Star"оставатьс€face="Times New Roman Star"qal- (Orkh., OUygh., Yenis.)face="Times New Roman Star"qal- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal- (Sangl., Qutb., Houts., AH, IM, MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|l-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gal-face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:l-face="Times New Roman Star"xal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-
face="Times New Roman Star"jol-face="Times New Roman Star"xa:l-face="Times New Roman Star"ka:l-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"qal-

face="Times New Roman Star"qal-
face="Times New Roman Star"qal-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 615-616, VEWT 224, Ё—“я 5, 226-227, ≈горов 347, ‘едотов 2, 483, Stachowski 142.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to throw, strike down 2 to move, walkface="Times New Roman Star"1 кидать 2 двигатьс€, ходитьface="Times New Roman Star"qam- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qam- 'to lower' (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"qam- 'to lower' (MN)








face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|m- 'махать, замахиватьс€'face="Times New Roman Star"xa:mp- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ka:m- 2











face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, EDT 625; Stachowski 142. The connection of OT qam- and Yak. qa:mp- is rather problematic, but possible (we are not aware of other etymologies). For the Yak. word cf. perhaps Bur. xamby 'packtrain, caravan'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bloodface="Times New Roman Star"кровьface="Times New Roman Star"qan (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qan (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ganface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qa:nface="Times New Roman Star"jonface="Times New Roman Star"xa:nface="Times New Roman Star"ka:nface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"xanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"Ga(:)nface="Times New Roman Star"qanface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 360-361, EDT 629-630, Ё—“я 5, 251, ≈горов 349, ‘едотов 2, 486, Stachowski 142. Turk. > WMong. qana- 'to let bleed' (KW 166, TMN 3, 361, ўербак 1997, 133).
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