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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"meliface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"муравейface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (MK - Chigil)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mo"ldu" (R - Bar.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"/umadu 'small ants' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umo|liface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ma"la" (R - Tar.)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?umaly, dial. c?ubaly



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyl 'maggot'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 423, VEWT 121, Ћексика 184.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, ≈горов 323, ‘едотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see јникин 677.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delveface="Times New Roman Star"1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковыр€ть 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углублениеface="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oku- 1, c?ukur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqy- 1, c?oqy- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); c?uqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); c?ux-la- 3 (MA 137)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.qi- 1, c?uqu-la- 2, 3, c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 1, c?uqanaq, c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"sox-la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, 3





face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, c?uqu- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqy- 1, soqo- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to sting', c?og|y- 1 (K), c?/сuqu/yr 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *c?oky- 'to peck' and *c?uky- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ortanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eel 2 pikeface="Times New Roman Star"1 угорь 2 щука

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?urtan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.rtan 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?orton 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|rdan, s/ъw|rtan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sordon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"hordon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?orton 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sortan 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, Ћексика 178, Stachowski 108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ibface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nail, peg 2 corner 3 penis 4 firface="Times New Roman Star"1 гвоздь, колышек, чека 2 угол 3 penis 4 хвойное деревоface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iv 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"(c?iz?| 1 MK - a miswriting instead *c?iv?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"j 'wedge, cotter'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"a" 3 (R, by animals), c?iva" 'space between legs above the knees', c?ivila"n 'back saddlegirth' (fixed with a wooden peg)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iis? 'wedge'







face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j, c?u"w, (K) c?ivij 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, 121, EDT 393-394, 396, Ћексика 125, 398. Because of well known semantic correlations of the type 'penis': 'thorn': 'fir (needle)' it is tempting to compare also the name of the fir-tree: Tat. dial. ( —““) c?ivi, cyvy, Khak. syby, Shor s?u"be, Oyr. c?ibi (Tuba c?yby), Tuva s?ivi, Tof. s?ibi. However, the intermediate form meaning 'thorn' is not attested, and the medial consonant here is rather *-p- (unless we suppose interdialectal loans), so it may be unrelated.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sybul/ganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"earth-wormface="Times New Roman Star"червь, дождевой червь
face="Times New Roman Star"sovus?g|an (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"soluz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"sualc?anface="Times New Roman Star"sog|ulz?|an (AH, Pav. C.), solunz?|an (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwalc?an|face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwalc?an|
face="Times New Roman Star"soxulz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"sog|ulz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"so:sxan (dial.), somysxan
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ojlos?qon
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъw|vъw|rъw|lz?|an, s/o"lz/en, s/@w|v@w|lz/en

