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\data\alt\turcet
 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*suk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stick in, insert 2 hollow wood, whistleface="Times New Roman Star"1 втыкать, вставл€ть 2 пола€ древесина, свистокface="Times New Roman Star"suq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"suq- 1, suqym 2 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"suq- (Qutb, Houts.)



face="Times New Roman Star"soq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sux- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"suq- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"uk- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"suq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"suq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sug|- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sug|- 1




face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 432, EDT 805, 811.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bEdir/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"painted ornamentationface="Times New Roman Star"рисованное украшениеface="Times New Roman Star"bediz (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bed|iz (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 310, VEWT 67.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ko"rkeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wooden dish, bowlface="Times New Roman Star"дерев€нное блюдо, чаша
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rge (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rge (Abush.), ko"rege (Sangl.)






face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rgu" 'ein grosses Birkenrindengefa"ss'
face="Times New Roman Star"korga 'scoop'









face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rege


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 742, VEWT 311, ‘едотов 1, 372.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?y-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 precious gift; wellbeing 2 to tend, make comfortable, be favourable 3 to pity, have compassionface="Times New Roman Star"1 драгоценный дар; благососто€ние 2 быть благопри€тным, благосклонным, ухаживать 3 жалеть, иметь состраданиеface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| 1, ac?yn- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 22, 29, Ё—“я 1, 92 (together with *ia:c?y- 'bitter'), Stachowski 29. Turk. > WMong. ac?ug| 'wages, rent' (L 8). In modern languages the root tends to be confused with *ia:c?y- 'bitter, bitterness' (v. sub *p`i_a:/c?`o), thus the Oghuz voicing may be a result of secondary contamination and not due to original vowel length; but the two roots are rather well distinguished in Old Turkic, see EDT ibid.
face="Times New Roman Star"*baj ( ? -n/)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 holy 2 God 3 true, reliable, honestface="Times New Roman Star"1 св€той 2 бог
face="Times New Roman Star"bajat 2 (MK - Argu, KB), bajyq (MK Oghuz, IM) 3face="Times New Roman Star"bajat 2, bajyq (dial.) 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bajat 2 (Abush., Sangl.)






face="Times New Roman Star"baj-lu 1, maj- 'first part in a number of theonyms', baj terek 'world tree'

face="Times New Roman Star"bajanaj 'name of a God'


face="Times New Roman Star"baj terek 'protection, advocacy'








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 385. See VEWT 56-57 (for derivatives), TMN 2, 379. The root should be probably distinguished from *ba:j 'rich' (v. sub *be:z?|u). An unattested Tuva source > Russ. dial. (Tuva) bajba/ 'spirit of hunting luck', see јникин 109. Yak. > Russ. (Yak.) bajanaj, see јникин 125-126.
face="Times New Roman Star"*so"kelface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"illface="Times New Roman Star"больной
face="Times New Roman Star"so"kel (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"so"kel
face="Times New Roman Star"so"ka"l (AH), so"ku"l (Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"so"ka"l (dial.)



















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 820, Ё—“я 7. The deriving stem is probably preserved in Turkm. so"k- 'to weaken'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sa:(j)-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to count, to considerface="Times New Roman Star"считать
face="Times New Roman Star"sa- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"saj-
face="Times New Roman Star"sa- (AH, IM), saj- (Ettuhf.)


face="Times New Roman Star"saj-face="Times New Roman Star"sa:j-



face="Times New Roman Star"su-, sъv-face="Times New Roman Star"a:-



face="Times New Roman Star"saj-


face="Times New Roman Star"saj-face="Times New Roman Star"saj-


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 390, EDT 781-782, Ё—“я 7, ‘едотов 2, 53. A common Turkic derivative is *sa:-n 'number, count' (VEWT 390, 400, Ё—“я 7), whence *sa:na- 'to count, determine' > Mong. sana- 'think' (cf. ўербак 1997, 144). Turk. > Hung. sa/m 'number, figure', sza/n - 'to pity' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bia:l/c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"woundface="Times New Roman Star"ранаface="Times New Roman Star"bas? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bas? (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bas? (dial.)





face="Times New Roman Star"ba:s?



face="Times New Roman Star"pu"z/ek 'scar'face="Times New Roman Star"ba:sface="Times New Roman Star"ba:sface="Times New Roman Star"bais/ (Krg. Castr. 124)










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 376, VEWT 65, Ё—“я 2, 88-89, ќ—Ќя 1, 172, ћудрак ƒисс. 90, 194, Stachowski 57. Usually united with balyg| 'wound, wounded', but cf. PA *ma:\li.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to turn back 2 to show respect 3 to squint; to move to smb.'s side 4 to run towards 5 to go past, aroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 оборачиватьс€ 2 выказывать уважение 3 косить глазами; переходить на чью-л. сторону 4 бежать к 5 обойти, пройти мимоface="Times New Roman Star"qaj- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaj- (MK) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kaj- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"qajla- 4

face="Times New Roman Star"xaj- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaj- (R) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"xaj- 5










face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5 208-209, EDT 674. Stachowski 137 adds Yak. xajys-, Dolg. kan/ys- '(to turn and) look around', which would change the reconstruction to *KAn/-; however, there are no other traces of a nasal in the root, and the comparison looks somewhat dubious.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bas-ygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a k. of tax 2 a coinface="Times New Roman Star"1 вид подати, налога 2 монетаface="Times New Roman Star"basyg| (OUygh.) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"bas, pas, ba:s 'price', pas-ly 'valued, expensive' (Sib.,  —““ 108, 177)









