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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *tu-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a demonstrative stem
Ket: tuda6 (Bak., Sur.) "this" (n., f.), tūdǝ1 "this" (m.), tuna "these"; Kur. tuŕa6 "this" (n., f.); tūŕǝ "this" (m.), tuna "these"; South. tuŕ "this", tuna "these"; tɔʔn "thus"; tunbiś5 "such"; tuńíĺ ( < tuńi:ĺ3) "thence"; North. tuśɛ́ŋ, South. tuśáŋ "there"
Yug: tuda6 "this" (n., f.); tūt "this" (m.); tuńa5,6 "these"; tɔʔn "thus"; tunbiś5 "such"; tuńъ:r3 "thence"; tusɛ́ŋ / tusɛ:hŋ4 "there"
Arin: itaŋ (М., Сл., Кл.) "they"
Pumpokol: á-du (Сл.) "he"
Comments: ССЕ 288. Werner 2, 294 (separates Ket-Yug *tu- from tɔʔn 'thus, so' and from the Arin and Pump. forms - which I think is hardly justified).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *dV
Meaning: demonstrative stem
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *dV
Sino-Tibetan: *tă- (*tǝ̆-)
Yenisseian: *tu-
Burushaski: *te
Comments and references : In NC cf. also *tV. HGC 22, NSC 64 *dV, *tV (also listing PY *dV-).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *dV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: that (demonstrative pronoun)
Proto-Nakh: *da-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *dV-
Proto-Tsezian: *dV
Proto-Lezghian: *dV
Proto-Khinalug: du
Proto-West Caucasian: *da
Notes: One of several common NC deictic stems. The original meaning of *dV seems to be "that" with neutral space status (on the same level as the speaker). Cf. also Khin. t:ʷa (with emphatic tenseness) 'there (on the same level as the speaker)'.

    Because of the clearcut opposition in PL (*dV - *tV) we must distinguish this root from PEC *tV q.v.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 274 (comparing also Av. =aṭá 'other, separate' - which hardly belongs here); Abdokov 1983, 138.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *da-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: demonstrative pronoun stem
Chechen: dʕā
Ingush: dʕa
Batsbi: da-ħ
Comments: The actual stem da- is clearly seen in Bacb. da-χeʔ "because of that", da-ħ, da-ħa "there". The Chech.-Ing. form dʕā is a contraction from *da-ħa; it served as a basis for the now common demonstrative pronoun dʕā-ra "that".
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *dV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: that (demonstr. pronoun)
Avar: do-b
Andian language: hu-du-, he-de-
Akhvakh: hu-du-
Chamalal: u-da-
Tindi: o-ja-
Karata: wu-du-
Botlikh: do-b
Godoberi: ho-do-,hu-do-
Comments: In most Avaro-Andian languages the demonstrative stem *dV- is used for denoting objects situated on the same level with the speaker (usually - but not necessarily - far from him).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *dV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a demonstrative stem
Tsezi: je-da
Ginukh: ha-do
Khvarshi: i-du (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: i-du
Bezhta: hu-di, ho-do
Gunzib: bǝ-d
Comments: The stem is opposed to *gV and is used normally (in compounds with other demonstrative particles) for the near deixis.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *dV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: that (demonstr. pronoun)
Lezghian: a-ṭa
Tabasaran: du-mu
Rutul: ha-d
Kryz: ä-d
Budukh: a-d
Archi: gu-du, ʁu-du
Udi: t:e
Comment: The original meaning seems to be 'that (on the same level as the speaker)', preserved in Tabasaran (where it is opposed to tu-mu q.v.); in most other languages the stem is used in compounds with other deictic stems.

    Lezg. and Ud. reflect a glottalised variant *ṭV (probably expressive and secondary).

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-rut,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: du
North Caucasian etymology: 2304
Meaning: this
Khinalug form: du, dä
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *da
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a demonstrative stem
Abkhaz: -da
Abaza: -da
Adyghe: -da
Kabardian: -da
Ubykh: (aj)-da
Comments: Dumézil (1932, 120) relates Ub. -da in aj-da 'that, another' (cf. also -da- in mā-da-ḳ́a 'where') to Abkh. -da in á-la-da 'down', á-ʕʷa-da 'above' ( < PAT *-da, cf. Abaz. ʕʷa-da 'ascent, climbing'). While this may be true, we would also adduce the AT pronominal (agentive) prefixes of the 3d person singular and plural (*dǝ- > Abkh., Abaz. d(ǝ)-) and probably also the 3d person plural pronoun *da-ra 'they' (Abkh. da-rá, Abaz. da-ra).

