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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to bow, bend 2 to curve, bend, wrap smth.face="Times New Roman Star"1 сгибаться, кланяться 2 сгибать, складывать, свертывать
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bo"g- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 1 (Sangl. Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"buk- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV) 2
face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 'a bend, flexion'; bu"gu"le:- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 'to wrap'
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k/g- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bo"go"- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"g-u"l- 1 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"po"x- 2 (ССЯ 454)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k- (-gV-) 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 324, VEWT 91-92, ЭСТЯ 2, 290-293.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bEdu"-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 big 2 highface="Times New Roman Star"1 большой, крупный 2 высокийface="Times New Roman Star"bedu"k 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bed|u"k 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"bijek 2face="Times New Roman Star"bejik 1, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bujuk 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ju"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bezyk 1face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"bejik 2face="Times New Roman Star"po"z@k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"mo"zu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"bijik 2face="Times New Roman Star"bidik/bu"du"k 1


face="Times New Roman Star"bedik 2face="Times New Roman Star"bedik 2face="Times New Roman Star"bijik 1face="Times New Roman Star"bijik 1face="Times New Roman Star"bijik 1face="Times New Roman Star"bejek 1face="Times New Roman Star"mijik 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu":k 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ju"k/ 1face="Times New Roman Star"bijik 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bijik 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 67, EDT 299-301, ЭСТЯ 2, 288-290. PT *bedu"-k 'big, high' is derived from *bedu"- 'to become bigger, grow' (OT bedu"-, Tur. bu"ju"-, SUygh. pezi-, Az. bo"ju"-, Khal. bidi-, Tuva bedi-, Gag. bu":-, Karaim bu"ju"-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to be destroyed, ruined 2 to destroyface="Times New Roman Star"1 разрушаться, разоряться 2 разрушать


face="Times New Roman Star"bo"l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"OKypch. bu"l- 'to remove, fire' (AH)













face="Times New Roman Star"bu"lu"n- 'to be alarmed'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"lin- 1, bu"ldir- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"l- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"l- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 92, EDT 332.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"rc?e / *bu"rgeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fleaface="Times New Roman Star"блоха
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rge (MK, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"pireface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rc?e|face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rge (MA, Pav. C., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"burgaface="Times New Roman Star"bu"rga"
face="Times New Roman Star"pira"face="Times New Roman Star"bu"re



face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|rz/a



face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rgo"face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rge, bu"rs?e (dial.), burs?a (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rs?eface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rsa"face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rc?eface="Times New Roman Star"pireface="Times New Roman Star"bu"rc?eface="Times New Roman Star"bu"rge
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rc?eface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 362, VEWT 92, ЭСТЯ 2, 298-299, Лексика 182-183. The Kypch. form *bu"rc?e is a diminutive.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bud 2 leaf 3 grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 почка 2 лист 3 зерноface="Times New Roman Star"bu"r 1 (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rc?u"k 1, bu"rtu"k 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ro" 1





face="Times New Roman Star"pu"r 2


face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|rz?|e 'grain, particle'face="Times New Roman Star"burduk 'flour'face="Times New Roman Star"burduk 'flour'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru" 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtik 3face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ro" 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtu"k 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtik 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 92, EDT 354, Лексика 114-115, Stachowski 67. Turk. > WMong. bu"r, Kalm. bu"r (KW 67).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"r/- / *bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to wrinkleface="Times New Roman Star"морщиться
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (MK, KB), bu"z- (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (dial.), bu"z-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"buris?-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"(r)-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"z-, bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-, bu"z-face="Times New Roman Star"pu"r-


face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|r-



face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"bo"r-

face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r-
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru"s?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 92, EDT 355, ЭСТЯ 2, 294-296 (contaminates with *bu"r- 'to cover'). Егоров 157, Федотов 1, 421.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Aj-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to chew 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 жевать 2 кусать

