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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *qVqVr
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: gall
Ket: qʌ:ĺ; qōlɨŋ1 / qɔlaŋ5 "bitter" (Werner 2, 143 qʌ́laŋ / qɔ́laŋ)
Yug: xʌxul5; xɔxɨĺaŋ6 "bitter"
Kottish: ogar, pl. -aŋ
Pumpokol: leo-xóxar (Сл.) "(gall?) bladder"
Comments: ССЕ 266. Werner 2, 148-149 <*(q)ǝqǝʎ>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xq̇ĕɦlV̄́ ( ~ -ɫ-)
Meaning: bitter
North Caucasian: *q̇ĕɦlV ( ~ -ɫ-)
Sino-Tibetan: *ghāH
Yenisseian: *qVqVr
Burushaski: *ɣaqá-
Basque: *keru / *kerać
Comments and references : HGC 39, WFR 27, MCGD 9, BCD 27.
sccet-meaning,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇ĕɦlV ( ~ -ɫ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter
Proto-Nakh: *q̇aħe-n
Proto-Tsezian: *-ɨ̃q̇V-
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇u-d-q̇u-
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇äl
Proto-Khinalug: q̇ä
Proto-West Caucasian: *q̇́Ia / *q̇́Iaq̇́IV
Notes: A widely spread common NC root. The semantic correlation "bitter":"sweet" is quite common (cf. the various meanings of *sal- and its derivates in Indo-European), thus the WC-EC comparison seems quite satisfactory. Note the frequent appearance of reduplication in this root (in PD, PL, PWC); we can probably reconstruct a reduplicated variant *q̇ĕq̇ĕɦlV already for PNC.

    In PTs the stem obtained prefixed class markers (*-Vq̇VlV) with further standard adjectival development > *-Vq̇lV > *-Vlq̇V > PTs *-ɨ̃q̇V (nasalisation is a normal reflex of medial resonants).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *q̇aħe-n
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter
Chechen: q̇äħa
Ingush: q̇aħa
Batsbi: q̇aħẽ
Comments: The pure stem *q̇aħ- is reflected in Chech. q̇aħ-dan, Bacb. q̇aħ-dar 'to make smth. bitter'.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-ɨ̃q̇V-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter
Tsezi: meq̇aw
Ginukh: meq̇aju
Khvarshi: meq̇q̇u
Inkhokvari: mɨq̇a-gu
Bezhta: n-iq̇aro (Tlad.)
Gunzib: naq̇aru
Comments: PTsKh *mɨq̇a-; PGB *-ɨ̃q̇a-ru (with vowel assimilation in Gunz.). The initial nasal in PTsKh and Gunz. is a reflex of original class markers nasalised under the influence of the nasalised vowel (the changing nasalised class prefixes are still preserved in Bezht.).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *q̇u-d-q̇u-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter
Akusha: q̇udq̇u-si
Comments: Cf. also Ur. q̇uṭq̇u, Kharb. q̇udq̇u-se id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *q̇äl
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 salt 2 bitter
Lezghian: q̇el 1
Tabasaran: q̇il 1
Agul: q̇Ial 1
Rutul: q̇äl 1
Tsakhur: q̇ew 1
Kryz: q̇el 1
Budukh: q̇el 1
Archi: q̇ala 2
Udi: el 1
Comment: Obl. base *q̇ila-, cf. Tab. q̇ila-, Rut. q̇ili-, (with vowel levelling) Ag. q̇Iala, Tsakh. q̇eva-. 3d class in most languages (but 4th class in Kryz.). The root had originally meant 'bitter', and this meaning is retained in Archi; in most other languages the adjective 'bitter' is still derived from the same root, but with different affixation: PL *q̇ä-q̇Vl- (with infixed class markers and various modifications of *-ä- in unaccented syllables): Lezg. tüq̇ül, Tab. q̇uṭli, Düb. q̇urq̇uli, Ag. q̇ulq̇ul-f, Rut. däq̇älɨ-d, Kryz. q̇äṭq̇ul.

    Cf. Талибов 1960а, 301; 1980, 307; Лексика 1971, 219; Гигинейшвили 1977, 103.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: q̇ä
North Caucasian etymology: 309
Meaning: salt
Khinalug form: q̇ä
Comments: Cf. also q̇ilez 'salty'. Khin. has also preserved the adjective root q̇al 'bitter' ( < *q̇alV-).
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *q̇́Ia / *q̇́Iaq̇́IV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sweet
Abkhaz: á-χā
Abaza: qaʕa
Adyghe: ʡā-s.ʷǝ
Kabardian: ʡa-f.
Ubykh: q̇aq̇ǝ́
Comments: PAT *qaʕa (cf. also Bzyb. á-χā); PAK *ʡa-c̣ʷǝ́. The PAT and Ub. forms are reduplicated (note that PAT *qaʕa reflects an early dissimilation *q̇́Iaq̇́IV- > *q́Iaq̇́IV-).