    In AK the stem is preserved in *a-dá 'there' (Ad., Kab. āda); cf. also Ad. tǝ-da 'where' and the PAK locative preverb *da- (Ad., Kab. da-). See Шагиров 1, 57.

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tă- (*tǝ̆-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: this, that, demonstrative pronoun
Chinese: *tǝ that, it (obj.); 是 *deʔ this; 時 *dǝ this
Tibetan: de, do that, ãdi this, bdag self.
Burmese: thǝw that.
Kachin: dai1 this, that; self, ndai1 this.
Lushai: tei self, tiʔ that.
Lepcha: tă-ă, tă-á, tă-a, tă-o that, that there; tă-do pron. one's self, one's own
Kiranti: *tV-
Comments: Kanauri do that, Mantshati do that, di this, Nung dɛ this. Ben. 19, 65; Peiros-Starostin 216; Coblin 149.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zhī
Preclassic Old Chinese:
Classic Old Chinese:
Western Han Chinese:
Eastern Han Chinese: ćǝ
Early Postclassic Chinese: ćɨ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ćɨ
Late Postclassic Chinese: ćɨ
Middle Chinese: ćɨ
English meaning : This; he, she, it, they, them. The basic meaning of the character is 'to go, proceed' (reflected as 'to go out' in the Shuowen gloss, but occurring in texts only with the normal meaning 'to go, proceed'); the use of 之 for a pronoun is secondary, due to homonymy.
Russian meaning[s]: 1) его, их, это, этих (после сказуемого служебный показатель объекта в вэньяне); часто не обозначает никакого конкретного объекта и служит лишь показателем переходности действия; 2) служебное слово между определением и определяемым, формант обособленного определения; 3) в придаточных (членных) предложениях ставится после подлежащего и служит показателем несамостоятельного характера предложения; 4) предшествует концовкам обстоятельств места и времени; 5) древняя эвфоническая частица без значения; 6) древн. этот; сей; его; 7) древн. или; 8) древн. отправиться; поехать; доехать, достичь; распространиться; перейти к...; что касается, вм.
Shuowen gloss: 出也.象草過え.枝莖漸益大.有所之也.一者地也.
Comments: The word is used normally either as an object pronoun ('him','her', etc.), or as a marker of possession or attribution (as in Shi 1,1) - probably reflecting different usages of a single original morpheme. Sometimes it also occurs as a demonstrative attribute 'this' - but Schüssler is probably right in thinking that in such cases it is actually written instead of the demonstrative 時 *dǝ (which, just as 是 *deʔ 'this', is also etymologically related).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 4
Four-angle index: 6439
Karlgren code: 0962 a-b
Go-on: si
Kan-on: si
Japanese reading: shi;yuku;kore;kono;no
Jianchuan Bai: -ta6 (這)
Dali Bai: tɨ3 (這)
Shijing occurrences: 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1, 8.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 13.1, 13.2, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 20.3, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 26.2, 26.4, 26.5, 27.1, 27.2, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 31.3, 32.3, 33.1, 33.3, 35.4, 36.1, 36.2, 37.1, 37.4, 38.1, 38.4, 39.1, 40.1, 40.2, 40.3, 42.3, 43.1, 43.2, 43.3, 45.1, 45.2, 46.1, 46.2, 46.3, 47.1, 47.2, 48.1, 48.2, 48.3, 49.1, 49.2, 50.1, 51.1, 51.3, 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 54.3, 54.4_, 57.1, 58.1, 58.3, 58.4
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 51
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三平之章
ZIHUI: 0037 0444
Beijing: c̣î_ 11
Jinan: c̣î_ 11
Xi'an: ci_ 11
Taiyuan: ci_ 1
Hankou: ci_ 11
Chengdu: ci_ 11
Yangzhou: ci_ 11
Suzhou: cü 11
Wenzhou: ci_ 11
Changsha: c̣î_ 11
Shuangfeng: c̣î_ 11
Nanchang: ci_ 11
Meixian: ci_ 11
Guangzhou: či 11
Xiamen: ci 12
Chaozhou: ci_ 11
Fuzhou: ci 11
Shanghai: ci_ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: či_ 1
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *tV-
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: this
Kaling: tä-m
Dumi: tom
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-kal,kiret-dum,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: tom
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: 1) dem.art. 2) pro.
Meaning: this
Comments: cf. mom, yaḱka.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-comments,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *te
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: that
Yasin: te, ot
Hunza: ité, et
Nagar: ité, et
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : TV
Meaning : demonstr. pronoun
Eurasiatic : *ṭV
Afroasiatic : *tV demonstr. fem./inanim.
Sino-Caucasian : *dV
