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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: běn
Preclassic Old Chinese: pǝ̄rʔ
Classic Old Chinese: pǝ̄́n
Western Han Chinese: pǝ̄́n
Eastern Han Chinese: pǝ̄́n
Early Postclassic Chinese: pǝ̄́n
Middle Postclassic Chinese: pǝ̄́n
Late Postclassic Chinese: pǝ̄́n
Middle Chinese: pón
English meaning : root
Russian meaning[s]: 1) корень; ствол; основа; основной, коренной, главный; в основном, в сущности; 2) исток, начало; первоначально, в истоке; 3) данный, настоящий; подлинный; текущий, этот; 4) мой, наш; 5) капитал, основной капитал; 6) корешок (переплета), том; счетный суффикс книг; 7) стар. докладная записка
Comments: Viet. also has a colloquial loan: vốn 'capital, funds, principal'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 75
Four-angle index: 5292
Karlgren code: 0440 a
Vietnamese reading: ba`n
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *bhū[l] (~-ɨ̄-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: root, trunk
Chinese: *pǝ̄rʔ root, trunk, 笨 *bǝ̄rʔ bamboo root.
Tibetan: sbun, spun stalk of a plant.
Burmese: LB *s-pVn root
Kachin: phun3 tree, bush, a stalk.
Lushai: bul, KC *bul root.
Comments: BG: Garo bor (Burling), Dimasa bon , Bodo bon firewood; Andro phol; Moshang pūl; Namsangia pan. Sh. 393, 428; Ben. 166. Cf. PAN *bua'l 'uproot a tree'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 180
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 臻合一上混幫
ZIHUI: 2609 2027
Beijing: pǝn 2
Jinan: pẽ 2
Xi'an: pẽ 2
Taiyuan: pǝŋ 2
Hankou: pǝn 2
Chengdu: pǝn 2
Yangzhou: pǝn 2
Suzhou: pǝn 2
Wenzhou: paŋ 21
Changsha: pǝn 2
Shuangfeng: pin 2
Nanchang: pǝn 2
Meixian: pun 2
Guangzhou: pun 21
Xiamen: pun 2
Chaozhou: puŋ 21
Fuzhou: puɔŋ 2
Shanghai: pǝŋ 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: pan 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *pħǝ̄́ɫV̄
Meaning: a k. of tree
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *pħīlV (~-ʕ-,-ɫ-,-ɨ̄-)
Sino-Tibetan: *bhū[l] (?)
Yenisseian: *ʔɨpVl
Burushaski: *phel-c ?
Basque: *es-pel
Comments and references : NSC 61 *pHVɫV, WFR 36, LDC 25.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *pħīlV (~-ʕ-,-ɫ-,-ɨ̄-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Proto-Nakh: *b(ɦ)ōl-ik (~-ʕ-)
Proto-Tsezian: *bɨle (~-i-)
Proto-Dargwa: *paIl
Notes: An irregular voicing *p- > b- in Western languages should be probably explained by the initial cluster *pħ- or *pʕ-.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *b(ɦ)ōl-ik (~-ʕ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grove
Chechen: bȫlak
Comments: Isolated in Chech., but having probable external parallels (cf. even a similar suffix formation in Chech. and Darg.).