    See Balkarov 1967, 115 (PAK - Ub.). The PAK form is a compound with *c̣ʷǝ 'good' q.v.; the first part, however, (despite Dumézil 1963 and Shagirov 2, 158) has certainly nothing to do with *ʡa 'hand' (as well as q̇a- in Ub. q̇aq̇ǝ́).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ghāH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter
Chinese: *khāʔ bitter.
Tibetan: bska astringent, as to taste, kha bitter; dka difficult, pains, exertion.
Burmese: khah bitter, LB *khax.
Kachin: kha4 bitter.
Lushai: kha bitter, KC *kha\.
Kiranti: *khä(-s)
Comments: BG: Dimasa -kha, Garo kha; Kanauri ka-g, Thebor khăk; Boro ká; Trung ka1; Magari khā; Kaike khāpā; Kham kā̀; Newari khāju id. Sh 44, 133, 428; Ben 18; Mat. 191; Luce 2.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: kǔ
Preclassic Old Chinese: khāʔ
Classic Old Chinese: khā́
Western Han Chinese: khā́
Eastern Han Chinese: khā́
Early Postclassic Chinese: khṓ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: khṓ
Late Postclassic Chinese: khṓ
Middle Chinese: khó
English meaning : be bitter
Russian meaning[s]: 1) горький; перен. тяжелый, трудный; страдание, мука; горе; бедность; мучиться, страдать; не переносить (напр. жары); тяжело работать; 2) упорно, настойчиво, всеми силами
Comments: Also used for a homonymous *khāʔ 'sow-thistle' (Sonchus oleraceus?). Viet. khó is colloquial (used only in the sense '(bitter) > hard, difficult' - existing also in Chinese); regular Sino-Viet. is khô`.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 140
Four-angle index: 1295
Karlgren code: 0049 u
Vietnamese reading: khó
Jianchuan Bai: khu1
Dali Bai: khu1
Bijiang Bai: qhü1
Shijing occurrences: 32.3_, 34.1, 35.2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 841
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 遇合一上姥溪
ZIHUI: 5388 0918
Beijing: khu 2
Jinan: khu 2
Xi'an: khu 2
Taiyuan: khu 2
Hankou: khu 2
Chengdu: khu 2
Yangzhou: khu 2
Suzhou: khǝu 2
Wenzhou: khu 21
Changsha: khu 2
Shuangfeng: khǝu 2
Nanchang: khu 2
Meixian: khu 2
Guangzhou: fu 21
Xiamen: khɔ 2
Chaozhou: khou 21
Fuzhou: khu 2
Shanghai: khu 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: khu 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *khä(-s)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: bitter
Sunwar: 'ka-só (k- is unclear)
Tulung: khes- taste bitter, feel bitter;
Kaling: khäpä
Limbu: khik
Dumi: khānɨ, khākpɨ
Kulung: khikpa adj., khīma v.
Yamphu: khikma
Comments: Cf. *khìŋ 'bile' (which could have influenced the L, Yam and Kul vocalism). Toba 88 *khäpä.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-sun,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: khikmaʔ, khikt-/-khik-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vi.
Meaning: 1) taste bitter 2) be expensive
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: kha:kpɨ
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: adj.
Meaning: bitter
Nepali: tīto.
Derivation: [AP < kha:nɨ 'taste bitter']
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-nepali,dumet-dercomm,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: khikpa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: adj.
Meaning: bitter
Nepali: tīto.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: khikma II
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Stem: <khikt- ; khik->
Grammar: v.intr.stat.
Meaning: to be bitter
Comments: khiʔ.iʔi. (be_bitter.NP) It's bitter. i.doʔ ca:.di.yaks.u.ŋ.äŋ.go khikt.äŋ.go. (this.like eat.apply.sei:e.о3.EXAG.FCT.TH be_bitter.FCT.TH) I tasted a bit and it sure was bitter.
Nepali: tīto hunu
yamet-prnum,yamet-stem,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,yamet-nepali,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *ɣaqá-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: bitter
Yasin: qaqá-m
Hunza: ɣaqáỵ, ɣaqáỵum
Nagar: ɣaqáỵ, ɣaqáỵum
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *keru / *kerać
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 bitter 2 sour 3 stench 4 to stink 5 grudge, rancor
Bizkaian: kirats 3
Gipuzkoan: kirats 3, keru 3
High Navarrese: (Elkano) kerats 3, (Lezaka) keru 3
Low Navarrese: kirats, karats 3, 4, (Aldude) keru 3
Salazarese: keru 3
Lapurdian: kirats 1, 2, 3, 4, keru 5
Baztanese: keru 3
Zuberoan: khárats, kharatx 1, 2
Roncalese: karats 1, keru 3
Comments: First vowel in kirats may have been influenced by *kino (q.v.).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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