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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʒVl
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: child
Ket: dɨ̄ĺ, pl. dɨĺget5
Yug: dɨl, pl. dɨlǝt5 / dɨĺgǝt5
Kottish: d́al, pl. d́akat "child"; d́aleä, d́äleä "girl"; (Бол.) jali in pašup jali "step-son", alit-äli "girl"; Ass. alit-jali (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.) "girl"; jali (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.) "child, boy"
Arin: bi-ḱal (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.) "boy", biḱál (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.) "son"; biḱaĺa (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.) "daughter" (Дульз. biqaĺa "girl"); (Лоск.) akel "son", akelä "daughter"; kalhona (Срсл.) "small", kalqóna (М., Сл., Кл.) id.
Pumpokol: pí-kola "girl, daughter" (Сл., Срсл., Кл.,); xilúŋla (Сл., Срсл.) "child", xiĺuŋdu (Сл., Срсл., Кл.) "small"; akil (Сл.) "elder sister"
Comments: ССЕ 308. Pump. dul (Кл.) "child" is in reality a Yug form. The Ket and Kott. plural is formed as a compound of *ʒVl with *gǝʔt 'children' (q.v.). Werner (2, 219) reluctantly admits that the Kott. form can be related with Ket and Yug and says: "sollte man eher PJ *d'ǝl vermuten" - however, his *d'ǝl ( = our *ǯǝl) would have yielded Yug d'ɨl, not dɨl. The reconstruction *ʒ- (with the reflexes Ket, Yug d- : Kott. d́- : Ar., Pump. k-, quite parallel to those of *c- > Ket, Yug t-: Kott. h-/t-: Ar., Pump. k- (x)-) is therefore inevitable, and there is no need to derive the Arin and Pumpokol forms from PY *qar- 'grandchild'.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʒwVlHV́
Meaning: child
North Caucasian: *rīlć_wī ( ~ -ǝ̄-)
Sino-Tibetan: *ʒhăH
Yenisseian: *ʒVl
Burushaski: *salé-n
Basque: *ise-
Comments and references : The consonant in PNC was probably modified under the influence of *=ɨ̆ć_ĭ `brother/sister'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *rīlć_wī ( ~ -ǝ̄-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: girl, woman
Proto-Nakh: *dēcV ( ~ -ā-)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ruč:V
Proto-Lak: duš
Proto-Dargwa: *rurs:i
Proto-Lezghian: *jVčVj
Notes: Medial *-l- is suggested by the PD form (where *-l- regularly > -r-). In PL we should expect *jVš:V-j; the form *jVčVj was probably influenced by PL *čɨj / *rV-čɨj 'sister' (see *-ɨ̆ć_ĭ).

    Although all the forms point to PEC *r-, this consonant may represent the old female class marker; in that case the root *-īlć_wī can be a result of usual adjectival metathesis < *(-ī)ć_wīlV, and we could compare also HU forms: Hurr. šali, Ur. sǝlā 'daughter' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 42).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *dēcV ( ~ -ā-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: paternal aunt
Chechen: dēca
Comments: Within Chech. dēca is opposed to nēca 'maternal aunt' (cf. da 'father' and nana 'mother'). Both terms, however, have different EC etymologies, and the analogy with 'father' and 'mother' (which influenced there meaning) must be secondary.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ruč:V
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 women (pl. tant.) 2 wife
Avar: ruč:á-bi
Chadakolob: rucába 2
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: duš
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: daughter
Lak form: duš
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *rurs:i
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: girl
Akusha: rursi
Chiragh: rus:e
Comments: Cf. also Ur. rursi, Kait. rirs:i, Kub. jūs:e, Tsud. rurs:i id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *jVčVj
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 woman 2 girl
Tsakhur: iči 2
Udi: ču, ču-buχ 1
Comment: The -(b)uχ in Ud. (a form ču-huχ also exists) is an original plural suffix. Vocalism is hard to establish because of the root's rarity within Lezgian.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-cak,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʒhǝ̆H
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: child
Chinese: *cǝʔ son, daughter, child; 字 *ʒǝʔ-s to breed, nurture.
Tibetan: cha grandchild; nephew, brother's son, bca to bear.
Burmese: sah son, LB *zax.
Kachin: ša4 a child, (H) kǝša.
Lushai: fa an off-spring, a child; nephew, KC *fa.
Kiranti: *ʔcǝ̀
Comments: Tsangla za-sa ( ~ źa, ok-tsa, o-sa) child; BG: Garo -sa; Dimasa -sa; Namsangia tśa, Moshang -śa; Bahing tśa-tśa grandson; Magari za; Digaro sa; Rawang za-mi daughter. Sh. 436, 124; Ben. 27; Mat 181. STEDT 142-144 reconstructs an additional root *ts(y)a-y 'born, birth' on the basis of Garo at-tśi, Dimasa ha-dźai (adding also forms from Bantawa, Qiang, Rgyarong, Tujia and Lolo-Burmese); not quite secure. [?Cf. PAA *cV 'great grandchild' - only Katu and Mon].
