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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ŕɨʔǯ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mountain, wooded mountain ridge
Ket: lɨʔt//ĺɨʔt
Yug: lɨʔt́
Kottish: d́ī, pl. d́īan; Ass. jii (М., Сл., Ф.), ij (Срсл.), (Бол.) pača-[j]i (lit. "big mountain"); Koib. ǯii (Ф.)
Pumpokol: lɨcɨ (Срсл.) "devil" (cf. Ket. ĺɨtɨś "wood devil (mountain + god)"
Comments: ССЕ 267. Not quite clear is the relationship of the forms: Ket. plur. ĺɨkken5, South. ĺɨkŋ5, Yug lɨkŋ5. A change *-tŋ > -kŋ is actually possible in Ket, but a reduplication in ĺɨkken5 is somewhat strange. Besides, Castren has recorded in Kottish one more word with the meaning "mountain": d́ix, plur. d́ekŋ, d́igan. It is possible to reconstruct one more PY root: *ĺɨ(ʔ)k, reflected (besides the forms listed) in the Kott. compound xē-lēx, khē-lēg 'mountain ridge' (the first part see under *qäʔj). On the whole, a rather complicated case. Werner (2, 16) tries to solve it by postulating PY <*ʎɨk, pl. *ʎɨkŋ> and its compound with an unclear component <*ǝt'> (?) - *ʎɨkkǝt' > *ʎɨkt' > Ket ĺɨʔt etc. Such a development would be phonetically unprecedented in Yenisseian.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *hŕV̆m[c̣]we ?
Meaning: stone, mountain
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *hrŏmc̣we
Yenisseian: /*ŕɨʔǯ /
Basque: *er̄oic
Comments and references : Similar, but correspondences are violated.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *hrŏmc̣we
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *hinc̣o
Proto-Lak: nuwc̣i
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣ʷar(a)
Proto-Khinalug: rɨc̣ɨn
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular (except for the secondary metathesis *rac̣ʷ(a) > *c̣ʷar(a) in PL), but the final vowel is not clear: the Avar form points to long *-ē, Lak - rather to short *-ĭ.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *hinc̣o
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone
Avar: hec̣ó
Andian language: hinc̣o
Akhvakh: ĩč̣a
Chamalal: hĩc̣a
Tindi: hinc̣a
Botlikh: hinc̣a
Bagvalal: hinc̣a
Comments: Av. paradigm B (pl. hec̣á-bi). Cf. also Cham. Gig. hinza. The same root can be discovered in a PA compound meaning "sledge hammer": *hinc̣o-q̇:ur (origin of the second part is unclear; -c̣- > -c̣:- in some forms as a result of assimilation) > Akhv. ĩc̣:aq̇:u, Cham. hĩc̣aq̇:ʷ (Gig. hinc̣aq̇:ur), Tind. hinc̣aq̇:ur ( > Inkh. hic̣aq̇ur); from some Andian source is borrowed (with distortion) Bezht. Tlad. ãzaḳ, Khosh. azaḳ id.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: nuwc̣i
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: iron or stone plate for roasting grain
Lak form: nuwc̣i
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *c̣ʷar(a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: road metal, small stone
Rutul: c̣ʷar
Comment: Cf. also Rut. Khnov. c̣ar 'a long flat stone'. The root is isolated within Lezgian, but has probable external parallels.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-rut,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: rɨc̣ɨn
North Caucasian etymology: 521
Meaning: stone
Khinalug form: rɨc̣ɨn
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *er̄oic
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 precipice, cliff 2 fissure, abyss (between mountains and rocks)
Gipuzkoan: erroitz 1
High Navarrese: erroitz 1
Low Navarrese: erroitz 1, 2
Salazarese: erroitz 1
Lapurdian: erroitz 1
Baztanese: erroitz 1
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : RVMCV
Meaning : stone
Sino-Caucasian : *hrV̆m[c̣]we ?
Austric : PAA *ruajh, MY *reɨ, Thai krat
globet-meaning,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *rVc
Meaning: pebble, stone
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *ruajh
Austroasiatic meaning: pebble, rock, gravel
Miao-Yao parallels: *reɨA stone
Proto-Thai: krat CK
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-myao,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ruajh
Meaning: pebble, rock, gravel
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: krat CK
Proto-Katuic: AND cruojh
Proto-Bahnaric: JRU kruɛs V?
Khmer: gruǝs < OK kros, krwas
References: Sid
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-kmr,aaet-bib,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *ruah / *rah
Meaning: gravel
Presyllable: kǝ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *ruah / *rah
References: P-871
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic: *ruah / *rah
Meaning: gravel
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: (tamaw) ntrah.L
Bru Van Keu meaning: gravel
Kui: kru:h.N
Kui meaning: pebbles, gravel
Kuay: kruǝh.N
Kuay meaning: gravel
Ngeu: kluǝh
Ngeu meaning: gravel
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-vkv,wkatet-vkvme,wkatet-kui,wkatet-kuime,wkatet-kuay,wkatet-kuayme,wkatet-ngeu,wkatet-nyeume,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric: LOAN?
Meaning: gravel
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
References: JS-496
banet-meaning,banet-prnum,banet-refer,

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South Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-South Bahnaric:
Meaning: gravel
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Stieng form: kro:s
Stieng meaning: gravel, stones
References: SBS-562
sobet-meaning,sobet-prnum,sobet-sti,sobet-stime,sobet-refer,

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West Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-West- Bahnaric:
Meaning: pebble
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Jaru form: kruɛs
Jaru meaning: pebble
References: JS-496
webet-meaning,webet-prnum,webet-jr,webet-jrme,webet-refer,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: kruǝs
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Khmer: kros, krwas
Old Khmer Meaning: pebble, shingle
References: P118
kmret-prnum,kmret-okh,kmret-okmean,kmret-ref,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong:
Meaning: gravel
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: soʔi
Vietnamese meaning: gravel (PH)
Nguon dialect (1): šɔn.5
Nguon dialect (2): šɔn.5
Proto-Ruc: *rɛh.1, k-
Ruc (Ferlus' rec.): kurɛ:h.1
Ruc meaning: gravel
References: NTF81
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-vietme,vimet-ncl,vimet-nyt,vimet-prru,vimet-rntf,vimet-rucme,vimet-bib,

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Aslian etymology :

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Proto-Aslian:
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Meaning: egg
Temiar: tab
asliet-prnum,asliet-meaning,asliet-tmi,

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