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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *Kar
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mountain
Arin: kar (М, Срсл)
Comments: Werner 2, 411, 412 (w.r.).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ari,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *GwērV́
Meaning: stone
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *GwērV
Yenisseian: *Kar
Burushaski: *qhor-
Basque: *gor̄, *gogor̄
Comments and references : NSC 57 *GwVrV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *GwērV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone
Proto-Nakh: *qēra
Proto-Tsezian: *ʁ:ur (~ʁ-,-o-,-l)
Notes: A Nakh-Tsez. isogloss.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *qēra
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone
Chechen: qēra
Ingush: qera
Batsbi: qer
Comments: 6th class in all languages.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ʁ:ur (~ʁ-,-o-,-l)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone
Tsezi: ʁIul
Khvarshi: ʁur
Inkhokvari: ʁur
Comments: PTsKh *ʁuR.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *qhor-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: small stones
Yasin: xóro
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *gor̄, *gogor̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 deaf 2 (physically) hard, (mentally) hard, cruel
Bizkaian: gor 1, gogor 2
Gipuzkoan: gor 1, gogor 2
High Navarrese: gogor 2
Low Navarrese: gor 1, gogor 2
Salazarese: gogor 2
Lapurdian: gor 1, gogor 2
Baztanese: gogor 2
Aezkoan: gogor 2
Zuberoan: gor 1, gogor 2
Roncalese: gogor 2
Comments: For the semantic relationship of 'deaf' and 'hard' (~ PEC 'stone'), cf. Eng. 'hard of hearing', 'stone deaf', Span. duro de oído (Hualde 1995).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : mountain, hill
Eurasiatic : *gʷVrV
Afroasiatic : *kur- (also some forms with *g-)
Sino-Caucasian : *GwērV
African (misc.) : Bantu *-gùdù 'hill'.
Reference : ND 667, 929.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gʷVrV
Meaning: mountain, hill
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gʷer(w)-
Altaic: *k`ori
Uralic: *kurV (cf. also *kurV, *korkV)
Kartvelian: *gora
Dravidian: *kùr_- (*-d_-) (?)
Eskimo-Aleut: *qarǝ-qa- (-qi-) (or ? *ujʁa 'stone')
References: ND 667 *gUrʕV 'mount, hill' (Kartv. + SH?), 929 *kur(Vh)V 'hill, mountain' (IE + Ur + Drav + SH); 1139 *Ḳo/urV 'rock, isolated mountain' (Alt. + same Ur. and Drav.; the reconstruction *ḳ- is actually done only on the basis of Arab. qārat- 'colline isolée' - which in fact has an alternative etymology!!). Thus we have three roots instead of a simple one... [Cf. PAA *gɔ:r 'mountain, forest'].
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gʷar(w)-/-e-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: mountain
Old Indian: girí- m. `mountain'
Avestan: gairi- 'Berg'
Old Greek: dẹ̄rás, -ádos f., Cret. dērás GDI 5024.19 `Anhöhe, Bergrücken', <dẹ̄̂ros n.> deîros, -eos n. = deirás Hsch. {dẹ̄rā́ 'mountain range' (Pind. -not found!}; ? Boréā-s, aeol. Boríais, ion. Boréēs, Borē̂s, att. Borrā̂s m. 'north wind; the north'
Slavic: *gorā
Baltic: *gur-a- c
Russ. meaning: гора
References: WP I 682, Buck 25, 48.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: гора́,
Near etymology: вин. п. го́ру, укр. гора́, ст.-слав. гора ὄρος, горѣ ἄνω, болг. гора́ "лес", сербохорв. го̀ра, вин. п. го̏ру, словен. góra, чеш. hora, польск. góra, в.-луж. hora, н.-луж. góra.
Further etymology: Родственно др.-прусск. garian ср. р. "дерево", лит. girià, диал. gìrė̂ "лес", др.-инд. giríṣ "гора", авест. gairi-, ср.-перс. gar, gīr, возм., также греч. гомер. βορέης, атт. βορέᾱς, βορρᾱς "северный ветер", алб. gur "камень"; см. Бернекер 1, 329; Траутман, BSW 78; Педерсен, KZ 38, 319; М. -- Э. 1, 555; Шпехт 24 и сл., 55. По Мейе (BSL 25, 144), исходной была основа на согласный. Ср. лит. nugarà "спина", но ср. Буга, РФВ 67, 239. От гора́ образовано горы́ч "юго-западный ветер", поволжск.; го́ры мн. "высокий правый берег Волги" (Мельников и др.).
Pages: 1,438
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *gur-a-
Meaning: mountain spur
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: gùra-s 'Bergvorsprung'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 720
Root: gʷer-3, gʷor-
English meaning: mountain
German meaning: `Berg'
Grammatical comments: ursprüngl. Flexion gʷores, Gen. eros
Material: Ai. girí- m. `Berg', av. gairi- ds.;