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zǐ zi̊ jì cī
Preclassic Old Chinese: cǝʔ cǝʔs
Classic Old Chinese: cǝ́
Western Han Chinese: cǝ́
Eastern Han Chinese: cjǝ́
Early Postclassic Chinese: cjɨ́
Middle Postclassic Chinese: cjɨ́
Late Postclassic Chinese: cjɨ́
Middle Chinese: cjɨ́ cjɨ̀
Fanqie: 咨此 [a]
Rhyme class: 紙 [a] 寘 [b] 支 [c]
English meaning : child, son, daughter, young person; prince; a polite substitute for 'you'
Russian meaning[s]: 1) сын; дитя; дети; 2) господин; учитель; философ; перен. Конфуций; 3) философские трактаты (как раздел литературы); 4) лицо определенного рода занятий; 5) интеллигентный (образованный) человек; 6) Вы; ты; 7) икра; яйца (насекомых); семена; плод; 8) 1-ый из циклических знаков двенадцатиричного цикла; время с 11 до 1 часа ночи; первый; январь; 9) цзы (4-й титул знати при маньчжурах); барон; 10) производное; процент; доход; числитель (дроби); 11) Цзы (фамилия); [-zi] 1) суффикс имен существительных, обозначающих предметы, лица, профессии; 2) суффикс некоторых наречий, образованных от существительных
Shuowen gloss: 十一月陽氣動. 萬物滋. 人以為偁. 象形. 凡子之屬皆從子. 古文子從巛. 象髮也. 籀文子囪有髮臂脛. 在几上也.
Comments: Also read *cǝʔ-s, MC cjɨ̀, Mand. zì 'to treat as a son'. Related is 字 *ʒǝʔ-s 'to breed' q. v. The character is also used for an homonymous word *cǝʔ 'the first of the Earthly Branches' (in Sino-Viet.: tý).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 39
Four-angle index: 3038
Karlgren code: 0964 a-j
Vietnamese reading: tu`'
Jianchuan Bai: ci1
Dali Bai: ci1
Bijiang Bai: ci1
Shijing occurrences: 1.1, 5.1, 6.1, 9.2, 9.3, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1_, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 24.2_, 24.3, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 31.2, 31.4, 32.3, 32.4, 33.2, 33.4, 34.4_, 37.4_, 39.2, 44.1, 44.2, 47.1, 47.3, 51.1, 51.2, 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 54.3, 54.4, 55.1, 55.2, 55.3, 57.1, 58.1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-fanqie,bigchina-rhyme,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 37
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三上止精
ZIHUI: 1311 0411
Beijing: ci_ 2
Jinan: ci_ 2
Xi'an: ci_ 2
Taiyuan: ci_ 2
Hankou: ci_ 2
Chengdu: ci_ 2
Yangzhou: ci_ 2
Suzhou: ci_ 2
Wenzhou: ci_ 21
Changsha: ci_ 2
Shuangfeng: ci_ 2
Nanchang: ci_ 2
Meixian: ci_ 2
Guangzhou: či 21
Xiamen: cu 2 (lit.); ci 2; ʒi 2; kiã 2
Chaozhou: ci_ 21
Fuzhou: cy 2
Shanghai: ci_ 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: ci_ 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *ʔcǝ̀
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: child
Tulung: , cöccö
Kaling:
Limbu:
Dumi: cuʔu
Kulung: cha
Yamphu: caǯa
Comments: Cf. *cä́-c1ǝ̀. Toba 88 *cö.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: saʔ, sa-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: I) child, offspring (saʔl in compounds: ko:co:saʔl, luNsaʔl, mɛndaʔsaʔl, myaNsaʔl, pusaʔl, phaksaʔl, waʔsaʔl) II) (as a kinship term) 1) ego's child (son or daughter), 2) ego's brother's child (male speaking), 3) ego's sister's child (female speaking).
Comments: I) ku-sa-:n te:ʔl tɔʔr-u (her-child-ABS clothes have sewn-3P) She'll have her son some clothes made
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: tsuʔu
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: 1) child, offspring, son, daughter; 2) -tsuʔu diminutive suffix.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: cha
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: child, offspring, son, daughter.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: caja
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: child; a term of address used by older people
Comments: cajo! dear child!
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *salé-n
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 sister(s) and daughter(s) of a man 2 to betrothe (a girl) 3 woman, female relatives
Yasin: salén, selén 1, -sálgin- 2
Hunza: -sálgin- 2, silaʒ̣ín 3
Nagar: -sálgin- 2, silaʒ̣ín 3
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ise-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: aunt
Bizkaian: izeko, (arc) ezeko
Gipuzkoan: izeba, izeko
High Navarrese: (Lezaka) izeba
Low Navarrese: izeba, (Aldude) izea, (Hazparren) izoa
Lapurdian: izaba, (Ainhoa) izoa
Baztanese: izoa
Aezkoan: izo
Zuberoan: izeba, izaba
Comments: For the element *-ba, see separate record.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,

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