Austric : PAA *tV 'that', PAN *ati 'there, yonder', *i-di 'that, there'
Amerind (misc.) : *ti ~ *ta 'he / she' (R 364) [+ A K]
African (misc.) : Bantu *-dá 'that'.
Reference : ND 2310; GE 111 *ta.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ṭV
Meaning: demonstr. pronoun
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *to-
Altaic: *t`à (*t`è)
Uralic: *tä ( ~ *te ~ *ti) (also *ta, *to )
Kartvelian: Megr. te- 'this', ti- 'that'
Dravidian: *tān
Eskimo-Aleut: *tar(u)-, *tam-ani
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *ŋu-t (+ Itelm. *ti-)
References: ND 2310 *ṭä 'dem. pron. of non-active objects'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *to-
Meaning: pron. dem.
Tokharian: B ta-ka, tkā 'then' (Adams 276), ta-ne, tne 'here' (278); tu 'this one, it' (n.) ( < *od-u?, Adams 299); B te 'this one, it' (n.) (303)
Old Indian: tád 'this, that', acc. tám, tā́m, tád
Avestan: tat_ 'das', acc. tǝm, tām, tat_; t-m 'dann'
Armenian: -d; da 'dieser', doin 'derselbe', the, ethe 'dass, wenn'
Old Greek: to- demonstrative stem: tóthen, tóthi, tôi̯o- etc.; tó, acc. tón, f. acc. tǟ́n, etc. (article)
Slavic: *tъ, *to, *tā
Baltic: *ta-, *tā̂ f.
Germanic: *ɵẹ̄-z, *ɵiō, *ɵa-ta, etc.
Latin: istum, -tam, -tud; tam 'so', tum, tunc 'dann, alsdann', topper 'cito, fortasse, celeriter, tamen'
Other Italic: Umbr es-tu 'istum'
Celtic: OIr ua-d 'ab eo', ua-di 'ab ea', ua-dib 'ab iis'
Russ. meaning: мест. указ.
References: WP I 742 f
Comments: + *tō, *toti, *tor, *tēr, *tadā usw.
piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: тот,
Near etymology: та, то, тот же, укр. тот, тота́, тоте́, тото́, др.-русск. тъ, та, то, также редуплицированное тътъ (часто, начиная с XII--XIII вв.; см. Соболевский, РФВ 64, 158; ЖМНП, 1897, ноябрь, стр. 65 и сл.), тъи, таıа, тое (Срезн. III, 1067 и сл.), ст.-слав. тъ, та, то ἐκεῖνος, αὑτός, οὗτος (Зогр., Мар., Клоц., Супр.), болг. тъй "так, это", сербохорв. та̑j, та̑, то̑ "тот, этот", словен. tа̑, tа̑, tо̣̑ "этот", чеш. ten, tа, tо (-n из *оnъ) "этот", слвц. ten, tа, tо "этот", польск. ten, tа, tо "этот, эта, это", в.-луж. tón, tа, tо "этот", н.-луж. ten, tа, tо.
Further etymology: Праслав. *tъ, *tа, *tо родственно лит. tàs м., tà ж. "тот", лтш. tas, tã "тот", др.-инд. tá-, tā́- "этот", авест. tа- "этот", греч. τόν, τήν (дор. τά̄ν), τό, лат. is-tum, is-tam, is-tud, тохар. А täm "это" (Зиг-Зиглинг 191), гот. þana "этого", þata "это", алб. tё "чтобы" (Г. Майер, Alb. Wb. 425), арм. -d; см. Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 106; Траутман, ВSW 311 и сл.; Мейе -- Эрну 578 и сл.; М. -- Э. 4, 134; Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 313 и сл. И.-е. местоим. парадигма *sо, *sā, *tоd подверглась преобразованию под влиянием обобщения форм tо-, tā-; см. Миккола, Ursl. Gr. 3, 14. Сюда же русск.-цслав. тѣ "так" (которое начинало главное предложение), лит. taĩ "так" (Траутман, KZ 49, 251; ВSW 312), а также русск.-цслав. ти καί, др.-лит. teĩ -- teĩ "как -- так и" (Траутман, там же). Табуистическим является употребление тот, то́т-то "черт", укр. той в том же знач.; см. Зеленин, Табу 2, 91 и сл.
Pages: 4,88-89
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ta-, *tā̂ f.
Meaning: that
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: tà-s, f. tà 'der, die; diese(r)'
Lettish: tas, f. tã 'der, die, das'
Old Prussian: stas, sta, -ts
Comments: Here also *tō-l 'up to, as far as' - whence Lith. tṓlimas, Lett. tāl-s 'far'.
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,baltet-notes,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *ɵẹ̄-z, *ɵiō, *ɵa-ta, etc.
Meaning: pron. dem.
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: ɵata n.
Old Norse: ɵat n.
Old English: ɵät n.
English: the, that m. f. n.
Old Saxon: thē, thie m., thiu f., that n.
Middle Dutch: die, de m., f., dat, datte n.
Dutch: de m. n. f.
Middle Low German: dē, di(e) m., dǖ, dē, di(e) f., dat n.
Old High German: ther m., thiu f., thaʒ n.
Middle High German: der m., diu f., daʒ n.
German: der, die, das
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 2017
Root: to-1, tā-, ti̯o-
English meaning: that, he (demonstr. base)
German meaning: Pronominalstamm `der, die'
Grammatical comments: Nom. Akk. Sg. n. tod, Akk. Sg. m. tom, f. tām, Gen. Sg. m. tosi̯o, f. tesiās
General comments: (Nom. Sg. m. f. so, , siehe dort)
Material: Ai. tád (tát) `das', av. tat_, Akk. Sg. ai. tám m., tā́́m f., av. tǝm m., tām f., tat̃ n., usw.; arm. -d (z. B. ter-d `der Herr da, du der Herr', ay-d `der da'), da `dieser', doin `derselbe', usw.;

