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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 517
Root: es-
English meaning: to be
German meaning: `sein'
Grammatical comments: Kopula und Verbum Substantivum; bildet ursprünglich nur ein duratives Präsens wird daher einzelsprachlich vielfach durch die Wurzel bheu̯ǝ- : bhū- suppliert.
Material: 1. Ai. ásmi, ási, ásti, smás, sthá, sánti, av. ahmi, 3. Sg. asti, 3. Pl. hanti, apers. amiy;

    arm. em, es, ē;

    gr. hom. att. εἰμί (= ẹ̄mi, äol. ἔμμι, dor. ἠμί), εἶ (= ei aus *esi, nur att., hom. εἰς, ἐσσι), ἐστί, εἰμέν (wie εἰμί; att. ἐσμέν wie ἐστέ; dor. ἠμές), ἐστέ, εἰσί (dor. ἐντί), Dual ἐστόν;

    venet. est;

    alb. jam (*esmi);

    lat. sum (durch Einfluß der 1. Pl.), es(s), est (Inchoat. escit, wie gr. ἔσκε), sumus, estis, sunt (Inchoat. escunt); osk. súm, est (íst); umbr. est;

    air. (nur als Kopula) am (*esmi), a-t, is, ammi (*esmesi), adi-b, it (*senti, acymr. hint);

    got. im, is, ist, 3. Pl. sind (*senti); aisl. em, est (ert), es (er); ags. eom (nach bēom), northumbr. am (*os-m̥), eart (Endung des Präteritopräs.), is; 3. Pl. northumbr. aron (*os-ṇt), usw.;

    alit. esmì, (heute esù, dial. esmù) esì, ẽsti, Dual alt und dial. esvà, estaũ und està; lett.esmu (dial. esu), esi usw.; apr. asmai, assai (essei), est (ast);

    aksl. jesmь, jesi, jestъ (*esti), jesmъ, jeste, sǫtъ (= lat. sunt); Dual jesvě, jesta, jeste, usw.;

    toch. Präs. В 3. Sg. ste, star- (mit Enklitikon), 3. Pl. skente, stare, skentar; Imperf. A 1. Sg. ṣem, 2. Sg. ṣet usw., В ṣai(-), mit Optativformans idg. -oi- (nach Pedersen Tochar. 161 soll auch В nes-, A nas- `sein' die Wurzel es- enthalten, das Präverb n- sei mit der Postposition В neidentisch??);

    hitt. e--mi (esmi), 3. Sg. e--zi (eszi), 3. Pl. a-ša-an-zi (asanzi; das as durch Vokalharmonie aus *es-?).

    2. Wichtige Übereinstimmungen:

    Imperf. ai. ā́sam, ās, ās, bzw. Perf. ā́sa, ā́sitha, ā́sa, Pl. ā́sma, ā́sta, ā́san, Dual. ā́stam, ā́stām: gr. hom. 1. Sg. ἦα, 2. Sg hom. att. ἦσθα, 3. Sg. dor. usw. ἦς, Pl. hom. ἦμεν, ἦτε, ἦσαν, 3. Dual hom. ἤστην; mit ἦσθα vgl. hitt. e-eš-ta (ēsta) `war, warst'; themat. 1. Sg. 3. Pl.äol. ἔον (*e-s-om, bzw. *e-s-ont): augmentlos 3. Pl. ai. san, av. hǝn (*sent oder *sont).

    Neubildungen scheinen lat. erat (*es-ā-t) = cymr. oedd `war'.

    Gr. Imperf. ἔσκον, ἔσκε : alat. escit (die Futurbedeutung erinnert an arm. i-c̣em `daß ich sei' aus prothet. *i + s + (s)ke-, Meillet Esquisse 121);

    Konjunkt. ved. 2. Sg. ásas(i), 3. Sg. ásat(i): lat. Fut. eris, erit;

    Optat. ved. s(i)yā́m; gr. εἴην (das ε von *ἐσμι): lat. Konj. siem, siēs, siet, umbr. sir, sei `sīs', si, sei `sit', sins `sint': ahd. 3. Sg. ;

    Imper. 2. Sg. gath.-av. zdī : gr. att. ἴσθι (*es-dhi); 3. Sg. gr. hom. att. ἔστω : lat.estō(d) : osk. estud;

