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face="Times New Roman Star"*bokakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"crop, crawface="Times New Roman Star"зоб
face="Times New Roman Star"boqaq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bog|ak
face="Times New Roman Star"boqag|u (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"buqo|qface="Times New Roman Star"poqaq
face="Times New Roman Star"buxaGface="Times New Roman Star"buqawface="Times New Roman Star"pog|o
face="Times New Roman Star"bog|oq

face="Times New Roman Star"mog|ox


face="Times New Roman Star"bog|oqface="Times New Roman Star"bug|aq
face="Times New Roman Star"bog|aqface="Times New Roman Star"bog|aq

face="Times New Roman Star"bug|aq
face="Times New Roman Star"bug|aqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 79, TMN 2, 349, ЭСТЯ 2, 202, Лексика 150.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bukaguface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fetters, chain, stringface="Times New Roman Star"путы, цепь, веревкаface="Times New Roman Star"buqag|u (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"buqag|u (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bukag|yface="Times New Roman Star"bog|awface="Times New Roman Star"buqag|u, buqaw (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"bu.g|o|w

face="Times New Roman Star"buxovface="Times New Roman Star"buqaw



face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|g|av 'iron manacles'face="Times New Roman Star"baka:jy (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"bog|ooface="Times New Roman Star"bug|awface="Times New Roman Star"bug|awface="Times New Roman Star"byg|awface="Times New Roman Star"bug|owface="Times New Roman Star"buqaa, byqaaface="Times New Roman Star"buqov, bug|uwface="Times New Roman Star"bug|aw
face="Times New Roman Star"bug|awface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 314, VEWT 87, ЭСТЯ 2, 248-250, Егоров 152, TMN 2, 277-278. Turk. > Mong., cf. MMong. buxa'u (SH) id., see TMN ibid., Щербак 1997, 108. Yak. baka:ji with irregular -a- and -k- may reflect some interdialectal loan. Turk. > Hung. be/ko/ (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu:c?-gak, -makface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"(outer) corner, angleface="Times New Roman Star"внешний угол
face="Times New Roman Star"buc?g|aq (MK) 'region of the world, corner'face="Times New Roman Star"buz?|akface="Times New Roman Star"poc?maqface="Times New Roman Star"buz?|aq (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"buz?|ag|face="Times New Roman Star"bu:z?|aq 'lower ends of a winebag'



face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|s/mex








face="Times New Roman Star"buz?|aqface="Times New Roman Star"buc?aq, buc?qaq


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 85, ЭСТЯ 2, 282-283. Despite EDT 294 and Clark 1980, 38, not derived < *byc?- 'cut' (because of semantic and phonetic - vowel length and vowel quality - differences).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to bow, bend 2 to curve, bend, wrap smth.face="Times New Roman Star"1 сгибаться, кланяться 2 сгибать, складывать, свертывать
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bo"g- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 1 (Sangl. Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"buk- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV) 2
face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 'a bend, flexion'; bu"gu"le:- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 'to wrap'
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k/g- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bo"go"- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"g-u"l- 1 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"po"x- 2 (ССЯ 454)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 324, VEWT 91-92, ЭСТЯ 2, 290-293.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bile-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sharpen 2 whetstoneface="Times New Roman Star"1 точить 2 точильный камень
face="Times New Roman Star"bile- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"bile- 1face="Times New Roman Star"bele|w 2face="Times New Roman Star"bile- 1,bilew 2 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"bila"- (Jarr.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"lo"v, bilo"v 2face="Times New Roman Star"bilev 2face="Times New Roman Star"p@lo" 2 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"pile 2face="Times New Roman Star"bilu" 2
face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|lev 2

face="Times New Roman Star"bili- (Castr.- Soj.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"lo" 2face="Times New Roman Star"bilew 2face="Times New Roman Star"bilew 2face="Times New Roman Star"bela"w 2face="Times New Roman Star"bile- 1, bilew 2face="Times New Roman Star"bile- 1, bila" 2face="Times New Roman Star"bile- 1, bu"lew 2

face="Times New Roman Star"bile- 1, bilew 2face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 2, 142-143, EDT 332-333 (< *bi 'blade', denom. - but Turkm. shortness contradicts this derivation). Turk. *bile-gu" > Mong. *bile-g|u" id., see Щербак 1997, 106.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"ru"-, *bu"r-ke-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to cover upface="Times New Roman Star"покрывать, закрывать
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"n- 'to be covered' (MK, KB), bu"rkek 'cloudy', bu"rku"r- 'to become cloudy' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"- (also of clouds), bu"rge, bu"rgu" 'kerchief, thin curtain'face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rke|-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke- (MA, Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"burka-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"(r)ka"-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"re-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"rge-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"rge-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-
face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|rke-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"j-; bu"rku"j- 'to become cloudy'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"j-; bu"rku"k 'cloudy'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rge- (also of clouds)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rhu"-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rko"-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rka"-n- 'to be covered', bo"rko"u" 'stifling'
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rke- (also of clouds)face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 363, 367, ДТС 133, VEWT 92, ЭСТЯ 2, 296-298, Stachowski 68. The form in -ke- is an intensive and can hardly be regarded as a mongolism.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"r/- / *bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to wrinkleface="Times New Roman Star"морщиться
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (MK, KB), bu"z- (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (dial.), bu"z-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"buris?-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"(r)-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"z-, bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-, bu"z-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"r-