    alb. gur `Felsen, Stein' (eri-);

    gr. δειρός (Hes.) `Hügel', ὑψίδειρος `mit hohen Klippen', δειράς, kret. δηράς f. `Hügel, Anhöhe' (*gʷeri̯o-?); dazu βορέᾱς `Nordwind' (zu *βόρειος `montanus', Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 461 und Anm. 2); βαρύες δένδρα Hes.?;

    der thrak. VN ̔Υπερ-βορέοι `die jenseits des Berges Wohnenden' enthält wohl das gr. Lw. *βορις;

    lit nugarà `Rücken, Bergrücken';

    mit der Bedeutungsentwicklung `Berg - (Berg)wald - Baum': lit. gìrė, girià `Wald', lett. dziŕē ds., und apr. garian n. (Akk. garrin) `Baum'; ferner lett. garš `Wald', gãršas `Sumpf';

    aksl. gora `Berg', skr. gòra `Berg, Wald', usw.

References: WP. I 682, Trautmann 78, Pedersen La cinqu. décl. lat. 37, 66.
Pages: 477-478
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ori
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hill; embankment, boundary
Russian meaning: холм; насыпь, межа
Turkic: *Korum
Mongolian: *küri
Tungus-Manchu: *xurē
Korean: *kòráŋ
Japanese: *kùrùa (~ -ruâ)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 291. The comparison seems satisfactory (the Jpn.-Kor. link see in Kanezawa 47); an alternative Austronesian etymology of the Jpn. word, however, can be found in Kawamoto 1977, 33. Cf. also Mong. kürmen 'basalt'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Korum
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rock, cliff, heap of stones
Russian meaning: скала, куча камней
Karakhanid: qorum (MK, KB)
Uighur: qoram
Khakassian: xorɨm
Shor: qorum
Oyrat: qorum
Tuva: xorum
Kirghiz: qorum
Comments: EDT 660, VEWT 283, Лексика 99.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *küri
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 precipice 2 rock, stone
Russian meaning: 1 обрыв 2 камень
Written Mongolian: küri 1 (МХТТТ)
Middle Mongolian: kuri (IM, MA, Lig. VMI) 2
Khalkha: xür 1
Mogol: ZM, KT kuri 2
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-mogh,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xurē
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mountain
Russian meaning: гора
Evenki: ure
Even: urekčen
Negidal: ujē
Spoken Manchu: vexē 'stone, rock'(2110)
Literary Manchu: wexe 'stone'
Jurchen: h(i)ur-xe (52) 'stone'
Ulcha: xure(n)
Orok: xure
Nanai: xure(n)
Oroch: uwe, ue
Udighe: (Корм. 219), we, ue
Solon: ure
Comments: ТМС 2, 289.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kòráŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: embankment, boundary, furrow
Russian meaning: насыпь, межа, борозда
Modern Korean: kōl, koraŋ
Middle Korean: kòráŋ
Comments: Liu 63, HMCH 163, KED 138, 156.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kùrùa (~ -ruâ)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dike, boundary
Russian meaning: насыпь, межа
Old Japanese: kur(w)o (in kur(w)o-tuka "embankment on boundary")
Middle Japanese: kùró
Tokyo: kúro
Kyoto: kúró
Comments: The Kyoto accent is irregular: all other evidence points either to *kùrúa or to *kùruâ.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1362
Proto: *kurV(-ka)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: hill, elevation
German meaning: Hügel, Anhöhe, Landrücken
Estonian: kuruk (gen. kuruka) (dial.) 'kleiner Landrücken' ?
Saam (Lapp): kårrå (L) 'länglicher, niedriger, mit Kiefernwald bewachsener Landrücken; freiliegender (niedriger) Bergrücken' ?
Mari (Cheremis): kǝ̑rǝ̑k (KB), kurǝ̑k (U), kurǝ̑k, kuruk (B) 'Berg, Anhöhe, Hügel' ? [if not to *korkV 'hoch']
Komi (Zyrian): ki̮r (S) 'steiler Abhang am Fluß, steiles Flußufer', ki̮r (P) 'id. (in comp.)', kør (PO) 'id. (in comp.) ?; [kvark-vož 'хребет Урала' - rejected by Redei] [if not to *korkV 'hoch']
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mar,uralet-kom,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *gora
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: горка, холм
English meaning: hillock
Georgian: gora-
Megrel: gola-, gwala-
Laz: gola-
Laz meaning (Rus.): летняя кочевка
Laz meaning (Eng.): summer nomadizing
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 64. Ср. ПИЕ *gʷer- 'гора', алт. *k`ori 'холм'. Климов (1994, 175-176) предполагает заимствование из ПИЕ, что маловероятно; скорее налицо исконное родство.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kùr_- (*-d_-)
Meaning : name of a mountain tribe
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kur_-
Proto-Telugu : *kor_-av-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kur_-
Meaning : tribal name
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kur_am
