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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)aby-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to enjoy oneself, be happy (refl.) 2 to comfort (caus.)face="Times New Roman Star"1 радоваться, быть счастливым 2 утешать, успокаиватьface="Times New Roman Star"abynyq 'consolation' (USp. 43), avyn-c?u 'concubine' (YB 1)face="Times New Roman Star"avyn- 1 (MK), avyt- 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"avun- 1, avut- 2, 'to deceive'
face="Times New Roman Star"awut- 2, awun- 'to find comfort' (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|vun- 1, o|vut- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ovun- 1, ovut- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"abyt- 'to lull'face="Times New Roman Star"abyt- 'to lull'
face="Times New Roman Star"avun- 1, avut- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ya-hax 'play'face="Times New Roman Star"ya-hak 'play'face="Times New Roman Star"aat- 'to lull'face="Times New Roman Star"aat- 'to lull'




face="Times New Roman Star"aut- 'to deceive'face="Times New Roman Star"avun-, uvun- 'to be consoled', uvut- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 7, 12; VEWT 2, ЭСТЯ 1, 66, Stachowski 257. The meaning 'to lull' may belong to the homonymic *(i)abu- 'to bend, swing', on which see under *i_a>\p[o\].
face="Times New Roman Star"*apaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mother, elder sister, auntface="Times New Roman Star"мать, старшая сестра, тетяface="Times New Roman Star"apa (Yen.)face="Times New Roman Star"epe ? apa (Oghuz=Qarluq Tu"rkmen, MK)face="Times New Roman Star"aba (Ank.), dial. apaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"apa 'elder sister' (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|paface="Times New Roman Star"apa

face="Times New Roman Star"apa, afa (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"abic?e (< aba-ec?e)face="Times New Roman Star"abune (< aba-ene)



face="Times New Roman Star"avaface="Times New Roman Star"abaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"abaface="Times New Roman Star"apaface="Times New Roman Star"aba
face="Times New Roman Star"apaj (Q)face="Times New Roman Star"apa
face="Times New Roman Star"abaj, apajface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 5, ЭСТЯ 1, 158-159, ССЯ 290-291, Лексика 300, 301, TMN 2, 3, Аникин 90. Front row variants (Tur. eve, Kaz. ebej, Yak., Dolg. ebe etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 220-221, Stachowski 42) are recent and may have a Mong. origin.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ata / *Eteface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 father 2 uncle 3 ancestorface="Times New Roman Star"1 отец 2 дядя 3 предокface="Times New Roman Star"ata 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ata, ataqy 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3, dial. ede 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata, eti 1, etkej 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|ta 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3



face="Times New Roman Star"a'da 1face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 40, 48, VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 200-201, TMN 2, 5-6, 9, Лексика 294, 304.
face="Times New Roman Star"*adakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"footface="Times New Roman Star"ногаface="Times New Roman Star"adaq (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ad|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajakface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaq (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jo|qface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"ajaGface="Times New Roman Star"azaxface="Times New Roman Star"azaqface="Times New Roman Star"ad/aqface="Times New Roman Star"hada:q, hadaqface="Times New Roman Star"oraface="Times New Roman Star"ataqface="Times New Roman Star"atakface="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'bottom part'face="Times New Roman Star"adaq 'сошки; нижняя часть'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"ajaxface="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"aja(:)x|face="Times New Roman Star"ajaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5, EDT 45, ЭСТЯ 1, 103-105, Лексика 288, Федотов 2, 283, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ady-r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to separateface="Times New Roman Star"отделятьface="Times New Roman Star"adyr- (Orkh., OUygh.); adyn (OUygh.) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yr- (MK); ad|yn (MK) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajir-face="Times New Roman Star"ajra-, ajri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajry-face="Times New Roman Star"hadru-, hadur-face="Times New Roman Star"ojъr-face="Times New Roman Star"atyr-; atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 6, EDT 60, 66-67, ЭСТЯ 1, 93, 114-116, Федотов 2, 270, Stachowski 39. Turk. > MMo, WMong. az?|ira- (see Щербак 1997, 94), whence again Uzb. az?|ra- etc. (see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elderface="Times New Roman Star"1 старший брат; старший дядя; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старшийface="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ДТС)
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), ag|a 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1,2, qyz ag|a 'тесть' (ЯЖУ 11, 13)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:Ga 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father's father')face="Times New Roman Star"aqqa 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father'), 3face="Times New Roman Star"aga 'father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|aj 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 2 (K), ag|a 2, 3 (K, T)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 70-71, 121-122, Лексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касаться ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, ЭСТЯ 1, 99-100, 111-112, Егоров 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to takeface="Times New Roman Star"братьface="Times New Roman Star"al- (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"al- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"il-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"yl-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"al-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 124-125, VEWT 14-15, ЭСТЯ 1, 127-128, Егоров 68, Лексика 336, 337, Stachowski 259.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:laface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"variegatedface="Times New Roman Star"пестрыйface="Times New Roman Star"ala (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"o|laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"a:laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"hala-bulaface="Times New Roman Star"olaface="Times New Roman Star"ala
face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"ala-z?|aface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 126, VEWT 15, ЭСТЯ 1, 129-130, TMN 2, 95-97, Федотов 2, 274, Лексика 607.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lowerface="Times New Roman Star"1 низ, нижняя сторона 2 нижнийface="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (Yen. ПМК 90, OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (dial., ЯБТ 126)


