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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymyc?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"small fingerface="Times New Roman Star"мизинецface="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?amuq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?amuq (MK)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?alo|qface="Times New Roman Star"c?imalik


face="Times New Roman Star"symalc?yx, c?ymalc?yxface="Times New Roman Star"s?ymalyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ymal (dial.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?umas?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?alaq








face="Times New Roman Star"Дыбо 322-323, Лексика 256. See ibid. a number of other forms, probably going back to the same stem, but restructured phonetically because of the root's expressive nature.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yg (?-y:-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 reed 2 reed mat 3 things woven from reedface="Times New Roman Star"1 тростник, чий 2 тростниковая циновка 3 изделия, плетеные из чия (тростника)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg| (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg| (MK) 'reed screen'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|, c?ig| 'reed partition'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg| 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig| 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ig| 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?ijboj 'любисток' (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 2

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 107, 110; EDT 404, 412. Turk. > MMong. (HY 20) c?ix, WMong. c?ig, Khalkha c?ig, Ord. c?i:g 'bamboo screen'. The Nogh. form may be a compound; for the second part cf. *byn/an.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:gan/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 poor 2 mischief 3 impolite, roughface="Times New Roman Star"1 бедный 2 беда, несчастье 3 грубый, неучтивыйface="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|an/ (Orkh.), c?yg|aj (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (MK), c?yg|an (MK - Argu) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj, c?yg|an (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (R), c?yg|an (R, Pav. C.) 1




face="Times New Roman Star"sa:j 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?a:j 2












face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr 2 (with an unexplained -r)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yn 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 107, EDT 408-409, Лексика 334. Chuv. c?uxan 'poor' may be of different origin (cf. an aberrant reflex of *g), cf. c?ux 'mediocre', c?uxъ 'poor' ( < *jok?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ibface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nail, peg 2 corner 3 penis 4 firface="Times New Roman Star"1 гвоздь, колышек, чека 2 угол 3 penis 4 хвойное деревоface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iv 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"(c?iz?| 1 MK - a miswriting instead *c?iv?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"j 'wedge, cotter'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"a" 3 (R, by animals), c?iva" 'space between legs above the knees', c?ivila"n 'back saddlegirth' (fixed with a wooden peg)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iis? 'wedge'







face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j, c?u"w, (K) c?ivij 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, 121, EDT 393-394, 396, Лексика 125, 398. Because of well known semantic correlations of the type 'penis': 'thorn': 'fir (needle)' it is tempting to compare also the name of the fir-tree: Tat. dial. (КСТТ) c?ivi, cyvy, Khak. syby, Shor s?u"be, Oyr. c?ibi (Tuba c?yby), Tuva s?ivi, Tof. s?ibi. However, the intermediate form meaning 'thorn' is not attested, and the medial consonant here is rather *-p- (unless we suppose interdialectal loans), so it may be unrelated.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ir/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drawface="Times New Roman Star"чертитьface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iz- (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-, syz- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-(mo|q)face="Times New Roman Star"siz-(maq)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-yr- 'to scrape, plane'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/yz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?@r- 'to draw, scrape, tear'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-, syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"hyd|-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"cyz-, c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-
face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 112, EDT 432, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413-414. The variant *syr/- is probably due to assimilation.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"glowing heat, glowing coalsface="Times New Roman Star"жар, тлеющие угольяface="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.g|face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq, c?og|face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o:gface="Times New Roman Star"sog|face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq

face="Times New Roman Star"suosface="Times New Roman Star"huos

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqface="Times New Roman Star"s?oq







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, 114, Лексика 366-367, EDT 405, Stachowski 113 (Yak. suos = Tur. c?ogas? 'sun heat'). Turk. > WMong. c?og|, Kalm. cog (KW 429, TMN 2, 119, Щербак 1997, 113). Mong. > Yak. c?ox.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 noisy, talkative man 2 blasphemyface="Times New Roman Star"1 болтун, болтовня 2 богохульствоface="Times New Roman Star"c?o/ulvu (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alan| 1 (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 418, 420.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружаться, нырять 2 плавать, купаться 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see Федотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, Егоров 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epu"rekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rag, patch 2 worn, used clothingface="Times New Roman Star"1 тряпка, лохмотья 2 изношенная одеждаface="Times New Roman Star"c?opra (perhaps = c?o"pre) 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"pu"r-c?epu"r ; c?opra ( ? c?u"bra") 2 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star" (OKypch.) c?u"prek 1 (Houts.)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"prek 'oakum'face="Times New Roman Star"su"brek 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"bu"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?eberek, c?ibirek 1





face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pu"rek, c?u"pu"rek-c?apyraq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?iberek, s?u"berek 1face="Times New Roman Star"sepra"k 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iprek, ciprek, c?u"pra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"berek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pu"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 398, VEWT 118 (confused with *c?o"p 'dirt'), Аникин 677. Perhaps (as suggested in EDT 398) connected with Karakh. (MK) c?o"pu"r 'goat's hair', Chag., Turkm. c?o"pu"r id.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 big vessel, barrel, pail 2 basinface="Times New Roman Star"1 большой сосуд, бочка, чан, кадка 2 бассейн, яма для стока водыface="Times New Roman Star"c?opun 1 (OUygh., late - Suv.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opul 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sapc?aq (AH) (OKypch.)