    gr. τό, Akk. Sg. τόν, τήν (dor. τά̄ν), τό usw.; το-νυ̃ν `nun' = alb. ta-ní;

    alb. kë-ta `dieses' (*tod; daraus in Proklise:) të (Ablat. *tōd) `wo';

    lat. istum, -tam, -tud usw., umbr. estu `istum'; lat. tam `so' (alt auch zeitlich `tandem' aus *tām-dem; auf *tām beruht auch (?) tantus, osk. e-tanto `tanta', umbr. e-tantu `tanta'), tum, tun-c `dann, alsdann' = av. tǝm `dann'; topper (*tod-per) `cito, fortasse, celeriter, tamen'; anders über tam Szemerényi Gl. 35, 92 ff.;

    air. `ja' (*tod); infig. Pron. 3. Sg. m. -dn (*tom), n. -d (*tod), Pl. da (*tōns, f. *tās);

    got. þata n., Akk. m. þana, Lok. þei usw., ahd. der, diu, daz, aisl. þat usw.;

    lit. tàs, tà, taĩ: usw. `der(selbe)'; apr. Gen. Sg. f. s-tessias;

    aksl. , ta, to `jener';

    toch. A täm `dieses'.

    An Übereinstimmungen oder Ähnlichkeiten seien hervorgehoben:

    1. gr. hom. Ablat. τω̃ `dann, in diesem Falle; darum', lit. tuõ `mit dem, sofort', vielleicht ahd. thuo, duo, as. thō `da' (falls nicht aus f. *); gr. ther. megar. τη̃-δε `hier', got. þē `um so', vielleicht aisl. þā `da, damals, dann' (wenn nicht = *þan), ags. ðā `dann, darauf'; damit wohl ursprünglich gleich gr. τη̃ `da, nimm!', lit. tè ds.

    2. tor, tēr `dort': ai. tar-hi `zu der Zeit, dann' (-hi zu gr. hom. ἧ-χι), got. aisl. þar `dort', as. thar, afries. ther (ahd. dara) `dort'; as. thār, ahd. dār, ags. ðǣr (ðara) `dort'.