face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|r-



face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"r-

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 92, EDT 355, ЭСТЯ 2, 294-296 (contaminates with *bu"r- 'to cover'). Егоров 157, Федотов 1, 421.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ia:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 time, measure 2 precisely, exactlyface="Times New Roman Star"1 время, пора 2 точно, впоруface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2 (late OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) c?aq 'when (conj.)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|q 1, c?o|qum 'certainly'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:G 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 1, sag|a 'about (the time when, the size of)'face="Times New Roman Star"haga 'about (the time when, the size of)'; sagyna 'while'face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, s?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"saq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, c?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:q, c?aq 'up to'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| (K), caq (H) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Егоров 327, Лексика 67, EDT 404, ДТС 139, Федотов 2, 425, Stachowski 92-93, 208. Forms like Chag. c?ag|, Uygh. c?ag| or Tof. s?ag| 'time' are borrowed < Mong., but this cannot be assumed for most other forms quoted above.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"new-born childface="Times New Roman Star"новорожденный ребенок, детеныш

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|a (dial.); c?ag|a 'young of birds' (Old Osm. XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?aqa (Pav. C.), (Xwar.) c?aqa 'young of birds' (Фазылов 2, 511)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqalo|q, (Tashk.) c?aqaface="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children' (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:Ga








face="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children'face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"bala-s?ag|a 'children'



face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, Менгес 1979, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?a:jface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small river 2 sand, pebbles 3 flood, freshet 4 shallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 речка 2 песок, галька 3 половодье, наводнение 4 мелководный

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1, c?eke 2


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:j 1, c?a":ge 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajyq 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj-r-am 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 2 (?)





face="Times New Roman Star"saj 'a river weed' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj (in the hydronym qarac?aj)




face="Times New Roman Star"The word is poorly attested (almost only in some modern Oghuz languages and Chag., see VEWT 95, Лексика 94; the Yakut parallel is phonetically unclear - borrowed from Tuva or Altai?). Turk. *c?a:j-ka (Turkm. c?a":ge, Chag. c?eke) > Kalm. ceke|: (KW 426). The forms (despite semantic difference) may have an Iranian origin: Pers. (Pekhl.) c?a:h 'well, spring' < *c?a:t|a > Av. c?a:ta, Kurd. c?a:l, Bel. c?a:t, Osset. c?ad 'lake', Wakhi c?ot 'pond' (Horn 97, Аб. 1, 285, 329, Расторгуева 1990, 191, ЭСВЯ 130); a certain Persian loan is Khal. c?a: 'Brunnen, Grube'. Osset. c?'aj 'well' is regarded by Abaev as a borrowing from Pers. through Georgian (c?.a 'well'). The relationship to the verbal stem c?a:j- 'to swill' (ОСНЯ 3, 59-60) ( < 'wash water off from the surface'?) is yet to be determined.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"grey, grey-headedface="Times New Roman Star"серый, седой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"c?al 'grey hair'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al 'having grey hair amid black hair' (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|l 'old man'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:lface="Times New Roman Star"c?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al

face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyr 'light-bay (horse); pepper-and-salt (hair)'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"s?al 'old man'face="Times New Roman Star"s?alface="Times New Roman Star"salface="Times New Roman Star"c?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"s?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 417, VEWT 96, TMN 2, 31, Аникин 640. Turk. > WMong. c?al, Kalm. cal, Khalkha cal bu:ral 'grey-haired, roan'; Russ. чалый.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 bladeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвиеface="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?algy 9, c?algy orag|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|i u.ro|q 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|a 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al(y)- 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6, 7, c?alg|y 9face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 10, 7, 6, c?alGy 5, 11face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6face="Times New Roman Star"s/ol- 4, s/olъk 9face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyn- 'to fall abruptly'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aly- 10
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5, c?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 4, s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alqy 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alym 14face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 1, 4, calqy, calg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 4, c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *c?a:l- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *c?al- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)aly-(gan)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bush, shrub 2 nettle 3 thornface="Times New Roman Star"1 куст 2 крапива 3 колючка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alag|an 2 (R - Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alo|w 'ковыль волосистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'солянка кустарниковая'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|yn, (R) s?alg|anaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqanc?aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alu 'eine Pflanze zum Verbrennen'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqan 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'blackthorn; thorn'



