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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *qɔ-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die
Ket: qɔ-ŕeŋ5, Bak., Sur. qɔ-deŋ5
Yug: xɔ-dǝŋ5
Kottish: onxa, onka "dead", (Бол.) onxa "death"; xa, kha, pl. xajikŋ "death"; hou "dead", hō 'illness' (Бол.: xou "illness"); d́axajaŋ "to die", praet. onxajaŋ, imp. anxa; асс. exá (М., Сл., Кл.), onxa (Кл.) "dead"
Arin: ínqo (М., Сл., Кл) "dead"; inkoto (Лоск.) "death"
Pumpokol: ká-doŋdu (Сл.) "dead"
Comments: ССЕ 264. The root clearly has no medial consonant and should be distinguished from *qōGV 'hunt, kill' q.v. Note the Kott. variants with h-: a different root with *χ-?
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=ilqwV
Meaning: to die
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=ilqwV- (/*=ilχwV-)
Sino-Tibetan: *kʷɨ̆ (-t; ~ gʷ-, qʷ-, Gʷ-)
Yenisseian: *qɔ-
Burushaski: *ɣa-n-
Comments and references : In PNC cf. also *=ilq_wV- (/*=ilχ_wV-) `kill, slaughter'. NSC 58 *-lqwV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=ilqwV- (/*=ilχwV-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die (plur. subject), die out
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=iqʷ-
Proto-Tsezian: *=iχʷ-
Proto-Dargwa: *=ilχʷ-/*=ulχ-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔilχʷe
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. As well as its transitive counterpart (*=ilq_wV / *=ilχ_wV 'to slaughter' q.v.), the root demonstrates a non-standard variation of *q/*χ (the latter is reflected in Darg. and PTs, the former - in PA; the PL form may reflect either variant).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=iqʷ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die
Avar: χʷe-
Chadakolob: ħʷ(Vl)-
Akhvakh: =uq- (Gudava)
Comments: The Akhv. word (=uq-, Tseg. =uχ-) is attested only in Gudava 1964, 98; since the common verb for "die" in Akhv. is =iƛ̣- q.v., we may assume that the root =uq- has here some specific meaning (most probably - 'to die out (plur.)' which it means in other Dagestan languages).

    Akhv. =uq- reflects PA *=iqʷ- (stem 1), while Av. χʷé- goes back to *qʷV- (stem 2).

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-akv,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=iχʷ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die
Tsezi: =eχʷ-
Ginukh: =uh-
Khvarshi: =ih-
Inkhokvari: =uh-
Bezhta: =uʁ-
Gunzib: =uh-
Comments: PTsKh *=iχ̥1̇ʷ- (~-ɨ-), PGB *=uʁ-. Cf. also the PTs causative ('to kill') *=iχ̥1̇ʷ-Vl- (Tsez. =eχur-, Gin. =uher-, Bezht. =uʁol-, Gunz. =uhl-).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=ilχʷ-/*=ulχ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to slaughter
Chiragh: =elχʷ-/luχ-
Comments: Cf. also Ur. =ilhʷ-/=ulh- id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔilχʷe
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die (pl.)
Tabasaran: jiχ-
Archi: χʷi-
Comment: Cf. also Arch. dur. χʷal, imp. χʷirχi-r. The Arch. -l in durative goes back to *-r under influence of the medial *-l- which had itself dropped out later (reconstruction of the root-final *-l is not probable in this case,because one would expect its shift to -n in Arch.).
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kʷɨ̆ (-t; ~ gʷ-, qʷ-, Gʷ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: old, weak
Chinese: *gʷǝs old (not new), ancient.
Tibetan: rgud to decline, get weak (esp. with old age), rgod to grow weak.