face="Times New Roman Star"saban, sapc?ax 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/o"ps/e 1face="Times New Roman Star"sabaraj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?opulaq 'spoon'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aps?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sapsaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"capcaq, c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aps?aq 'wooden vessel for shaking up milk'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, ДТС 153, Егоров 223,Федотов 2, 148-149. Forms with -u- in the second syllable demonstrate vowel assimilation (c?opu- < *c?apu-). External parallels strongly suggest that the word is not derived from *c?ap- 'hit', but is an original noun.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delveface="Times New Roman Star"1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковырять 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углублениеface="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oku- 1, c?ukur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqy- 1, c?oqy- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); c?uqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); c?ux-la- 3 (MA 137)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.qi- 1, c?uqu-la- 2, 3, c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 1, c?uqanaq, c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"sox-la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, 3





face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, c?uqu- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqy- 1, soqo- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to sting', c?og|y- 1 (K), c?/сuqu/yr 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *c?oky- 'to peck' and *c?uky- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see Аникин 677.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"steppe, desertface="Times New Roman Star"степь, пустыняface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lig 'name of a country' (Orkh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l



face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'field, plaza'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'steppe, desert'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"su"l 'desert'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 122-123, EDT 420. Turk. > WMong. c?o"l 'desert' (because of uncertainty of OT c?o"lig doubted by Clark 1977, 135).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ugface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bundle 2 to bind, pack, wrapface="Times New Roman Star"1 связка 2 связывать, упаковывать, обматыватьface="Times New Roman Star"c?ug| 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ug| 1, c?ug|-la- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?ug| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olg|a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ug| 'yoke' (Pav. C.), c?ulg|a- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulg|a- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulg|a- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sulg|a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?u 1 (R), s?ulg|a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?u: 1, c?u:-la- 2 (R)

face="Times New Roman Star"su: 'wrapper', su:-la:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"hu:-la:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ug|la- 'to cover (with a blanket)'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u: 1, (South.) c?uq 'swaddle' (*c?uguk), c?ulg|a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?uw-maq 1, s?ulg|aw 'портянки'face="Times New Roman Star"s?uw-maq 1face="Times New Roman Star"syw 'placenta', solg|a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulg|a- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulg|a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?uw-maq-la- 2, s?ulg|a-n- 'обертываться портянками'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 119, EDT 405, 407, Stachowski 114.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"gdeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 the projecting bone behind the ear 2 back of head 3 back of axeface="Times New Roman Star"1 выступающая кость за ухом 2 затылок 3 обух топораface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"gte (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"gdei (MK) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?u"jda" 2


face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"wde 2, 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s/iv@t, s/u"t@ 'woman's plait' (Ашм.)




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jde 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jde 2, cerebellumface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"jd|a" 'papilla of the first neck vertebra, back side of blade'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jde 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 414, Егоров 213, Федотов 2, 116 (both gloss the Chuv. word as obscure), Лексика 202.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"meliface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"муравейface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (MK - Chigil)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mo"ldu" (R - Bar.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"/umadu 'small ants' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umo|liface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ma"la" (R - Tar.)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?umaly, dial. c?ubaly



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyl 'maggot'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 423, VEWT 121, Лексика 184.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to turnface="Times New Roman Star"поворачиватьface="Times New Roman Star"ebir- (Orkh.), evir- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"evu"r- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"evir-
face="Times New Roman Star"evir-, iber- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"wu"r- (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"o"wu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ibi>r-face="Times New Roman Star"ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"ebir-
face="Times New Roman Star"avъr-




face="Times New Roman Star"u"ji>r-
face="Times New Roman Star"a"wir-





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 14, VEWT 34, ЭСТЯ 1, 498-500, Егоров 20.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>c?aj / *e>c?ejface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 old man or woman 2 mother 3 grandmother 4 sister (of woman) 5 mother (if the grandmother is still alive) 5 mother (addr. to an elder woman) 6 aunt, sister of father 7 elder brother 8 uncle 9 ancestor 10 Father! (to the God) 11 old man, elder man 12 husband 13 younger brother of father's father 14 grandfather 15 fatherface="Times New Roman Star"1 старый мужчина или женщина 2 мать 3 бабушка 4 сестра (женщины) 5 мать (при живой бабушке) 5 мать (обр. к пожилой женщине) 6 тетя, сестра отца 7 старший брат 8 дядя 9 предок 10 Отче! (обр. к Богу) 11 старик, пожилой человек 12 муж 13 младший брат деда 14 дед 15 отецface="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 7, 8 (Orkh.), ec?u" 9 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 1 (MK), ec?u" 10 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|u (dial.), ez?|e 11face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a, az?|i, e|z?|i 5 (dial., ТТДС 22, 551), azyj, e|zi 11, 15 (dial., ТТДС 23, 540)
face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?a, ac?a 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 6face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y 4, ac?a 12, 15

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"Leb. az?|y, az?|a 7, ac?a 13
face="Times New Roman Star"az/a 15face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 15face="Times New Roman Star"as?'a, az?|a 7, 15face="Times New Roman Star"ac?aj 5, az?|a 11

face="Times New Roman Star"a"sa" 2




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|aj 5, ec?iw 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 35, ЭСТЯ 1, 231-235, TMN 2, 15, Егоров 35, Лексика 299, Clark 1977, 128, Stachowski 43. Shortness is suggested by pharyngealization in Tofalar, so the variants with -z?|- are probably due to expressive gemination (*ac?c?V / *ec?c?V).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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