face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjlas?qyn
face="Times New Roman Star"so":lz?|an, so"ju"lz?|an
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ylaws?anface="Times New Roman Star"si>la"wsi>nface="Times New Roman Star"suwalc?anface="Times New Roman Star"soluz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"suwalc?an, swalcan
face="Times New Roman Star"sug|ulz?|unface="Times New Roman Star"suwalc?anface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 425, EDT 793-794. The PT form can be reconstructed despite numerous expressive irregularities.
face="Times New Roman Star"*de:-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to sayface="Times New Roman Star"сказать, говоритьface="Times New Roman Star"te- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"te- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"di-face="Times New Roman Star"di- (Abush.), te- (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"da"-face="Times New Roman Star"di-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"di:-face="Times New Roman Star"t@-face="Times New Roman Star"te-face="Times New Roman Star"de-
face="Times New Roman Star"te-face="Times New Roman Star"die-face="Times New Roman Star"die-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"te-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"ti-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"dij-face="Times New Roman Star"de-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 467-8, EDT 433-4, Ё—“я 3, 221-224, Stachowski 79. Kypchak and some other languages preserve voiced d- due to the word's grammaticalized usage.
face="Times New Roman Star"*de.g-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to touch, to reachface="Times New Roman Star"дотрагиватьс€, достигатьface="Times New Roman Star"teg- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"teg- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dej-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"teg- (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"deg-face="Times New Roman Star"ta"g-
face="Times New Roman Star"da"j-face="Times New Roman Star"deg-face="Times New Roman Star"tig-face="Times New Roman Star"teg-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"ta"j-face="Times New Roman Star"tiv-face="Times New Roman Star"ti:-j-face="Times New Roman Star"ti:j-face="Times New Roman Star"deg-face="Times New Roman Star"deg-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"tej-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"di-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"tij-
face="Times New Roman Star"tij-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 468-469, EDT 476, Ё—“я 3, 173-175, Stachowski 224. Sal. des?-, dial. tes?-, tejis?- 'to burn' must be derived from the same root ("to reach fire"). A very complicated issue is the relationship of this root to PT *de:k, *de:ki- 'to, up to' (usually acting as a postposition) - see Ё—“я 2, 182-185, EDT 477 (added should be also Yak. dieki 'in the direction of', Dolg. diek, diegi 'side', see Stachowski 79). The phonology here is quite puzzling: one would be tempted to regard the medial -k- as an archaism (see below on the irregularity of *-g- in Turkic), but the open long *-e:- presents great difficulties (since the verbal root itself most definitely has a short closed *-e.-). A possible solution is to correct the reconstruction *de:k(i) to *de.ge-ki and regard the *-k(i) as an original locative suffix; this seems plausible because another attested form of the postposition is *de.gi-n (cf. especially reflexes like Tat. dial. tin|, KKalp. dejin, Kaz. deji>n, Nogh. dejim).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:d-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sober up 2 sober, consciousface="Times New Roman Star"1 трезветь 2 трезвый, сознательныйface="Times New Roman Star"adyn- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yl- (MK,KB), ad|yn- (MK, KB) 1, ad|yg| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyl-, dial. aj(yh)-, Osm. ajyn- 1, ajyk 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. ajyl- 1, ajyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyl- (Sangl.) 1, ajyq (Houts., Pav. C., IM) 2, ajyg| (IM, Qutb) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. ajyq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ajyl- 1, ajyG 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:jyl- 1, dial. ajyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyg| 2


face="Times New Roman Star"orъl- 1, orъ 2



face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1, ajyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1, ajyq 2


face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1, ajyq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 113-114, EDT 46, 61, ‘едотов 2, 285.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 weft, woof 2 warpface="Times New Roman Star"1 уто/к 2 основа тканиface="Times New Roman Star"arus?y arqag|y (Ough.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"arqag| (MK, IM) 1, arys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"arg|ac? (-z?|y) 1, eris?, Osm. arys? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"arg|ac? (Sangl.) 1, arys? (Sangl.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. arg|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"arqaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"arg|az?| 1, a"ris? 2face="Times New Roman Star"arGac? 1, arGa- 'шить кое-как', eris? 2face="Times New Roman Star"arg|a- 'вышивать гладью'
face="Times New Roman Star"arku: 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ura 1

face="Times New Roman Star"eris? 2










face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 25, 26 (confused with *arka-), EDT 216, 239, Ё—“я 1, 170, ‘едотов 2, 284, Ћексика 396. Turk. > WMong. arqag|, Kalm. arx@g| (KW 14, ўербак 1997, 101). The front row variant *eril/ is peculiar: it may reflect a merger with a different root, reflected in Chuv. arla- `to spin', with possible parallels in Mong. ere- `to wind, tie round', Nan. (Kur-Urm.) erin `band, necking' (“ћ— 2, 463).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.ry-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 clean, pure, to be clean 2 to clean, purifyface="Times New Roman Star"1 чистый, быть чистым 2 чиститьface="Times New Roman Star"aryg| (Orkh.), ary-, aryg| (OUygh.) 1, aryt- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ary-, aryg| (MK, KB) 1, aryt- (MK, KB) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ary 1, art- 2, Osm. aryt- 'to wipe'face="Times New Roman Star"aru 1face="Times New Roman Star"ary- (Abush.), aryg| (Abush., Sangl., Qutb), ary (Pav. C.) 1, aryt- (Sangl., Qutb) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. ari- 1face="Times New Roman Star"eriq 1face="Times New Roman Star"aryg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"dial. ary 1, aryt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aryG 1, art- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aryg| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"aru 1face="Times New Roman Star"aryg| 1, arut- 2face="Times New Roman Star"yrъ 'good', irt- 'перебирать €годы, очищать дерево от сучьев'face="Times New Roman Star"yra:s 1, yryt- 'перебирать €годы'face="Times New Roman Star"yras 1face="Times New Roman Star"aryg| 1, aryt- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aru: 1face="Times New Roman Star"aru 1
face="Times New Roman Star"aryw 1face="Times New Roman Star"aryw 1