face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1 (ЯЖУ 14)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"ald 1, altyg|y 2; alty 1 {(Баск. Туба)}face="Times New Roman Star"a[:]lt 1face="Times New Roman Star"old(ъ) 'gusset'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'ldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldyn 'в низовье реки' (Рас. ФиЛ 153)face="Times New Roman Star"ald(y) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (K)


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, ЭСТЯ 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *a:l 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but alty 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk alty 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see Дыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-ty- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *a>l is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alas?a 'low, low place' (КСТТ 100). Another possible old derivative in -c?ak may be PT *al/(c?)ak (Karakh. as?aq, Turkm. as?a:q etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *a:l/- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-c?ak (see ЭСТЯ 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alc?aq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' (КСТТ 101), Turkm. alc?ak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alc?ak 'mean, vile', alc?a- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alyg, see under *a:\le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alc?aq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alc?aq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -c?ak from the root al- (which is why -lc?- did not yield -s?- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alc?a-gar, alc?a-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alc?aji- 'to spread legs apart'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 front 2 forehead 3 in front of 4 towards the front offace="Times New Roman Star"1 перед 2 лоб 3 впереди, спереди 4 впередface="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (dial.), alyn 1, 2; 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-d-y 1, alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"aly 1 (Abush.), alny-da 'in the presence of' (Abush.), aldy (Babur) 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-d-i 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajl, aldi 1, al-dyn 3, al-g|a 4face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alym, alyn 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:lyn 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"alny 1face="Times New Roman Star"alny 1, alyn-da 3face="Times New Roman Star"aldy, alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"ha:nl(y), ha:ll 2face="Times New Roman Star"om 1

face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 'face, mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al-da 3, al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al, aldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"al, ally 1, al-da 3, al-g|a 4face="Times New Roman Star"anny 2face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1 (K), alyn 1 (T, H)face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-dan 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 121, 147; VEWT 14 (should be distinguished from *al- 'below'), TMN 2, 120, ЭСТЯ 1, 124-125, 146, Федотов 2, 280, Лексика 198-199. See EDT 121 commenting on the absence of early attestation of the suffixless form.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.nkajface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"young of ungulates (less than 1-year-old)face="Times New Roman Star"детеныш копытных животных (до года)











face="Times New Roman Star"anaj

face="Times New Roman Star"yn|a:x 'young of ungulates and bears'
face="Times New Roman Star"anaj, Todzh. a'najface="Times New Roman Star"anhaj









face="Times New Roman Star"Рассадин 154.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:r-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 back 2 mountain passface="Times New Roman Star"1 спина, задняя сторона; 2 перевалface="Times New Roman Star"art 1, 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"art 1, 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"art (-dy) 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1 (Pav. C.), 2 (Бор. Бад.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|rt 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"ard; art 1face="Times New Roman Star"ard 1face="Times New Roman Star"a:rt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"artyg| 'shoal'face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"ha:rt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"a:rtyk 2
face="Times New Roman Star"a'rt 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'rt 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"a:rd 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"ard/i 1face="Times New Roman Star"art 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 200-201, VEWT 26-27, ЭСТЯ 1, 179-180.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to openface="Times New Roman Star"открыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-
face="Times New Roman Star"os/-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"a's?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"as?-
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 18-19, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 209-210, Федотов 2, 292.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)al/, *(i)al/-a-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 meal, food 2 to eat 3 porridge 4 to feedface="Times New Roman Star"1 еда, пища 2 есть 3 каша 4 кормитьface="Times New Roman Star"as? 1, as?a- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1, as?a- 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as? 3face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1