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ne-, c?ejne- 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|jne|- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"dajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"jna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:ne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"cajna-, c?ajna-, c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene-, c?a"ina"- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Рас. ФиЛ 168. Forms with t- in some Siberian languages are rather enigmatic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 bladeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвиеface="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?algy 9, c?algy orag|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|i u.ro|q 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|a 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al(y)- 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6, 7, c?alg|y 9face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 10, 7, 6, c?alGy 5, 11face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6face="Times New Roman Star"s/ol- 4, s/olъk 9face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyn- 'to fall abruptly'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aly- 10
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5, c?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 4, s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alqy 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alym 14face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 1, 4, calqy, calg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 4, c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *c?a:l- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *c?al- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turban 2 noose, lasso 3 to plait, wrap 4 to bind by throwing the rope 5 to become entangled 6 to entangle 7 band, strap 8 to bind around, wrap around 9 to plaitface="Times New Roman Star"1 тюрбан 2 аркан, лассо 3 заплетать, заворачивать 4 связывать захлестом, наметывать 5 заплетаться 6 запутать 7 тесьма, завязка 8 обвязывать, обматывать 9 плести

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, 'flask fastened to the saddle' (Pav. C., Sangl.), 'apron' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al-(mo|q) 4, c?alma 1; band, facingface="Times New Roman Star"c?al-ma-s?- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 3, c?als?yq 'entangled (of a rope)'face="Times New Roman Star"salba (Sag.) 'лычко для метания камней'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 2, dial. (Leb.) c?aly- 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?alba 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?alys?qaq 'criss-crossing'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alg|yc? 7, c?alma 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?alma 1, s?aluw 7face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 8, salma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 9, c?alman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 8, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 8, calma 1, calman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 9, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 420, VEWT 97, Лексика 395. Turk. > Mong. c?alma, salma 'lasso', see TMN 4, 316-317, Щербак 1997, 163 (although the meaning 'lasso' is not widely spread in Turkic, Doerfer suggests that it may have been the original, pre-Islamic, meaning of the derivative *c?al-ma). Note Chuv. c?ъw|lg|a- 'to entangle' - usually derived as a loanword < Tat. c?ulg|a- < PT *c?og-la-, but in this case one would rather expect c?ulg|a- - so the Chuv. form may actually reflect PT *c?ial-. The root is attested late, but does not seem to be borrowed, or a specialized development of *c?al- 'hit, chop' (as suggested in TMN).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 big vessel, barrel, pail 2 basinface="Times New Roman Star"1 большой сосуд, бочка, чан, кадка 2 бассейн, яма для стока водыface="Times New Roman Star"c?opun 1 (OUygh., late - Suv.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opul 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sapc?aq (AH) (OKypch.)




face="Times New Roman Star"saban, sapc?ax 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/o"ps/e 1face="Times New Roman Star"sabaraj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?opulaq 'spoon'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aps?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sapsaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"capcaq, c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aps?aq 'wooden vessel for shaking up milk'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, ДТС 153, Егоров 223,Федотов 2, 148-149. Forms with -u- in the second syllable demonstrate vowel assimilation (c?opu- < *c?apu-). External parallels strongly suggest that the word is not derived from *c?ap- 'hit', but is an original noun.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?en|eface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"челюсть



face="Times New Roman Star"c?an|a, c?en|e (Pav. C., AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"
face="Times New Roman Star"sen|ie