Tamil meaning : Kur_ava tribe, palmistry as practised by Kur_ava women
Tamil derivates : kur_avan_ man of a caste of fowlers, snake-catchers, basket-makers, and fortune-tellers; fem. kur_atti, kur_avi, kur_avañci; kur_avāṇar the Kur_ava tribe of the mountain; kur_iñci hilly tract; kur_icci village in the hilly tract; village; kur_umpar petty chieftains; an aboriginal tribe; hunters; a caste of shepherds who weave blankets; kur_umpu petty chieftains; a class of savages supposed to form a part of the aborigines of south India; village
Malayalam : kur_avan
Malayalam meaning : wandering tribe of basket-makers, snake-catchers, and gipsies
Malayalam derivates : kur_icci hill country; kur_icciyan a hill tribe; kur_umpan shepherd; caste of mountaineers in Wayanāḍu; kur_uppu a chief
Kannada : kor_ava, kor_ama
Kannada meaning : man of a now settled tribe who make blankets, mats, etc., are musicians, etc.
Kannada derivates : fem. kor_avañji, kor_avati, kor_aviti (commonly fortune-tellers); kor_aca a thievish wandering hill tribe that sell wooden combs, etc.; kur_uba man of the shepherd caste; kur_umba a caste of mountaineers; kur_ike village
Kodagu : kurubë
Kodagu meaning : shepherd; (Shanmugam) Kuruba caste man
Kodagu derivates : fem. kurubati
Tulu : korage
Tulu meaning : man of a tribe that feeds on carrion and whose women wear leaves
Tulu derivates : fem. korapaḷu; koraji, koraju a serpent charmer; kurube shepherd
Proto-Nilgiri : *kur-
Number in DED : 1844
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kur-
Meaning : man of Kurumba tribe living in the Nilgiri jungles
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Toda : kurb
Additional forms : Also Toda fem. kurč, kurbč
Number in DED : 1844
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kor_-av-
Meaning : name of a tribe that feeds on carrion and whose women wear leaves
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kor_ava
Additional forms : Also fem. korapaḷu; [1] koraji, [2] koraju a serpent charmer; kurube shepherd
Number in DED : 1844
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *qarǝ-qa- (-qi-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: mountain, hill, to climb up
Russian meaning: гора, холм, взбираться
Proto-Yupik: *qarǝ-q(a)- (-qi-)
Proto-Inupik: *qatqa-, *qatqi-
Comments: Derived from qarǝ- 'top, upper part'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 274
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *qarǝ-q(a)- (-qi-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: steep of bank 1, to reach the top 2
Russian Meaning: круча берега, обрыв 1, подняться на вершину 2
Chaplino: qāsqaq (t) 1, //qasqit- 2
Naukan: qajǝ́χpiɣáq 'top of the mountain'
Central Alaskan Yupik: qasqitǝ- 2, 'to scale up'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 274
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-cay,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *qatqa-, *qatqi-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: mountain 1, to reach the top 2
Russian meaning: гора 1, подняться на вершину 2
North Alaskan Inupik: qatqit- 2, 'to be in one's prime'
NAI Dialects: Qaw qatqit- 2
WCI Dialects: Cop qatqaq 1 [Ras.], EP qatqa 'top of hill' [Ow.]
Eastern Canadian Inupik: qaqqaq 1, 'hill'
Greenlandic Inupik: qaqqaq 1, qaqqit- 'to ascend a mountain, to go into mountains'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 274
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *kur-
Meaning: mountain
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Western Chadic: *kir- 'hill'
Central Chadic: *ku/wari 'stone' 1, 'mountain' 2
Low East Cushitic: *kur- 'mountain'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-lec,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *kir-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'hill'
Gerke=Yiwom: kir [Fp]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-grk,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ku/wari
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'stone' 1, 'mountain' 2
Dghwede=Zǝɣwana: kwire 1 [IL]
Glavda: ákura 1 [Rp]
Guduf: khúrà 1 [IL]
Logone: kur 2 [LLog]
Kusseri: kur 2 [Lk]
Musgu: kurı́ı́ 1 [LMsg]
Notes: cp. HSED 1552 *ḳar- 'mountain'
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-dgh,cchet-glv,cchet-gdf,cchet-log,cchet-kus,cchet-msg,cchet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *kur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'mountain'
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,

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