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *bɨle (~-i-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 poplar 2 ash-tree 3 asp
Tsezi: beIli 1,2
Ginukh: bele 1
Khvarshi: bel (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: buIle 3
Comments: PTsKh *bɨIRe.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *paIl
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: asp
Akusha: paIlpaIlag
Comments: The Ak. stem is reduplicated and has a velar suffix (cf. the Nakh form). The simple form is preserved in Tsud. paIl id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔɨpVl
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: asp tree
Ket: ɨ:ĺ / ɨ̄ĺ, pl. ɨ:ĺn3
Yug: ɨfɨl5,6, pl. -ɨŋ5
Kottish: īpal, pl. īpatn
Comments: ССЕ 196. Werner 2, 434 *ɨphǝl.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *phel-c, *phal-c
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 a small tree with edible berries 2 a k. of tree
Yasin: phalc 2 ("große Pappelart")
Hunza: phelc 1, phalc 2
Nagar: phḗlc 1, phalc 2
Comments: Sh. phḗs ?; Sh. phálca `Pappelart'
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,buruet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *es-pel
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 box (tree) 2 broom (implement)
Bizkaian: ezpel 1
Gipuzkoan: ezpel 1
High Navarrese: ezpel 1
Low Navarrese: ezpel 1
Salazarese: ezpel 2
Lapurdian: ezpel 1
Zuberoan: ezpel 1
Roncalese: ezpel 2
Comments: Cf. PNC *pħīlV 'a kind of foliage [deciduous] tree' (asp, poplar). The first element *es- seems to be a reduced form of Bsq *haice 'tree' (q.v.), cf. also *es-kur̄ 'acorn, beechnut'. Brooms were sometimes made from box twigs. Azkue cites the Pyrenean words ezpelezko ezpela ‘broom made from box’, otakezpela ‘broom made from gorse’, txiniztezpel ‘broom made from juniper’, etc.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : PVLV
Meaning : leaf tree
Eurasiatic : *ṗVlV
Afroasiatic : ? Akk. bulaʔu 'firewood', Irq paʔal-mo 'board' (ND 1724)
Sino-Caucasian : *pħɨ̄́ɫV̄
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ṗVlV
Meaning: leaf tree
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *p(t)el-
Altaic: *p`i̯ule
References: МССНЯ 369; ND 1724 *P_uĺ/ḷ(V)ʔV 'tree (poplar or sim.)' (+ dub. Sem. and Drav.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *pelew- (Gr pt-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: a k. of leaf-bearing tree
Other Iranian: Osset farwe, fǝrer `Erle'
Old Greek: pteléǟ, epid. peléā f. `Ulme, Rüster'
Germanic: *filw-ō f.
Russ. meaning: дерево (лиственное)
References: WP II 84 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *filwō
Meaning: willow
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old High German: fël(a)wa `Weide'
Middle High German: vëlwe wk./st. f., wk. m., vëlwer, vëlber st. m. 'weidenbaum; geflecht aus weiden zum fischgang'
German: { Felbel }
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *p`i̯ula
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: ash tree
Russian meaning: ясень
Mongolian: *hulija-sun
Tungus-Manchu: *pula
Japanese: *pari
Comments: EAS 55, KW 448, Цинциус 1984, 54, Rozycki 81. Despite Doerfer MT 23, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong. In Turkic cf. Bashk. jɨla `ash-tree' - although attested only in Bashkir, a perfect semantic and phonetic match for this root.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *hulija-sun
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ash tree, poplar, aspen
Russian meaning: ясень, тополь, осина
Written Mongolian: ulijasu(n) (L 873)
Khalkha: ulijas(an)
Buriat: uĺāha(n)
Kalmuck: ulāsṇ
Ordos: ulāsu
Dongxian: xulasun
Dagur: olēs ( < lit.), xolordan mōd
Comments: KW 448, MGCD 673.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-dag,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *pula
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ash tree, asp tree, poplar
Russian meaning: ясень, осина, тополь
Evenki: hula
Even: hụl
Negidal: xol
Literary Manchu: fulχa
Jurchen: fulto 'каштан' (121)
Ulcha: pụlị
Orok: pụlụ
Nanai: polo
Oroch: xulu
Udighe: xulu
Solon: ụlụ
Comments: ТМС 2, 342-343. Evk. hula, hologdan > Dag. xolordan (Тод. Даг. 177).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *pari
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: black alder
Russian meaning: японская ольха
Old Japanese: pari
Tokyo: han-no-ki
Comments: JLTT 399.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-tok,japet-comments,

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