    3. toti `so viele': ai. táti ds. (tatithá- `der sovielte'), lat. tot, totidem (tŏtus `der sovielte'), dazu gr. τόσ(σ)ος aus *toti-os `so groß, so viel'.

    4. Mit -tro-Suffix: ai. tátrā̆ `dort(hin)', got. þaþrō `von da aus', aisl. þaðra `dort', ags. ðæder `der, dorthin'.

    5. Ai. ta-dā́, av. taδa `dann', lit. tadà (aus *tadān, vgl. ostlit. tadù) `dann, alsdann'; ai. tadā́nīm `damals'.

    6. Gr. τηλίκος `so alt', lat. talis `so beschaffen', lit. tõlei `bis dahin, solange'; aksl.toli `in dem Grade', tolь `so viel, so sehr', toliko ds.; nach Szemerényi (Gl. 35, 1133) aus*to-ali-.

    7. Gr. τη̃μος, dor. τα̃μος `zur Zeit, dann', aksl. tamo `dorthin', lett. tām in nuo tām `daher'.

    8. Ai. e-tā́vant `tantus', av. aē-tavant ds. aus idg. *tāu̯n̥t, tāu̯ont-; gr. hom. τη̃ος (jünger τέως), τα̃ος; durch Einfluß des m. τα̃ο(ντ)ς wurde das zu erwartende *τα̃α(τ) zu *τα̃ο(τ), woraus τα̃ος; hierher auch nach Szemérenyi lat. tantus (s. oben); vgl. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 609 Anm. 5.

    9. Der Ausgang von τό-φρα `inzwischen' (dazu vgl. ὄ-φρα `solange als') vielleicht zu toch. A ku-pre, В kwri `wenn', tā-pär(k) `jetzt'.

    10. Ein Stamm idg. ti̯o- neben to- in ai. tyá- `jener, jener bekannte', alb. së (Gen. Dat. Sg. f.) usw. (s- aus ti̯-), urnord. þīt, as. thit `dorthin' (Rosenfeld Forsch. u. Fortschr. 29, 177); lit. čià `hier', čiõn `hierher'; apers. tya `welches, das', leg. taya (*to + i̯o-), bleibt fern (Risch, Asiat. Stud. 8, 151 f.).