Lepcha: gu old female of most animals
Comments: The Tib. form can be alternatively compared with OCh. 耇 *kōʔ old or 考 *khūʔ high age, old; cf. also Burm. kawh 'to be old (e. g. of a city)'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: jìu
Preclassic Old Chinese: gʷǝs
Classic Old Chinese: gwǝh
Western Han Chinese: gǝwh
Eastern Han Chinese: gǝwh
Early Postclassic Chinese: gìw
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̀w
Late Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̀w
Middle Chinese: gǝ̀w
English meaning : be old, ancient (not of people)
Comments: Regular Sino-Viet. is cụ'u. Cf. also Viet. khú, khụ 'very old'. The original meaning of the graph was probably 'owl', but this usage is actually attested only since Han. For *g cf. Xiamen, Chaozhou ku6, Fuzhou ko6, Jianou kiu6.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 0
Four-angle index: 0
Karlgren code: 1067 c-e
Vietnamese reading: cũ
Jianchuan Bai: kɨ3
Dali Bai: kɨ3
Bijiang Bai: gɨ̃2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 2373
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 流開三去宥群
ZIHUI: 5283 1598
Beijing: ćiou 3
Jinan: ćiou 3
Xi'an: ćiou 3
Taiyuan: ćiou 3
Hankou: ćiou 3
Chengdu: ćiǝu 3
Yangzhou: ćiôɨ 3
Suzhou: ʒ́iöy 32
Wenzhou: ʒ́iau 32
Changsha: ćiôu 31 (lit.); ćiôu 32
Shuangfeng: ʒ́iû 32
Nanchang: ćhiu 32
Meixian: khiu 3
Guangzhou: kau 32
Xiamen: kiu 32 (lit.); ku 32
Chaozhou: ku 32
Fuzhou: kieu 32
Shanghai: ćiɨ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: kiou 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *ɣa-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 to be exhausted, tired 2 to kill
Yasin: ɣan- 1, -́s-qa-n- 2
Hunza: ɣan- 1, -́s-qa-n- 2
Nagar: ɣan- 1, -́s-qa-n- 2
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVLV
Meaning : to die, kill
Eurasiatic : *KolV
Sino-Caucasian : *=ilqwV
African (misc.) : Bantu *-kụ́ídị̀ 'death'.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-afr,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *KolV
Meaning: kill
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gʷel-
Uralic: *kola
Kartvelian: (Zan. q̇wil-; PK *ḳal-); Svan. -q̇law- 'break'
Dravidian: *kol-
Comments: [Cf. also PIE *kola-, *klā-'beat, break, kill'; SDr *koḷ- 'hurt, hit, kill'; TM *xaldi- 'hew, carve'; FP *ko[ĺ]V ~ *kaLV 'knock, strike']
References: МССНЯ 370; ND 870 *kolʔa 'to die, end' (IE+Ur+ Arab. and a dub. Irq.); 1029 *Ḳoḷ/ĺa 'to beat, strike' (IE *kola- + SDr + Arab.); 1043 *ḳal̄ʕa 'to cut, hew, chop, stab' (IE *kola- + Kartv. *ḳal- + TM + various SH); 1050 *Ḳoḷ/ĺqa 'to knock, strike, hit' (IE *kola- + FP + Arab.); 1911 *q̇ola 'to kill' (Kartv.-Drav.); 1919 *q̇Aĺ/ḷʕV 'to break, tear, pluck' (Svan. + IE *kola- ? + dub. Drav. + Sem.)./
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gʷelǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to cause pain, to kill
Tokharian: A, B kwäl- (kul-) (PT *kwäl-, kul-) 'to fail' (Adams 236-237)
Armenian: keɫem `peinige'
Slavic: *žālь, *žālḗtī
Baltic: *gel̂- (2) vb. tr., *gil̂- (2) vb. intr., *gil-u- adj., *gēl-ā̂ f., *gal-a- n., *gāl-[ia]- m., *gul-s-en-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *kwil-a- vb.; *kwal-jō f.; *kwal-ō f.; *kwal-ja- vb.; *kwal-m=; *kwēl-ō f.; *kwil-d-í-, *kwil-d-á-
Latin: vallessit = perierit, dictum ā vallō mīlitārī, quod fit circā castra, quod quī eō ēiciuntur prō perditīs habentur Paul. Fest. 377 (blosse Volksetymologie)
Celtic: *baln- > OIr at-baill `stirbt'; Cymr aballu `perire, deficere'; Corn bal `pestis'
Russ. meaning: причинять боль, смерть
References: WP I 689 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: жале́ть,
Near etymology: укр. жалiти, ст.-слав. жалити ὀλοφύρεσθαι (Супр.), болг. жа́ля, жале́я, сербохорв. жа̏лити, словен. žáliti, чеш. želeti, слвц. želet'; с др. ступенью корневого гласного: др.-русск. желя "печаль, скорбь". Ср. также жаль.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. gélti, gẽlia, gė́elė "очень болеть, жалить", gìlstu, gilaũ, gìlti "заболеть", лтш. dzel̂t "колоть", англос. cwëlan "умирать", д.-в.-н. quëlan "испытывать боль". С другим вокализмом: д.-в.-н. quâla ж. "мучение", арм. keɫem "мучаю, терзаю"; см. И. Шмидт, Verw. 43; Мейе, MSL 8, 165; Цупица, GG 85; М. -- Э. I, 54; Траутман, BSW 83. Необходимо отделять от жела́ть; см. Мейе, MSL 14, 373.