    3. Partizipium sent-, sont-, sṇt- `seiend', z. T. mit Entwicklung zu `wahr, tatsächlich', und weiter teils zu `gut', teils zu `der wirkliche Täter, der Schuldige': Ai. sánt- sát- m., n. (f. sat-ī́) `seiend, gut, wahr', av. hant-, hat- ds.;

    gr. ἐόντ-, ὄντ-, dor. ἐντ- `seiend' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 473, 525 4, 567, 678), Nom. Pl. τὰ ὄντα `Gegenwart, Wahrheit, Besitz', abgeleitet ουσία, dor. ἐσσία, ὠσία f. `Eigentum, Natur, Wirklichkeit', usw.;

    lat. in prae-sēns, -sentis `gegenwärtig', osk. praesentid `praesente', ab-sēns `abwesend'; sōns, Gen. sontis `schuldig, schädlich' (vgl. sonticus morbus `Epilepsie'?);

    urgerm. *sanþa- `wahr' in anord. sannr, saðr, ahd. sand, as. sōð `wahr, und `wessen Schuld ohne Zweifel steht', ags. sōð `wahr'; daneben tiefstufig germ. *sun(ð)já-z, got. *sunjis `wahr' (sunja `Wahrheit'); die eigentliche Bed. noch in bisunjanē `ringsum', ursprüngl. Gen. Pl. `der ringsum seienden' = ai. satyá- `wahr, recht' (*sṇti̯o-), n. `Wahrheit', av. haiɵya- `wahr, echt', apers. hašiya- ds.;

    mit erhaltenem oder assim. d ahd. suntea, as. sundea, afries. sende, aisl. synð, synd < mnd. sünde, ags. synn f. `Sünde, Verbrechen' (urgerm. *sunðī: *sun(ð)jāz), weiter zu as. ahd. sunnea `Hinderung, Not', aisl. syn `Ableugnung';

    apr. Nom. Sg. sins, Dat. Sg. sentismu, alit. Akk. Sg. m. santį, lit. są̃s, sañčio (jünger ẽsąs, ė̃sąs m., ẽsanti f.), lett. esuots `seiend'; Gerundium lit. sant;

    aksl. sy (: ai. sán), Gen. Sg. m. sǫšta;

    hitt. aš-ša-an-za (assanz) `seiend';

    to-Partiz. *s-e-tó-, s-o-tó- in gr. ἐτά ἀληθη̃. ἀγαθά Hes., ἐτάζω `prüfe', ἐτεός, ἐτυμός `wahr, wirklich' und ὅσιος `recht, erlaubt, fromm';

    ti-Abstrakta: ai. abhí-ṣti- f. `Hilfe' (abhi-ṣtí- m. `Helfer'), av. aiwišti- f. `Studium'; ai. úpа-stí- m. `Untergebener' (ai. sv-astí- f. `Wohlsein' wohl ar. Neubildung); vgl. gr. ἐστώ `οὐσία', ἀπεστώ, ἀπεστύς Hes. `Abwesenheit' u. dgl.;

    über das vielleicht hierher gehörige gr. ἐσ-θλός `tüchtig, gut, glücklich', dor. ἐσλός, arkad. ἑσλός vgl. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 5335, Specht Dekl. 256.