References: WP. I 742 f., WH. I 721 f., II 644, 645 f., 648, Trautmann 311 ff., Vasmer 3, 113, 128, Szemerényi Gl. 35, 42 ff., Mayrhofer 1, 499.
Pages: 1086-1087
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *t`à (*t`è)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Turkic: *ti-(kü)
Mongolian: *te-re
Tungus-Manchu: *ta-
Korean: *tjǝ́
Japanese: *tǝ̀-
Comments: EAS 126, KW 393, Lee 1958, 118, АПиПЯЯ 52, 289, Rozycki 207, Doerfer MT 26 ("Elementarverwandtschaft"). Cf. Mong. terteɣe 'on that side', terse 'inimical, adverse' = Turk. tetrü 'opposite side', ters 'perverse, wrong'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ti-(kü)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Tatar: tege
Middle Turkic: (OKypch.) tigi (Bulgat), tik (Ettuhf.)
Turkmen: (dial.) šü-tki,šütüki, bitiki 'вот этот' (Akhaltek.)
Khakassian: tege; ĭ-di 'so, thus'
Yakut: i-ti 'this'
Dolgan: i-ti 'this'
Tuva: dȫ
Tofalar:
Kirghiz: tigi
Kazakh: tigi (dial.)
Bashkir: tege
Gagauz: te bu 'this here', te o 'that there'
Salar: düɣü,
Comments: VEWT 479, Räsänen 1957, 36, Котвич 1962, 142, Stachowski 129.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *te-re
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Written Mongolian: tere (L 804)
Middle Mongolian: tere (SH, HY), tɛrɛ (IM), tirä̆ (MA)
Khalkha: ter
Buriat: tere
Kalmuck: terǝ
Ordos: tere
Dongxian: tere
Baoan: ter
Dagur: tere (Тод. Даг. 167, MD 224)
Shary-Yoghur: tere
Monguor: te (SM 416)
Mogol: tē̆; ZM ti (26-5)
Comments: KW 393.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ta-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Evenki: tar, tari
Even: tar
Negidal: taj
Spoken Manchu: terǝ (2878)
Literary Manchu: tere
Ulcha: tāwụ, tị
Orok: tari
Nanai: taja
Oroch: tī, tei
Udighe: tei, teji
Solon: tajā, tari
Comments: ТМС 2, 164-167.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *tjǝ́
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Modern Korean: čǝ
Middle Korean: tjǝ́
Comments: Nam 154, KED 1417.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tǝ̀-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that way
Russian meaning: так, таким образом
Middle Japanese: to-ni-kaku-ni, tò-zàmà-káú-zámá
Comments: Attested since Heian, and only in the above expressions meaning "anyway, all directions" (lit. "that way - this way"). JLTT 550, 551.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1047
Proto: *tä ( ~ *te ~ *ti)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: this
German meaning: dieser
Finnish: tämä 'dieser', tähän 'hierher, her', tässä 'hier, hierbei'
Estonian: tema, (dial.) temä 'er, sie, es'
Saam (Lapp): dâ-t (N) 'that, this', tat ~ tah (L) 'der, dieser; er, sie, es', taitte (T), tøtt (Kld.), tøht (Not.), tøt (A) 'der, jener'; dei'kĕ, deikĕ, dei'kâ (N), tiehki (L) 'hierher', die (N) 'there', diet (N) 'that (nearer the person addressed than the speaker)'; dā (adv.) (N) 'here (nearer to speaker than to person addressed)', dā-t (N) 'this (here)', tāt ~ tāh (L) 'dieser, der hier', tāitte (T), tātt (Kld.), taht (Not.), tāt, tat (A) 'dieser'
Mordovian: t́e (E), t́ä (M) 'dieser', t́ese, t́esa (E), t́asa (M) 'hier', t́ija (E), t́ijä (M) 'hier (vorüber)', t́eke (E), t́akă (M) 'eben dieser', t́et́e (E), t́it́ä (M)
Mari (Cheremis): ti, tiδǝ (KB), tǝ̑, tiδe (U), tǝ̑, tǝ̑δe (B) 'dieser', tewe (KB U) 'sieh hier!, eben', teŋɣe (KB) 'auf diese Weise'
Udmurt (Votyak): ta (S K G) 'diese(r)', to-lon (S K) 'gestern'
Komi (Zyrian): ta (S PO), taje̮ (S), taja (Lu.) 'dieser', ta-vun (P) 'heute', te̮-ri̮t (S) 'gestern', te̮-lun (Lu.) 'вчера', te̮n (S P), tȯn (PO) 'neulich, unlängst, gestern', te̮n-lun (S) 'gestern'
Khanty (Ostyak): tim (V), temi (Vj.)m tȧ̆m (DN), tȧmi (O), tä (N) 'dieser'; ti (DN) 'jener dort', tit (DN) 'dies', tĕɣ (V C), ti, tij (O) 'hierher', tĕt (V), tĕtǝ (DN) 'hier'
Mansi (Vogul): ti (TJ KU So.), t́i (P) 'dieser', tiɣ (TJ KU So.), t́iɣ (P) 'hierher', tit́ (TJ), tit (KU So.), t́it́ (P) 'hier', tä (LM) 'jener', tü (TJ), tä (P) 'jener, der', ta (So.) 'jener' (? > Khanty ta wuji 'da, nimm'), tüw (TJ) 'dorthin, dahin'
Hungarian: tétova (altung. téstova) 'unstet, schwankend, (altung.) hin und her', tëgnap 'gestern', tege (dial., altung.) 'gestern; unlängst, neulich'
Nenets (Yurak): t́ikī (O) 'der dort, der, dieser da', t́amʔ (O) 'dieser, sieh hier', t́ahāʔ (O) 'dorthin', t́ahana (O) 'dort, da', t́eχe (O) 'jener dort', t́eńāna 'gestern', t́ej 'gestrig'
Enets (Yen): tike 'тот', t́ikeddo 'dorthin', t́ikohone 'dort', tiada, t́iŋd́i 'nun', t́eʔ 'gestern'
Nganasan (Tawgi): temenaŋ 'nun'
Selkup: tii (Ta. Ke.), tí, tii (N) 'hierher', tii (Ta.), ti, tí (N) 'jetzt, sofort', t́e ćêl 'gestern', tina (Ta.) 'jener, das, dieser'
Kamass: tije, tijin, tēji 'gleich, sofort'
Yukaghir parallels: tiŋ 'this'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-yuk,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *tān