face="Times New Roman Star"c?ena"face="Times New Roman Star"cen|ge

face="Times New Roman Star"c?eneface="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 220. Despite Буд. 1, 483-484, D-T 98 the Pers. c?a:nah 'lower jaw' cannot be the source of Turkic forms; it does not have any Iranian etymology and is itself most likely a Turkism.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bodily heaviness, constipation (euphem.) 2 rotten, foul 3 to rot 4 illness 5 dirt 6 to be sick, ill 7 rot 8 glue 9 anguish, sorrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 запор (эвфем.) 2 гнилой, сгнивший 3 гнить 4 болезнь 5 грязь 6 болеть, хворать 7 труха, гниль 8 клей 9 тоска, скорбь
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 1 (MK), c?er-le-n- 'to be constipated; to suppurate (of eyes)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, c?irk 5, c?iris? 'flour paste'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 4, c?irla"- 4, c?ere- 3, c?erek 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 'tumeur, clou', c?ire- 'se de/gou/\ter'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irk 'snuff; hardened wheel ointment'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"r 'horse's heart attack', c?a"rla"- 6, c?irk 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?irk '(dirty) spot; insult', c?errik 'illness (of cattle)'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir, dial. c?e.r 4, s/@r- 3, 6, s/@r@k 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 9, 'hard tumour', c?erle- 'to be anguished', c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irenc? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, 9, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"sir 4, sere- 3, serek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iris? 8face="Times New Roman Star"ciri-, c?iri- 3, cirik, c?irik 2, c?yrys? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 9, s?ir- 3, s?irik 2, s?iris? 'slime'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, 9, c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irkew 'maggots in rotten food'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 427, 430, TMN 1077, Егоров 211-212, 326, Федотов 2,111-112, 420. As Doerfer notes, Turkic forms of the type c?irkin 'dirty, nasty, ugly' (Chag., Tur., Gag., Tat., Uzb.) are rather borrowed from Persian c?irkin (which itself is derived from c?irk, borrowed < Turkic).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 furuncle 2 rash, pimpleface="Times New Roman Star"1 фурункул 2 сыпь, прыщ
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqan (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwan 1, c?ebi 'цыпки'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipqo|n 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iban1, c?ivza" 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?y:ban 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyrg|an 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybytqan, (dial. - Верб.) c?ibis?ke 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|ban, s/ъw|van 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ivis?ki 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ibis?ki 2, 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjqan 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjqan, dial. s?uba 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'обметать губы', sebes?ke 'цыпки'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban 1face="Times New Roman Star"cyban, c?yban 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 106, EDT 396, TMN 3, 1151, Егоров 208, Федотов 2, 96. The Kaz. and Nogh. forms may be < Mong. (although they differ semantically).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"branchface="Times New Roman Star"ветка
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yp, c?ybyq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyk, c?ubukface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq [c?ybyrqy 'lash']face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iviqface="Times New Roman Star"c?iviq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuGface="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byqface="Times New Roman Star"symyxface="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъbъk 'lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?yvyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"sybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"cybuq, cubuq, c?ubuq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 395, VEWT 106, TMN 3, 1059, Лексика 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403-404. Forms meaning 'lash' reflect a contamination with PT *c?Abyk 'lash' (v. sub *c?`e:/bV).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sparrowface="Times New Roman Star"воробей, мелкая птица
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?apc?uq, c?ypc?yq (AH), s?yps?yq (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?ek, (dial.) c?abc?yk, c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?yq, dial. c?ypyjface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?uq, c?upc?uq (MA, Abush., Pav. C.), c?imc?ik (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umc?uqface="Times New Roman Star"tumuc?uq

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq, dial. c?ypz?|yq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?iges? 'titmouse' (Верб., Upper-Kond.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibilc?ik (dial.) 'a k. of bird' (R, Верб., Kumd.)





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq; c?imeldirek (South.) 'a small green bird'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybys?yqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yqface="Times New Roman Star"sa"pseq 'wagtail; (dial.) sparrow', sypqaj 'утка-поганка'

face="Times New Roman Star"cyfcyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yq
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|imc?iq, dial. c?imc?ikface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 109, Лексика 176. Turk. > Mong. c?ipc?iqaj (TMN 3, 123, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ykan(ak)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"elbow, forearmface="Times New Roman Star"локоть, предплечье


face="Times New Roman Star"cyg|anaq (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|anaq (Sangl., CCum., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eka"na"k (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|a"jna"kface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikenek

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|anaxface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|anaq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ike 'cubit'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?enekface="Times New Roman Star"c?e'hene|kface="Times New Roman Star"c?yqanaqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaq 'bay'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaqface="Times New Roman Star"syg|anaq (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yna
face="Times New Roman Star"cyg|anaqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaq

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, EDT 404, Егоров 325, Лексика 249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ir/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drawface="Times New Roman Star"чертитьface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iz- (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-, syz- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-(mo|q)face="Times New Roman Star"siz-(maq)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-yr- 'to scrape, plane'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/yz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?@r- 'to draw, scrape, tear'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-, syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"hyd|-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"cyz-, c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-
face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 112, EDT 432, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413-414. The variant *syr/- is probably due to assimilation.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ia:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 time, measure 2 precisely, exactlyface="Times New Roman Star"1 время, пора 2 точно, впоруface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2 (late OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) c?aq 'when (conj.)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|q 1, c?o|qum 'certainly'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:G 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax 1, sag|a 'about (the time when, the size of)'face="Times New Roman Star"haga 'about (the time when, the size of)'; sagyna 'while'face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, s?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"saq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, c?aq-ly 'this much'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:q, c?aq 'up to'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| (K), caq (H) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Егоров 327, Лексика 67, EDT 404, ДТС 139, Федотов 2, 425, Stachowski 92-93, 208. Forms like Chag. c?ag|, Uygh. c?ag| or Tof. s?ag| 'time' are borrowed < Mong., but this cannot be assumed for most other forms quoted above.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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