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, Лексика 110. Clauson (EDT 420) relates here OT (МК) c?alqan 'spread of an injury' which is not quite probable (rather a derivative from the polysemic c?al-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turban 2 noose, lasso 3 to plait, wrap 4 to bind by throwing the rope 5 to become entangled 6 to entangle 7 band, strap 8 to bind around, wrap around 9 to plaitface="Times New Roman Star"1 тюрбан 2 аркан, лассо 3 заплетать, заворачивать 4 связывать захлестом, наметывать 5 заплетаться 6 запутать 7 тесьма, завязка 8 обвязывать, обматывать 9 плести

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, 'flask fastened to the saddle' (Pav. C., Sangl.), 'apron' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al-(mo|q) 4, c?alma 1; band, facingface="Times New Roman Star"c?al-ma-s?- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 3, c?als?yq 'entangled (of a rope)'face="Times New Roman Star"salba (Sag.) 'лычко для метания камней'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 2, dial. (Leb.) c?aly- 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?alba 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?alys?qaq 'criss-crossing'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alg|yc? 7, c?alma 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?alma 1, s?aluw 7face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 8, salma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 9, c?alman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 8, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 8, calma 1, calman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 9, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 420, VEWT 97, Лексика 395. Turk. > Mong. c?alma, salma 'lasso', see TMN 4, 316-317, Щербак 1997, 163 (although the meaning 'lasso' is not widely spread in Turkic, Doerfer suggests that it may have been the original, pre-Islamic, meaning of the derivative *c?al-ma). Note Chuv. c?ъw|lg|a- 'to entangle' - usually derived as a loanword < Tat. c?ulg|a- < PT *c?og-la-, but in this case one would rather expect c?ulg|a- - so the Chuv. form may actually reflect PT *c?ial-. The root is attested late, but does not seem to be borrowed, or a specialized development of *c?al- 'hit, chop' (as suggested in TMN).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycombface="Times New Roman Star"1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2, c?apla 3, c?apa 4, c?apak 12face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 6, 1, c?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|p- 5, 7, c?o|pqi 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqu 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'p- 1, 5, 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2, c?apGy 4, c?apGyr 9face="Times New Roman Star"sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpy, sapxy 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 6, s?apqy 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqy 10, 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/up- 1, 11, s/opkas/ 14face="Times New Roman Star"saba:- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 2, s?ap-ta- 15face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-ty 17, s?apty-la- 16face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 7, 1, c?apqy 4, 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ab- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apanaq 18face="Times New Roman Star"cap- 1; c?ap- 1, 5, c?apa 19face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-, c?a'- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, c?apg|y 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sia:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wild 2 to be astonished 3 to slanderface="Times New Roman Star"1 дикий 2 быть изумленным 3 клеветать
face="Times New Roman Star"sas? 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"s?as?- 2




face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:s?- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?as?qa- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?uldra 'pert'













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 405.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strike fire 2 flint, fire steelface="Times New Roman Star"1 высекать огонь 2 кремень, огнивоface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq-tas? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yn 'spark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|-/saq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-/c?aq- 'to produce sparks, shoot from a flint gun'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 'to pull the trigger', c?aqma 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, TMN 3, 80-81, Лексика 373. Kypch. > Chuv. c?akma 'fire steel', whence > Mari, Udm. (Федотов 2, 387). The verb is usually regarded as one of the meanings of *c?ak- 'hit, strike', but the semantics 'strike fire' is attested quite early and allows to use the Turkic material in the Altaic comparison.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Elface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?el-tik 4; c?elpik 3 (Red. only)face="Times New Roman Star"cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alpak 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"lpa"k 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5, c?el-tik 6

face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4




face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2, c?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el 2, 'fat under skin', s?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el-te- 'to husk grain'



face="Times New Roman Star"s?elpek 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. c?el-tik > Pers. c?altuk, s?altu:k (despite VEWT 104). Turk. c?elpek > Pers. c?alpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *c?el-pek developed under the influence of the similar *c?apak (see under *c?ap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y/im 1, c?imgen 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imen 2, c?im 1; c?emen 'тмин; пажитник'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aman 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?ima"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?emen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym-c?olg|aj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
face="Times New Roman Star"c?emene 'потничная трава'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n, c?ima"n 2 (< Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?em/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym 1; c?emirc?ek 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also c?ymyldyq 'повилика', c?ymyldyryq, c?ymyndyq (dial.) 'чина')face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?imen 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"The primary root is *c?ym 'turf', whence *c?im-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. c?aman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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