Meaning : he, himself
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *tān
Proto-Telugu : *tān-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *tān
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *tān
Proto-North Dravidian : *tān (obl. taŋ-)
Brahui : tēn
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *tān
Meaning : oneself
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : tān_ (obl. tan_-; before vowels tan_n_-)
Tamil meaning : oneself
Tamil derivates : tān_ē himself, only, just; tan_atu that which is one's own, friendship, amity, intimacy; tan_atāḷ one's own permanent servant, associate, mate; tan_i singleness, seclusion, solitude, independence; (-pp-, -tt-) to be alone, single, solitary, be separate, detached from company, have no equal or match, be deserted; tan_icci woman separated from her husband; tan_itti lonely woman forsaken and left helpless; tan_ittāḷ single man or woman as a bachelor or widow; tan_itar persons in solitude; tan_imai singleness, seclusion, solitude, retirement, incomparableness, matchlessness, forlorn condition, helplessness; tan_n_an_-tan_i quite alone; tan_mai nature, essence, property, inherent or abstract quality, character, temper, disposition, state, condition, position, circumstances; tan_n_ai lord, chief, elder brother; tan_n_ōr one's kith and kin, relatives or dependants
Malayalam : tān (obl. tan-)
Malayalam meaning : self, oneself
Malayalam derivates : tānum notwithstanding; tānē by himself; tani, taniccu by itself, alone; tanima loneliness; tanikku to himself, to oneself
Kannada : tān (obl. tan-)
Kannada meaning : he, she, it, in the refl. or reciprocal sense
Kannada derivates : tanatu, tanattu, tannadu, tandu his, hers, its
Kodagu : tānɨ (obl. tan-)
Kodagu meaning : oneself
Tulu : tānụ
Tulu meaning : self, oneself
Tulu derivates : (hon. pl.) tanukuḷu; tannavu one's own, his own; tannāte, tannātegụ for oneself, himself, itself; of one's own accord, by itself; tannāye one's own man, a dependent, friend, favourite
Proto-Nilgiri : *tān
Number in DED : 3196
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *tān
Meaning : oneself
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : tān (obl. tan-/ta-)
Toda : tōn (obl. tan-)
Additional forms : Also Kota -dan also, even (concessive), ever (indefinite); Toda -ton (-ɵon, -don) only, just (= Skt. eva); atton just that much, in that same way
Notes : The vowel -a- in the Toda obl. stem is not quite clear; influence of case forms with *-ä-?
Number in DED : 3196
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *tān-
Meaning : one's self, he or himself, she or herself
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : tānu (obl. tan-)
Additional forms : Also [1] tanantu, [2] tanantaṭa, [3] tanakutānu of one's self, of one's own accord, voluntarily, of itself, spontaneously, automatically
Number in DED : 3196
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *tān
Meaning : oneself
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : *tān (obl. tan-)
Parji : tān (obl. tan-) "self, oneself"
Ollari Gadba : tān (obl. tan-) "self, oneself"
Additional forms : Also Kolami tanne (? tane) his own; tannaḍi by himself alone, just by itself, accidentally
Number in DED : 3196
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *tān
Meaning : he, himself
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *tān
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *tān
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *tān-u
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *tān
Meaning : self (sg.)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : tanā
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : tannā
Muria Gondi : tān (obl. tan-)
Adilabad Gondi : tānā (SR)
Chanda Gondi : tanai
Additional forms : Also Gondi_Tr tanwā his own
Number in DED : 3196
Number in CVOTGD : 1651
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_w,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-gondi_chd,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *tān
Meaning : he, himself
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : tān (gen. tā, acc.-dat. taŋgeŋ)
Number in DED : 3196
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *tān-u
Meaning : self
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : tānu (obl. tāṛan-) "himself or herself"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : tanū (obl. tan-) "self, oneself"
Kuwi (Schulze) : tānu (obl. tan-) "self, oneself"
Number in DED : 3196
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *tān (obl. *taŋ-)
Meaning : himself
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : tān (obl. taŋg-) "refl. pron. of the 3rd pers. himself"