face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?, o|:s? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1, as- 2face="Times New Roman Star"a's? 1, az?a:- 4face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 4face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 29-30, ЭСТЯ 1, 210-212, TMN 2, 61-62, EDT 253, 256, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>c?aj / *e>c?ejface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 old man or woman 2 mother 3 grandmother 4 sister (of woman) 5 mother (if the grandmother is still alive) 5 mother (addr. to an elder woman) 6 aunt, sister of father 7 elder brother 8 uncle 9 ancestor 10 Father! (to the God) 11 old man, elder man 12 husband 13 younger brother of father's father 14 grandfather 15 fatherface="Times New Roman Star"1 старый мужчина или женщина 2 мать 3 бабушка 4 сестра (женщины) 5 мать (при живой бабушке) 5 мать (обр. к пожилой женщине) 6 тетя, сестра отца 7 старший брат 8 дядя 9 предок 10 Отче! (обр. к Богу) 11 старик, пожилой человек 12 муж 13 младший брат деда 14 дед 15 отецface="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 7, 8 (Orkh.), ec?u" 9 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 1 (MK), ec?u" 10 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|u (dial.), ez?|e 11face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a, az?|i, e|z?|i 5 (dial., ТТДС 22, 551), azyj, e|zi 11, 15 (dial., ТТДС 23, 540)
face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?a, ac?a 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 6face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y 4, ac?a 12, 15

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"Leb. az?|y, az?|a 7, ac?a 13
face="Times New Roman Star"az/a 15face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 15face="Times New Roman Star"as?'a, az?|a 7, 15face="Times New Roman Star"ac?aj 5, az?|a 11

face="Times New Roman Star"a"sa" 2




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|aj 5, ec?iw 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 35, ЭСТЯ 1, 231-235, TMN 2, 15, Егоров 35, Лексика 299, Clark 1977, 128, Stachowski 43. Shortness is suggested by pharyngealization in Tofalar, so the variants with -z?|- are probably due to expressive gemination (*ac?c?V / *ec?c?V).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yganak
face="Times New Roman Star"можжевельникface="Times New Roman Star"juniper
















face="Times New Roman Star"s?a:naqface="Times New Roman Star"as?a:naq (Рас. ФиЛ 89.)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|ana(q) 'thorn'




face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 107.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Abuc?-kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 husband, old man 2 foster-mother 3 elder sister 4 uncleface="Times New Roman Star"1 муж, старик 2 кормилица 3 старшая сестра 4 дядяface="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a, abuc?g|a 1, abuc?qa 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"abus? 3 dial.face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, awucqa 1 dial. (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, avus?qa 4 (Abush., Sangl.)




face="Times New Roman Star"apsax, apc?ax, Koib. abysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yj 1, aps?aq 'bear'face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yjaq 1; 'bear'
face="Times New Roman Star"obas?ka

face="Times New Roman Star"as?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?yn/aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1 dial.
face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 60-61, EDT 6, Егоров 274-275, Федотов II 282, Аникин 72. Chuv. is not quite regular and may be an early loanword from Tat. Formally the Turk. word may be derived from *aba 'elder in the mother's line' (+ dimin. -c?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to dawnface="Times New Roman Star"рассветать
face="Times New Roman Star"at- (MK, Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at- (Abush.)
face="Times New Roman Star"at-

face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-

face="Times New Roman Star"yt-
face="Times New Roman Star"a't-face="Times New Roman Star"a't-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-
face="Times New Roman Star"at-
face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"Usually confused with *at- 'to shoot, throw', but certainly distinct.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ar/ygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fangface="Times New Roman Star"клыкface="Times New Roman Star"azyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azawface="Times New Roman Star"azu (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|ziq
face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyjface="Times New Roman Star"azu, azu:
face="Times New Roman Star"*ora > Mari ora-puj 'id.'face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:, dial. yhy:
face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azu:face="Times New Roman Star"azuw
face="Times New Roman Star"ad|awface="Times New Roman Star"azaw

face="Times New Roman Star"azuw
face="Times New Roman Star"azuwface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 33, ЭСТЯ 1, 96-98, Лексика 229. Turk. > Mong. *az?|ug| (ac?ug| in Uygh. script, see Clark 1980, 41).
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