face="Times New Roman Star"pus 2













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 373, јшм. X, 4-5, ‘едотов 1, 449-450. The OT form is usually regarded as derived from *bas- 'to press' (v. sub *pa>\si), but external evidence suggests that this is one of the numerous inner Turkic folk-etymological reinterpretations. Chuv. pus "copec" needs some additional comments. According to ≈горов 166 it can either be derived from pus- 'break' < Turk. *bas- (according to Zolotnitski), or be borrowed from Pers. po:st "skin" > Tur. post, Uzb. pust 'id.' (Turkic forms see in VEWT 386). The latter hypothesis is rather improbable because the form means 'coin' only in Chuv., and because this borrowing is absent in other languages of the Volga region. VEWT 387 suggests Chuv. pus < Mari pus? 'debt, tax' < pu- 'give'. The word is absent from the Mari dictionary, one only finds пуышаш 'arrears'; cf., on the other hand, Udm. pus 'sign, subscription' < Chuv. puz@ id. < pus- 'to press'. This etymology is, therefore, equally dubious, and our equation of Chuv. pus = OT basyg| seems preferable.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sysface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of grassface="Times New Roman Star"мордовник











face="Times New Roman Star"sys qomurg|aj, qomuraj (qomurg|aj 'pipe')















face="Times New Roman Star"Attested only in Oyrot, with possible external parallels.
face="Times New Roman Star"{*Kok-}face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to decrease, diminish 2 deficient, emptyface="Times New Roman Star"1 уменьшатьс€ 2 недостаточный, пустойface="Times New Roman Star"qoq- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qoq- 1, qoquz 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kokuz 2face="Times New Roman Star"qug|yz 2 (dial.)




face="Times New Roman Star"Govuz 2face="Times New Roman Star"xox- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qoq- 1















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 609, 614, Ё—“я 6, 35-36.
face="Times New Roman Star"*To"genface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 brand 2 tinderface="Times New Roman Star"1 головн€ 2 трут
face="Times New Roman Star"to"gu"n (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"(Osm.) do"gu"n 'tattoo'
face="Times New Roman Star"to"gen (Abush., Sangl.) 1






face="Times New Roman Star"to"o"n 2

face="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"do":n 'wick'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 484. Turk. > WMong. to"gene, Khalkha to":n, Kalm. to":n@, Dag. tu@n 'cauterization' (L 832, KW 408, MGCD 643).
face="Times New Roman Star"*je.lbiface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sorcery, witchcraftface="Times New Roman Star"волшебство, колдовствоface="Times New Roman Star"jelbi (Orkh.), jelvi (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jelvi (MK)







face="Times New Roman Star"c?@lb@gen 'monster'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ilbiface="Times New Roman Star"jilbi, d/ilbi 'sorcery', ja"lba"ga"n 'monster'

face="Times New Roman Star"ilbi 'demoniac, possessed' (borrowed from a j-language?)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ilbi










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 919-920, Ё—“я 4, 202-203, VEWT 196 ( > Mong. z?|ilbi).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)an/ygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sin, evilface="Times New Roman Star"грех, злоface="Times New Roman Star"an/yg| (Orkh., OUygh.), ajyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajyg| (MK)












face="Times New Roman Star"ajy:face="Times New Roman Star"an/y:











face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 20, EDT 182, Ё—“я 1, 113, Stachowski 34.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sy:r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 arrow, tip of an arrow 2 sabre 3 fightface="Times New Roman Star"1 стрела, наконечник стрелы 2 сабл€ 3 битва








face="Times New Roman Star"sy:rma 2face="Times New Roman Star"syr 1


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъrъm 3face="Times New Roman Star"yrba 1












face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 418 (Khak.)
face="Times New Roman Star"*somface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 number; honour 2 shape, silhouetteface="Times New Roman Star"1 число, счет; почет 2 форма, вид









face="Times New Roman Star"som 2
face="Times New Roman Star"som 2face="Times New Roman Star"soma 2face="Times New Roman Star"som 1face="Times New Roman Star"omoon 2
face="Times New Roman Star"soma 2










face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 427, ‘едотов 2, 61-62, Ё—“я 7. The relationship to *so:m 'whole (piece)' (see ibid.) is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*suc?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to flee, shy away from smth.face="Times New Roman Star"убегать
face="Times New Roman Star"suc?y- (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"suc?u- (Qutb.)























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 795. Cf. perhaps also *suc? 'fault, avoiding to do smth.' (VEWT 431, EDT 794, Ё—“я 7).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ku:c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to embraceface="Times New Roman Star"обниматьface="Times New Roman Star"quc?- (Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"quc?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kuz?|-, koc?-face="Times New Roman Star"qoc?-face="Times New Roman Star"quc?- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"quc?-

face="Times New Roman Star"Guz?|-face="Times New Roman Star"Guc?-




face="Times New Roman Star"ku:s-face="Times New Roman Star"ku:s-

face="Times New Roman Star"quc?-face="Times New Roman Star"qus?-



face="Times New Roman Star"quc?-face="Times New Roman Star"qus?-

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 590, VEWT 295-296, Ё—“я 6, 105-106, Stachowski 163. Shortening in Turkm. is unclear (length in Yak. and voicing -c?- > -z?|- in Tur., Az. point to *-u:-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Enc?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"tranquil, at peaceface="Times New Roman Star"спокойный, мирныйface="Times New Roman Star"enc?; enc?sire- 'to be uneasy' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"enc? (MK, KB), enc?ru"-n- 'to live in peace' (KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"inc?u" 'peace' (dial., Bar., яЅ“ 139) dial.


face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ek-tyg| 'quiet' (я∆” 32)



face="Times New Roman Star"enc?u" 1, enc?ik- 'to get accustomed', enc?ik 'habit', enc?i-le- 'to soothe'















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 171-172, 173, 174, VEWT 172, 43.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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