face="Times New Roman Star"aruw 1

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 198, 213, VEWT 27, Ё—“я 1, 184-186, ћудрак ƒисс. 182, Stachowski 261.
face="Times New Roman Star"*aryl/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thillface="Times New Roman Star"оглобл€

face="Times New Roman Star"dial. arys?face="Times New Roman Star"arys?face="Times New Roman Star"arys? (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. aris?


face="Times New Roman Star"arys?









face="Times New Roman Star"arysface="Times New Roman Star"arysface="Times New Roman Star"arys?face="Times New Roman Star"arys?
face="Times New Roman Star"arys?face="Times New Roman Star"arys
face="Times New Roman Star"arys?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 26, TMN 2, 40-41, Ё—“я 1, 189-191, Ћексика 555. Turk. > Kalm. ars? 'thill' (KW 15). The word is attested late, and Clauson 1965, 166 proposes a loan < Arab. ?|aris..
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:tu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bootface="Times New Roman Star"ботинок, сапогface="Times New Roman Star"etu"k (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"etu"k (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"edikface="Times New Roman Star"iti>kface="Times New Roman Star"etu"k (Pav. C.), o"tu"k (Ѕор. Ѕад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) a"dik, o"tik, o"tu"kface="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"k

face="Times New Roman Star"a":dikface="Times New Roman Star"o"d@k
face="Times New Roman Star"o"du"k
face="Times New Roman Star"adъface="Times New Roman Star"eterbesface="Times New Roman Star"eterbesface="Times New Roman Star"idikface="Times New Roman Star"idikface="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"kface="Times New Roman Star"etikface="Times New Roman Star"etik



face="Times New Roman Star"etikface="Times New Roman Star"i:tix, itixface="Times New Roman Star"etikface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 50, VEWT 52, Ё—“я 1, 319-321, ≈горов 36, Ћексика 479, Stachowski 48.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"gdeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 the projecting bone behind the ear 2 back of head 3 back of axeface="Times New Roman Star"1 выступающа€ кость за ухом 2 затылок 3 обух топораface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"gte (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"gdei (MK) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?u"jda" 2


face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"wde 2, 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s/iv@t, s/u"t@ 'woman's plait' (јшм.)




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jde 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jde 2, cerebellumface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"jd|a" 'papilla of the first neck vertebra, back side of blade'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jde 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 414, ≈горов 213, ‘едотов 2, 116 (both gloss the Chuv. word as obscure), Ћексика 202.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tu"piface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 high wind 2 dust-storm, stormface="Times New Roman Star"1 вьюга 2 пылева€ бур€
face="Times New Roman Star"tu"pi 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tipi 2

face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) du"bu"la"j 2








face="Times New Roman Star"tibi: 1, tip- 'to blow'face="Times New Roman Star"tibi: 1, tip- 'to blow (of a snowstorm)'face="Times New Roman Star"du"vu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"to"p`o" 2