Malto : tān, tāni (obl. tan_g-) "himself, herself, itself"
Number in DED : 3196
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : tēn
Meaning : self, myself, thyself, himself, ourselves, etc.
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Additional forms : Also BRA tēnāī that which belongs to self, etc.: brotherhood, friendship; tēn-pa-tēn among ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
Number in DED : 3196
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-addition,braet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *tar(u)-, *tam-ani
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: this, right here
Russian meaning: этот, рядом
Proto-Yupik: *tar(u)-na (*ta-rumǝ, *taru-ani, *tam-ani)
Proto-Inupik: *ta(a)m-na, (*tav-ruma, *tav-rani, *tam-ani)
Comments: The Proto-Inupik stem has a secondary development *kiu- > *kiv- due to a strong structural influence of the demonstrative pronouns. Cf. *kiru-, *aru-, *paru-, *qaru-.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 480
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *tar(u)-na (*ta-rumǝ, *taru-ani, *tam-ani)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: this right here 1, well, that's all, all right 2
Russian Meaning: этот, рядом 1, ну, вот!, ну, всё!, готово! 2
Sirenik: tā-ná (tavǝ-kǝra pl. ?, //ta-cǝma rel. [Vakh.], tam-ǝ́ni loc.) 1, táva 2
Chaplino: tā-na (tā-kut pl., taw-áni loc.) 1, tam-āni (loc.) 'till the such moment', tāwa 2
Naukan: tā́-na (taw-áni loc., tam-ávǝk all., tam-ākǝn abl.) 1, táwa 2
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: taɣʷ-na (taɣʷɣʷum rel., taw-ani loc.)
Central Alaskan Yupik: tau-na (tuani, tām-ani loc.)
Chevak (Peripheral): taw-ani loc.
Norton Sound (Peripheral): tām-na (tām-ani, taw-ani loc.)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 328, 480, 455
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-cay,yupet-chev,yupet-nrts,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *tạ(ạ)m-na, (*tav-ruma, *täv-rạ-ni, *tam-ani)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: this, right here 1, finished 2
Russian meaning: этот, рядом 1, всё, конец 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: tām-na (tarani loc.) 1
SPI Dialects: Imaq tám-na, tā-na (ta-ɣō pl., tam-áni loc.) 1, távra 2, W tām-na* (tāv-ʁuma* rel., tāv-ʁani* loc.) 1, taɣ́ɣ́a* 'no, let it be, stop', , KI tām-na* (tav-rani loc.) 1
North Alaskan Inupik: tām-na (tāv-ruma, tāf-šuma, tāp-tuma rel., tav-rani loc.) 1
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl tām-na* 1, tävʁa* 2
Western Canadian Inupik: tām-na (tāffuma rel., talvani loc.) 1
WCI Dialects: M tām-na*, täʒva* 2, Cor täʒva*, talva* 2, Sig tāv-ʒuma rel. 1
Eastern Canadian Inupik: tā-na (tātsuma rel., taɣɣani loc.) 1
ECI Dialects: NBI tavvani loc. 1
Greenlandic Inupik: tān-na (taššuma rel., taššani loc.) 1, tássa* 'there it is' [Jen.]
GRI Dialects: NG taun-na 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 480
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-ecis,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *tV
Meaning: that
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *tV (also tVh)
Austroasiatic meaning: that
Munda parallels: Kor dee that
Proto-Austronesian: *ati (also *-tu 'this')
Austronesian meaning: there (distant)
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-mun,austr-an,austr-anme,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: tVh
Meaning: there
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: *dieh
Proto-Aslian: *doh
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-asli,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *dieh
Meaning: there
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: VKV tih V?
Proto-East Katuic: *tieh
References: TK17.13a
katet-meaning,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic:
Meaning: there
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: tih
Bru Van Keu meaning: there
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-vkv,wkatet-vkvme,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *tieh
Meaning: there
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Lao Katu: te:h, to:h
Lao Katu meaning: over there
Ngeq: tih V?
Ngeq meaning: up there, in the distance; katih on top
Katu dialects (1): te:h
Katu meaning: that
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-lka,ekatet-lkame,ekatet-nge,ekatet-ngeme,ekatet-and,ekatet-katme,

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Aslian etymology :

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Proto-Aslian: *doh
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Meaning: this
Jahai: t=ǝ̃h
Jah-Hut: doh
Semai: ʔadɛh
Temiar: doh
asliet-prnum,asliet-meaning,asliet-jhi,asliet-jah,asliet-smi,asliet-tmi,

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