References: WP. I 160 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676 ff., Trautmann 71, usw.
See also: esu-s
Pages: 340-342
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-seealso,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *es- <PIH *e->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to be
Hittite: as-/es- (I) 'sein', Pal. as-, Luw. as-, h.l. as-, Lyk. es- (Tischler 76-77, 109-110)
Tokharian: B skente `sie sind'; A ṣe-, B ṣei- 'imperf. stem' ( < *si̯ē- optat.) (Adams 344 f)
Old Indian: ásti (1 p. ásmi) `to be'; Pali acchati `bleibt, befindet sich'
Avestan: ahmi, asti `to be'
Other Iranian: OPers amiy `bin'
Armenian: em `bin', conj. ichem
Old Greek: ẹ̄mí (aeol. émmi), estí `bin, ist', inf. ẹ̄̂nai̯ `sein'; hom. éskon, éske `ich, er war'
Slavic: *jesmь, *jestь, *sǭtь
Baltic: *es- (*es-meî), ptc. *sañt-
Germanic: *is- vb.
Latin: sum (es, est, sunt), esse; esit, escunt `erit, erunt'
Other Italic: Osk súm 'sum', est, íst `est', estud `estō', sent `sunt'; Umbr est `est', sent `sunt', ertom `esse', sins `sint'
Celtic: OIr am, is
Albanian: jam `bin'
Russ. meaning: быть
References: WP I 160 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: есть
Near etymology: I., диал. ёсть, укр. єсть, є, блр. ёсць, др.-русск. есть, ст.-слав. ѥстъ, редко ѥ, сербохорв. jе̏ст, энкл. jе, чеш. jest, je, польск. jest и т. д.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. ẽsti, ẽst, др.-инд. ásti, авест. asti, греч. ἔστι, лат. est, гот., нов.-в.-н. ist; см. Бернекер 1, 266; Эндзелин, Apr. Gr. 158; Траутман, Apr. Sprd. 304; BSW 71. Ср. также есмь, еси, суть.
Pages: 2,28
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *es- (*es-meî), ptc. *sañt-
Meaning: be
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Lithuanian: esmì (lit. esù, dial. esmù), esì, ẽst(i); ptc. santį, gerund. sant (später ē̆są̃s, ẽsant)
Lettish: ęsmu, gerund. ęsuot
Old Prussian: asmai, ast; 2 pl. opt. seīti, ptc. prs. sins, dat. sg. sentismu
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-olith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *is-
Meaning: be
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: 1 sg. im, 2 sg. is, 3 sg ist
Old Norse: em, est, es
Old Swedish: äm, äst, is
Old English: eom (eam, am), eart (earɵ, art, arɵ), is (ys), pl. sind (synd, sint, synt, sient)/earon (earun, earan, aron)
English: am, art, is; are
Old Saxon: is(t)
Middle Dutch: is, sī
Dutch: is
Old High German: ist, sind
Middle High German: ist, sint
German: ist, sind
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-oswed,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔesA
Meaning: to be
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *es- 'to be', *ēs- 'to sit'
Uralic: *aśe- (*eśA); *isV
Kartvelian: *sw- [Svan. impf. -äsw, conj. -esw 'to be' ]
Dravidian: (cf. *śi-l- 'not to be)
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'is-
References: МССНЯ 333, ОСНЯ 1, 268-270, ND 85 *ʔ[ä]ś[o] 'stay, be', 86 *ʔisV 'to sit' - a highly dubious distinction.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 30
Proto: *aśe-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to put, place, lay; put up a tent
German meaning: stellen, setzen, legen; ein Zelt errichten
Finnish: ase- (dial.) 'das finnische Dampfbad zum Bad vorbereiten', asema 'Lage; Platz, Stelle; Position, Stellung', asetta- 'stellen, setzen, legen', asu 'Ausstattung, Form, Ausrüstung', asu- 'wohnen; bewohnen, bauen' ( > Saam. āssâ- 'live, dwell; settle')
Estonian: ase (gen. aseme) 'Stelle, Stätte, Statt; Lager, Schlafstelle', asenda- 'eine Stelle anweisen', asu 'Platz, Raum', asu- 'sich ansiedeln, niederlassen, Platz nehmen, sich setzen'
Mordovian: eźem (E M), iźim (E), äźem, jäźem (M) 'Platz, Stelle; wandfeste Bank in der mordwinischen Stube'
Nenets (Yurak): ŋäso- (O) 'haltmachen und ein Zelt oder Zelte errichten', ŋīsī 'Zeltdorf'
References: FUV; SKES; Coll.IUrSprg. 59; Coll.CompGr. 96
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mrd,uralet-nen,uralet-lit,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *sw-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: иметь
English meaning: to have
Georgian: sv-
Svan: sw-
Svan meaning (Rus.): быть
Svan meaning (Eng.): to be
Notes and references: EWK 298.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-notes,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'is-
Meaning (Rus.): быть
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *it-
Proto-Itelmen: *'iɫ-, *'is-
kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *it-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): быть, являться
Chukchee: it-
Koryak: it-
Palan: itǝ-k(ki)
Alutor: it-ǝk
Comments: Пал. itǝ-lhǝ-n part. (ЯПК 250).
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *'iɫ-, *'is-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): быть
Itelmen: ɫ-kes (s-) 1, 'eɫ-es ('iɫ-, 'iɫ-aɫ- fut.) SO 2, 3
Itelmen meaning: быть 1, делать что-либо чем-либо, назначать 2, быть кем-либо, чем-либо 3
West Itelmen: ĺ-kzu-'aĺč, slu-kzu-'aĺč (ĺ-kzu-'al-čen 3sg. fut.)
West Itelmen meaning: esse, fieri (erit)
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): być, stawać się (będzie)
Number in Volodin 1976: 156, 216, 51
Stebnitsky reference: 99, 100
Comments: У Стебницкого 'il-, 'is- основы для действительного залога, li- претерита и будущего времени, и 'issǝ-.
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-vol,itelet-steb,itelet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVCV
Meaning : to be
Eurasiatic : *ʔesA
Afroasiatic : *ʔaw/yas- ??
Sino-Caucasian : *=ä̆sÁ
Notes : Cf. Ainu *as- 'stand'.
Reference : МССНЯ 333, ОСНЯ 1, 268-270; ND 85 (Dolg. lists also different SH forms - Sem. *ʔiš- etc., and in ND 86 - Sem. *ʔišš- 'basis, foundation' plus some Cush. and Chad. forms meaning 'sit').
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-notes,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔaw/yas-
Meaning: come, hurry
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Berber: *Hawas- 'come'
Egyptian: ꜣs (ME) 'hurry, hasten'
Western Chadic: *(H)yVs- 'come'
East Chadic: *ʔas- 'come'
Warazi (Dullay): *ʔas- 'go'
Notes: Cf. *sawVʔ- 'go in and out'.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-ech,afaset-wrz,afaset-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *Hawas-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'come'
Ghadames: as id
Nefusa: as ǝd
Sokna: yus ǝd
Siwa: us ǝd
Ghat: as d
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): as d
Tawllemmet: as d
Taneslemt: os ǝd
Zenaga: š ǝd
Mzab: as d
Wargla: as d
Shenwa: as
Shawiya: as
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): as d
Old Libyan: ENum ysʔ
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ghd,brbet-nfs,brbet-skn,brbet-siw,brbet-ght,brbet-ahg,brbet-twl,brbet-tsl,brbet-zng,brbet-mzb,brbet-wrg,brbet-shn,brbet-sha,brbet-qbl,brbet-lyb,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: ꜣs (ME)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'hurry, hasten'
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *(H)yVs-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'come'
Mupun: iso [Mts]
Bokos: yês [JgR]
Daffo-Butura: yes [JgR
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-gwn,wchet-bks,wchet-dfb,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ʔas-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'come'
Dangla: àsē [Fd]
Migama: 'ásáw [JMig]
Jegu: ʔas [? ]
Bidiya: 'ás [JBid]
Birgit: ʔàsí [CLR: 83]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-jeg,echet-bid,echet-brg,

