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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*bialykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"city, fortressface="Times New Roman Star"город, крепостьface="Times New Roman Star"balyq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"balyq (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"balyq (Pav. C.)

face="Times New Roman Star"balyq, paluq




face="Times New Roman Star"baluq 'деревня'face="Times New Roman Star"pu"ler













face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 2, 257, EDT 335-336, ЭСТЯ 2, 59, ОСНЯ 3, 91, Лексика 485, Мудрак Дисс. 194.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:ke- (? i:-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be insolent, quarrelface="Times New Roman Star"быть дерзким, ссориться
face="Times New Roman Star"ike-, ikes?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"iges?-face="Times New Roman Star"eges?-




face="Times New Roman Star"i:gen- 'to scold, growl at'




face="Times New Roman Star"eg|e 'faultfinding', eg|ele:- 'to find faults'
face="Times New Roman Star"egen- 'to feel uncomfortable'
face="Times New Roman Star"eges?-face="Times New Roman Star"eges-face="Times New Roman Star"eges-






face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 101, 118-119.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"songface="Times New Roman Star"песняface="Times New Roman Star"yr (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"yr (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"yr (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"yr (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"yr (Pav. C., AH)



face="Times New Roman Star"yr (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"yr
face="Times New Roman Star"yr

face="Times New Roman Star"yryaface="Times New Roman Star"yryaface="Times New Roman Star"yrface="Times New Roman Star"yrface="Times New Roman Star"yr








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 192, VEWT 166, 201, Лексика 610, Stachowski 261. The root should be kept distinct from *jyr, although actively contaminating.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:tag
face="Times New Roman Star"islandface="Times New Roman Star"остров

face="Times New Roman Star"adaface="Times New Roman Star"atawface="Times New Roman Star"(CCum.) atov



face="Times New Roman Star"a:da



face="Times New Roman Star"odъ













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 87-88, TMN 2, 19, Федотов 2, 295.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sor/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to dragface="Times New Roman Star"тащить


face="Times New Roman Star"sus-

face="Times New Roman Star"soz-
face="Times New Roman Star"soz-face="Times New Roman Star"soz-




face="Times New Roman Star"sos-face="Times New Roman Star"hohun-

face="Times New Roman Star"soz-face="Times New Roman Star"soz-
face="Times New Roman Star"hud|-face="Times New Roman Star"soz-



face="Times New Roman Star"soz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 429, Stachowski 107.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Komur/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"musical instrumentface="Times New Roman Star"музыкальный инструмент






face="Times New Roman Star"qon|us, qon|ys

face="Times New Roman Star"xomys
face="Times New Roman Star"qomus

face="Times New Roman Star"qomus, qamys
face="Times New Roman Star"xomus
face="Times New Roman Star"qomuz







face="Times New Roman Star"qomuzface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 281, ЭСТЯ 6, 69-71.
face="Times New Roman Star"*elu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mockery, ridiculeface="Times New Roman Star"насмешка, издевательство
face="Times New Roman Star"elu"k (MK)






face="Times New Roman Star"ilgezik 'glib, jaunty' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"el@k













face="Times New Roman Star"elik


face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 264-265, EDT 142. Turk. > WMong. eleg, ileg, Khalkha eleg (KW 119).
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:c?- (?i:-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to submitface="Times New Roman Star"подчинятьface="Times New Roman Star"ic?ik- (Orkh., OUygh.), ec?ik- (Yen.)face="Times New Roman Star"ec?ik- (MK)



face="Times New Roman Star"ec?in- 'to repent, regret'

face="Times New Roman Star"ez?|i:z 'weak, fenceless'face="Times New Roman Star"is- 'to obey'

















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 25.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"beltface="Times New Roman Star"поясface="Times New Roman Star"qur (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qur (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kurface="Times New Roman Star"qurface="Times New Roman Star"qur (Pav. C., Abush.), qor (AH)
face="Times New Roman Star"qor (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qur, qor

face="Times New Roman Star"xur
face="Times New Roman Star"qur

face="Times New Roman Star"kurface="Times New Roman Star"kurface="Times New Roman Star"qur
face="Times New Roman Star"qurface="Times New Roman Star"qur




face="Times New Roman Star"qur

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 301-302, EDT 642, ЭСТЯ 6, 150-152, Stachowski 162. Cf. also *ku"rm- 'to bind' (Sib.-Tat. ku"rmo", Oyr. ku"rma"-k, Bashk. ku"rim 'завязка для борти', see VEWT 311, Лексика 499 - if not < Mong. gu"rmel, see under *gur/i ).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kobu-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"empty, hollowface="Times New Roman Star"пустой, полыйface="Times New Roman Star"qovy (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qovy, qovuq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kovuk, gavyk (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"qovuq (AH)
face="Times New Roman Star"quaq (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"Govaq, Govuq, Govalc?, Govuzface="Times New Roman Star"xax

















