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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ápa-
Meaning : cake (of rice flour; of special interest to children)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ā̆pa-
Proto-Telugu : *appa-
Brahui : appā
Notes : Certain problems are caused by the Tamil-Malayalam forms which feature initial ā-; also unclear is the fact that Old Indian has the word as apūpá-, pūpa- (Turner 491). This does not include the possibility of Proto-Dravidian origin (cf. the Brahui parallel), but if the vowel length in Tamil and the trisyllabic structure of the OI form are related (e. g. āppa- < *apūpa-), this may hint at an obscure borrowing source for both subgroups. // Present in 3/6 branches.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-bra,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ā̆pa-
Meaning : cake
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : appam, āppam
Tamil meaning : round cake of rice flour and sugar fried in ghee, thin cake, wafer, bread
Tamil derivates : appacci sweetmeat (nursery)
Malayalam : appam, āppam
Malayalam meaning : fried cake, wafer, bread
Kannada : appa
Kannada meaning : rice cake
Kannada derivates : appacci a cake (term used by children)
Tulu : appa
Tulu meaning : a kind of cake fried or baked
Proto-Nilgiri : *ap
Number in DED : 0155
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ap
Meaning : clay plate with 7 to 9 pits, about 3 inches across, for frying cake called piṭāṛ (made of wheat flour and solution of jaggery, and apparently the Ko. equivalent of Ta. appam)
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ap gal
Number in DED : 155
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *appa-
Meaning : a kind of sweet cake
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : appamu
Additional forms : Also [1] appaci, [2] appacci a cake
Number in DED : 155
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : appā
Meaning : children's food
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 155
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔVṗV
Meaning: food, to cook
Indo-European: *eps-
Altaic: *ep`ò
Dravidian: *ap-am
References: ND 63 *ʔäP[h]i 'bake, cook' (w/o Drav), adding also Sem. *ʔpy and dubious Eg. and Chad.
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *eps- (Gr h-)
Meaning: to cook
Armenian: ephem `koche'
Old Greek: hépsō, aor. hepsē̂sai̯, pf. hēpsēka `kochen, sieden', ptc. hephthó- `kochen'
Russ. meaning: варить
References: WP I 124
piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 495
Root: eph-
English meaning: to cook
German meaning: `kochen'
General comments: Nur Gr. und Arm.
Material: Arm. ep`em `koche';

    gr. ἕψω `koche', Fut. ἑψήσω, Partiz. ἑφθός (erweist an sich nicht idg. ph, da auch *ἑπστός zu ἑφθός führen mußte); doch wird ἕψω so-Präs. sein (vgl. δέψω : δέφω) und arm. p` ein idg. ph fortsetzen.

References: WP. I 124, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 326, 706.
Pages: 325
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ep`ò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bread, food
Russian meaning: хлеб, пища
Turkic: *Epej
Mongolian: *aɣag / *haɣag
Tungus-Manchu: *epe
Korean: *páp
Japanese: *ǝpǝ-mǝnǝ
Comments: The Kor. form (perhaps also the Dagur form with x-) reflect an expressive reduplication.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Epej
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: baked bread
Russian meaning: печеный хлеб
Tatar: ipi
Bashkir: äpäj
Comments: Forms like epmek may belong here but contaminated with *etmek (v. sub *ite).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *aɣag / *haɣag
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bran
Russian meaning: отруби
Written Mongolian: aɣaɣ (L 12: aɣa)
Khalkha: āga
Buriat: āgaha(n), āha(n) 'oatmeal'
Ordos: āG
Dagur: āhe (MD), āga, xāg (MGCD 90, Kuribayashi 175)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-ord,monget-dag,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *epe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: baked bread, cake
Russian meaning: печеный хлеб, пирог
Evenki: ewedi
Spoken Manchu: efǝn 'Manchu bread' (364)
Literary Manchu: efen
Ulcha: epe(n)
Nanai: epẽ
Solon: ouo ~ uɣon ~ eweń
Comments: ТМС 2, 436.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *páp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: food
Russian meaning: пища
Modern Korean: pap
Middle Korean: páp
Comments: Liu 370, KED 734.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ǝpǝ-mǝnǝ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: food
Russian meaning: пища, еда
Old Japanese: op(w)omono
Comments: JLTT 509. The analysis of the word as "big thing" is obviously a folk etymology: cf. the same root also in a verbal derivative OJ op(w)o-k- 'to eat greedily'.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-comments,

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