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Warazi etymology :

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Proto-Warazi: *ʔas-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'go'
Gawwada (Gawata): ašs-
wrzet-prnum,wrzet-meaning,wrzet-gaw,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=ä̆sÁ
Meaning: to be, stay
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=ä̆sA
Yenisseian: *hVs-
Burushaski: *bas-, *ōs-
Basque: *e=isa-n
Comments and references : HGC 21, NSC 54 *-swV, SMCE 137, BCD 32.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=ä̆sA
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to sit, stay
Proto-Nakh: *=is-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳ-us-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔos:V-
Proto-West Caucasian: *sǝ- (~ *š-)
Notes: The verb demonstrates an old Ablaut *-ä̆sA (reflected in PN *-is-, PWC *sǝ- and probably also Ud. ars-) / *-os(w)V (reflected in PA *-us-, PL *ʔos:V-). It is interesting that the grade *-ĭsV is not attested. Correspondences are regular.

    Cf. also HU: Hurr. aš:- 'to sit', Urart. aš- 'to sit' (caus. 'to put'), see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 37.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=is-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stay
Chechen: =is-
Ingush: =is-
Batsbi: =is-
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ḳ-us-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to sit 2 to sit down
Avar: ḳ-us- 2
Karata: ḳ-us- 1
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Tok. (with another preverb) q̇:-us- 'to sit'. From Av. the verb had been borrowed in Akhv. (ḳus- 'sit down, land').
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔos:V-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sit down, sit
Tabasaran: d-us-uz 1
Udi: arcesun, arst:un
Comment: Cf. also Tab. u-r-s-uz 'set (caus.)'. The vowel reconstruction is not reliable (because there is not enough evidence). -r- in Ud. is an aspect infix.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *sǝ- (~ *š-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 sit 2 sit; lie
Adyghe: -sǝ-n 1
Kabardian: -sǝ-n 1
Ubykh: -s- 1,2
Comments: PAK *-sǝ- (used only with preverbs, e.g. *jǝ-sǝ- etc.). In Ub. the verb is also attested only with preverbs.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *hVs-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be
Ket: uśeŋ5,6 'there is'
Yug: ūse 'there is'
Kottish: hičōga 'is, was'
Comments: ССЕ 231. Probably the same root as in PY *sVs- 'sit' (q.v.). The status of the elements *h- and *s- is not quite clear: the former may be a preverb, the latter - either also a preverb or an archaic reduplication. It is also possible that *sVs- is a form similar to *ta-s- 'stand up' (q.v.), i.e. an original compound *sV+(hV)s- "be seated". Werner 2, 359 *ǝsǝ(ŋ) / *usǝ(ŋ).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *bas-, *ōs-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 to sit down, sit still 2 to put (down), place
Yasin: bas-́ 1, ōs- 2
Hunza: bas-́ 1, ṓs- 2
Nagar: bas-́ 1, ṓs- 2
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *e=isa-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be
Bizkaian: izan, ixan, (arc) izen
Gipuzkoan: izan
High Navarrese: izan
Low Navarrese: izan
Lapurdian: izan
Zuberoan: ízan
Roncalese: izan
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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