face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 273, TMN 3, 415, ЭСТЯ 6, 5-6.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gu"r/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to lace, bind 2 part of loomface="Times New Roman Star"1 вязать, связывать 2 нитченки



face="Times New Roman Star"ku"zu"k (IM) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"go"ze- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"zu"g 2 (dial. North.)
face="Times New Roman Star"k@w|r@w| 2



face="Times New Roman Star"ku"zu"k 2








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 312-313, ЭСТЯ 5, 131.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kutuface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"group of peopleface="Times New Roman Star"группа людей
face="Times New Roman Star"qutu (KB)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 596.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kon|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 thick part of the thigh; muscles 2 behind, buttocksface="Times New Roman Star"1 толстая часть бедра; мышцы, мускулы 2 зад
face="Times New Roman Star"qon| (MK) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"qon|yr, qon|qyr 2






face="Times New Roman Star"kun| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qon| 'animal body'
face="Times New Roman Star"qon| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qon| 1, 2




face="Times New Roman Star"qon| 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 280, Clark 1977, 149, ЭСТЯ 6, 58-59. Turk. > Mong. Khalkha xongo, Kalm. xon| (although -o in the Khalkha form is suspicious and perhaps reflects a genuinely cognate PM *kon|go).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo"keface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a big snakeface="Times New Roman Star"большая змея
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ke (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 180, EDT 324. Clauson doubts MK's derivation of bo"ke 'warrior' from 'big snake' (MK quotes a folk-tale about the snake with seven heads called bo"ke, and says that the warriors are called by it); but external evidence rather supports Kashgari's point of view. If this is the case, MMong. bo"ko" 'warrior, wrestler' (whence Evk. buku etc., see Doerfer MT 235) must be a Turkic loanword (see EDT ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be bad-tempered, irritableface="Times New Roman Star"быть раздражительным, иметь плохой характер, сердиться, возбуждатьсяface="Times New Roman Star"bus?- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bus?- (MK, KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"pos?-face="Times New Roman Star"bus?- (Abush., Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"pus?-

face="Times New Roman Star"bu:s?-la- 'to be the first to communicate good news'face="Times New Roman Star"puzux- 'to be sad', puzu-r-a- 'to be inflamed'


face="Times New Roman Star"pъz?ъ-r-g|an- 'to be anxious, sad'

face="Times New Roman Star"buz?urg|an- 'to be anxious, angry'
face="Times New Roman Star"bys?-

face="Times New Roman Star"bos?-face="Times New Roman Star"bus?uw 'sadness'face="Times New Roman Star"bu:s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bus?urg|an- 'to argue, be disgusted'

face="Times New Roman Star"bus?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 90, EDT 377, ЭСТЯ 2, 284-285, Мудрак Дисс. 96, Егоров 152, Федотов 1, 410. The devoicing in a number of Kypch. languages may be caused by the influence of a Persian loan pus?man, pus?ajman 'remorse, regret' (Гаффаров 1, 97).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"k-tel-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"matureface="Times New Roman Star"зрелый
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ktel (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 325.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jub-gaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bastard, adopted sonface="Times New Roman Star"внебрачный, приемный сын
face="Times New Roman Star"juvg|a (MK, KB)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 874, VEWT 209 (erroneously united with juvqa 'soft, weak').
face="Times New Roman Star"*jugur- ( ? -y-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to kneadface="Times New Roman Star"меситьface="Times New Roman Star"jog|ur- (jug|ur-) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jour-
face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur- (MA, Houts.), jog|ur- (AH)
face="Times New Roman Star"jug|u(r)-, z?ug|u(r)-face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur-, jog|ur-face="Times New Roman Star"jog|ur-face="Times New Roman Star"jug|y:r-, jug|ur-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ura-face="Times New Roman Star"c?u:r-face="Times New Roman Star"jura-, d/ura-face="Times New Roman Star"jog|u:r-face="Times New Roman Star"s/@w|r-



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u:r-



face="Times New Roman Star"jur-

face="Times New Roman Star"jug|ur-
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 205, ЭСТЯ 4, 243-244, TMN 4, 173, EDT 906. Turk. > Hung. gyu/r- (Gombocz 1912, MNyTeSz 1, 1138).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jyl/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to rub, polishface="Times New Roman Star"тереть, полировать


face="Times New Roman Star"jys?- (Sib.)





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ys-
face="Times New Roman Star"jys?-















face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 202, ЭСТЯ 1, 667.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jargunface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"some kind of wild quadrupedface="Times New Roman Star"вид дикого четвероногогоface="Times New Roman Star"jarg|un (Orkh., OUygh.-YB)








face="Times New Roman Star"c?arg|yn '2-year-old bear-cub' (Борг.)





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ary 'a producent reindeer'
face="Times New Roman Star"jarg|yn 'a mongrel of a yak and cow'








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 963.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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