face="Times New Roman Star"du"belej 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 436, VEWT 503, Ћексика 48, Stachowski 222, 223. The Uzb. and KKalp. forms may reflect a merger with PT *tu"ge-le(j) (v. sub *t`u>ge).
face="Times New Roman Star"*emge-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to suffer, be tortured 2 bother, worry, painsface="Times New Roman Star"1 страдать, подвергатьс€ пыткам 2 хлопоты, мучение, трудface="Times New Roman Star"emge- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"emge- 1, emgek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"emen- 1, emek 2face="Times New Roman Star"imge|n- 1, imge|k 2face="Times New Roman Star"emgen- (AH, Pav. C.) 1, emgek (AH, Abush.), emek (Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. emge|k 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. e|mge|n- 1, e|mge|k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"a"ma"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"emgen- 1, emgek 2



face="Times New Roman Star"aman- 1, amak 'illness'face="Times New Roman Star"emek 'decrepit'
face="Times New Roman Star"en|bek 'chronic illness'
face="Times New Roman Star"emgek 2face="Times New Roman Star"en|bek 2face="Times New Roman Star"embek 2face="Times New Roman Star"imge|n- 1, imge|k 2

face="Times New Roman Star"emgen- 1, emgek 2


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 159, VEWT 42, Ё—“я 1, 272-275, 25-26. Turk. > Mong. emge- (ўербак 1997, 114).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAl/-makface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"boot, shoeface="Times New Roman Star"ботинок, обувь
face="Times New Roman Star"bas?maq (MK Oghuz), bas?aq (MK Chigil), bas?maq (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"bas?mak, pas?makface="Times New Roman Star"bas?maqface="Times New Roman Star"bas?maq (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. (Khorazm) bas?-lyq 'heel-piece of a boot'

face="Times New Roman Star"bas?maGface="Times New Roman Star"bas?maq, pas?maq ("heel of a camel; boot")








face="Times New Roman Star"bas?maq-ta- 'to sole (a boot)'
face="Times New Roman Star"bas?maqface="Times New Roman Star"bas?maqface="Times New Roman Star"bas?maq

face="Times New Roman Star"bas?maq
face="Times New Roman Star"bas?maqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 382-383, Ё—“я 2, 93-95, ќ—Ќя 3 69, TMN 2, 293-294. Doerfer's inner etymology (bas?mak with vowel elision < *bas?a-mak from *bas?a- 'to cut, make notches') is impossible: bas?a- is derived from *ba:l/(c?) 'wound' with a long vowel, while bas?mak has a short one.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.jyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 salt steppe 2 sandbank 3 gravel 4 sandface="Times New Roman Star"1 солончак 2 песчаный берег 3 гравий 4 песок
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 1, 4 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"kajyr 2
face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) qajyr (Houts. 94, AH 74)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qe|jir 3


face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Gajyr 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"xъjъr 4face="Times New Roman Star"xajyr ta:s 3
face="Times New Roman Star"xajyr 1

face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 4



face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyr 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 221-222, EDT 678, Ё—“я 5, 206, 217, Ћексика 97. Turk. > WMong. qajir, Kalm. xa":r (KW 180).
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAryl/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wolfface="Times New Roman Star"волк

face="Times New Roman Star"kas?kyr, dial. kas?g|yr 'a bear'

face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qe|s?qir, dial. qe|rs?iqul







face="Times New Roman Star"kas?kъr < Qypch.



face="Times New Roman Star"qarys?qyrface="Times New Roman Star"qasqyrface="Times New Roman Star"qarysqyr, qasqyr


face="Times New Roman Star"qas?qyrface="Times New Roman Star"qasqyr

face="Times New Roman Star"Ћексика 160., Ё—“я 5, 352.
face="Times New Roman Star"*asygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"profitface="Times New Roman Star"прибыль, выгодаface="Times New Roman Star"asyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"asyg| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"asy
face="Times New Roman Star"asy (IM), assyg| (Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. as go"r- 'to help'face="Times New Roman Star"dial. assy






face="Times New Roman Star"ozъface="Times New Roman Star"as












face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 29, Ё—“я 1, 196-197, ≈горов 277, Ћексика 344, ‘едотов 2, 290-291. Turk. > Mong. asig| > Man. ajsi (TMN 2, 58-59, ўербак 1997, 102).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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