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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: chóu
Preclassic Old Chinese: gu
Classic Old Chinese: gu
Western Han Chinese: gǝw
Eastern Han Chinese: gǝw
Early Postclassic Chinese: giw
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gǝw
Late Postclassic Chinese: gǝw
Middle Chinese: gǝw
English meaning : mate, companion; partner, enemy
Russian meaning[s]: 1) враг, соперник; 2) ненавидеть, мстить; [qiú] 1) пара, чета; 2) Цю (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 讎也.從人.九聲.
Comments: The word may be written as 逑 (q.v.) in Shi, which allows us to reconstruct unaspirated *g-. The modern reading chóu is a result of confusion with 讎 *dhu q.v.; regularly qiú would be expected.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 9
Four-angle index: 7728
Go-on: gu
Kan-on: kiu
Shijing occurrences: 7.2_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-shijing,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kŭ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: help; friend, companion
Chinese: *gu mate, companion; 救 *kus help, save, relieve.
Burmese: ku help.
Kachin: khuʔ2 become friends, (H) mǝkhu friend, lǝkhu to guard, protect.
Lushai: KC *ku help.
Kiranti: *ku 'look after'
Comments: The Jnp. form can be alternatively compared with OCh. 友 *wǝʔ friend, assist. See Sh. 46, Luce 31.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *ku
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: look after
Limbu: ko:maʔ
Yamphu: ku:ma
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-lim,kiret-yam,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: ko:maʔ, -ko:s-/-ko:-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vt.
Meaning: guard, care for, look after
Comments: kɛdukpa mǝna:n ko:suN I'm taking care of the sick man; him ko:sɛʔ! Look after the house!/keep an eye on the house!
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: ku:ma II
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Stem: <ku:s- ; ku:->
Grammar: v.intr. & v.tr.
Meaning: 1) to look after, to care for (children, grandparents); 2) to tend (cattle); 3) to keep (animals).
Nepali: hernu, pālnu
yamet-prnum,yamet-stem,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-nepali,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 58
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 流開三平尤襌
ZIHUI: 0092 1535
Beijing: c̣hou 12
Jinan: c̣hou 12
Xi'an: c̣hou 12
Taiyuan: chou 1
Hankou: chou 12
Chengdu: chǝu 12
Yangzhou: chôɨ 12
Suzhou: zöy 12
Wenzhou: ʒ́iu 12
Changsha: c̣ôu 12
Shuangfeng: ʒ́iû 12
Nanchang: chɛu 12
Meixian: su 12
Guangzhou: čhau 12
Xiamen: siu 12
Chaozhou: chiu 12
Fuzhou: sieu 12
Shanghai: zô 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: khiou 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HŭxqwĂ
Meaning: to preserve, guard
North Caucasian: *HŭqwĂ
Sino-Tibetan: *kŭ
sccet-meaning,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *HŭqwĂ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to preserve, guard
Proto-Tsezian: *=oχ- ( ~ -ʁ:-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔoχIʷɨ
Proto-West Caucasian: *χIʷV
Notes: A reliable common NC verb (it should be distinguished from *ɦifV q.v.; some confusion is introduced by the fact that *f yields a uvular reflex in some languages).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=oχ- ( ~ -ʁ:-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to graze, feed
Bezhta: =oʁ- (Tlad.)
Gunzib: =oh-
Comments: PGB *=oʁ- (cf. also Bezht. Khosh. =oʁ-).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔoχIʷɨ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to guard, preserve
Lezghian: χü-
Tabasaran: u=χI-
Agul: uX̀-
Rutul: u=χIa-
Comment: Cf. Lezg. pret. χʷe-na. The verb belongs to the weak conjugation class. See Магометов 1966, 342; Хайдаков 1973, 144.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *χIʷV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to graze (intr.) 2 to graze (trans.)
Abkhaz: a-ħʷ-rá 1
Abaza: ħʷ-ra 1
Adyghe: χʷǝ-n 1
Kabardian: ʁa-χʷǝ-n 2
Ubykh: χIǝ- 1
Comments: PAT *ħʷǝ; PAK *χʷǝ; Ub. ja-χIǝ́-n (with secondary loss of labialisation). See Mészáros 1934, 400; Shagirov 1, 312.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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