Pages: 2,34
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *gel̂- (2) vb. tr., *gil̂- (2) vb. intr., *gil-u- adj., *gēl-ā̂ f., *gal-a- n., *gāl-[ia]- m., *gul-s-en-iā̃ f.
Meaning: cause pain, kill
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: gélti (gẽlia) `wehtun (physisch und psychisch)', gìlti (-sta) 'heftig zu schmerzen anfangen', gilù- 'schmerzlich', gēlà `heftiger Schmerz'
Old Prussian: gallan Ench., golis Voc. 168 `Tod', gallintwey 'töten'; gulsenni(e)n `Schmerz' Ench. 65, 21.22
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kwilan- vb.; *kwaljō; *kwalō; *kwaljan-; *kwalm=; *kwēlō; *kwildí-, *kwildá-
Meaning: torment, pinish
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: kvelja wk. `plagen, martern, quälen'; kvɔl f. `Pein, Qual'; kvell f. `Schmerz'
Norwegian: kvelja vb.
Swedish: kval; kvälja vb.
Danish: kväle vb.; kval
Old English: cwelan `sterben'; cwalu `Tötung, gewaltsamer Mord'; cwield `Tot'; cwellan
English: kill
Old Saxon: quelan, qual `Pein leiden'; quāla `Qual, Marter'; qualm `Tod, Verheerung'; quellian
Middle Dutch: quēlen `er slecht aan toe zijn, kwijnen, ziek zijn, droevig zijn, zondigen, kwellen'; quāle f. `lijden, kwaal, zedelijk gebrek'; quellen `folteren, kwellen, plagen; sukkelen, kwijnen, lijden, bedroefd zijn'
Dutch: kwaal f.; kwellen
Middle Low German: quēlen `gekweld worden, pijn hebben, kwellen'
Old High German: quelan (qual) st. `leiden, sich quälen, martern'; quāla f. (8.Jh.) `Qual, Elend, Hölle'; qualm `Tod, Verheerung'; quilti-werk `Abendarbeit'; quellen
Middle High German: quāl(e), kāl(e), kōl(e) (/quǟle, quēle, quēl, kēle) st. f., quāl st. m. `Beklemmung, Marter, Qual'; quëln (/koln, kollen, këln) st. `Schmerzen leiden, sich quälen, abmarten', wk. tr. 'drängen, drücken, zwängen'
German: Qual f., quälen
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 342
Proto: *kola
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to die
German meaning: sterben
Finnish: kuole- 'sterben' ( > Saam. L kuolati- 'töten')
Estonian: koole-
Mordovian: kulo- (E M)
Mari (Cheremis): kole- (KB U B)
Udmurt (Votyak): kul- (S K), kulị̑- (G)
Komi (Zyrian): kul- (S), kuv- (P), kul- (PO)
Khanty (Ostyak): kăla- (V), χăt- (DN), χăl- (O)
Mansi (Vogul): kāl- (TJ), χōl- (KU), kōl- (P), χɔ̄la- (So.)
Hungarian: hal-
Nenets (Yurak): χā- (O)
Enets (Yen): kā- (Ch. B K)
Nganasan (Tawgi): kụ̄ʔa-
Selkup: qū- (TaM), qump- (U), qū- (Ty.), kua-, k͔ū́a- (Ke.)
Kamass: kш-
Janhunen's version: (130, mit Fragezeichen) *kaxli6-
Sammalahti's version: *kaxli6-
Addenda: Koib. kube 'Tod'; Mot. chadaibaga; Taig. kcháima 'mortuus'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-janh,uralet-samm2,uralet-add,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳal-/ḳl
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: убивать
English meaning: to kill
Georgian: ḳal-, ḳl-
Svan: č̣aw
Svan meaning (Rus.): tödliche Seuche
Svan meaning (Eng.): tödliche Seuche
Notes and references: EWK 183.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kol-
Meaning : to kill
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kol-
Proto-Telugu : *koll-
Brahui : xall-ing
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kol-
Meaning : to kill
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kol (kolv-, kon_r_-)
Tamil meaning : to kill, murder, destroy, ruin, fell, reap (as the heads of grain), afflict, tease; n. act of killing, affliction
Tamil derivates : kolli that which kills; kolai killing, murder, vexation, teasing; kolaiñan_, kolainan_, kolaivan_ murderer, hunter
Malayalam : kolluka
Malayalam meaning : to kill, murder
Malayalam derivates : kollikka to make to kill; kolli killing; kula killing, murder
Kannada : kol, kolu, kollu (kond-)
Kannada meaning : to kill, murder
Kannada derivates : kolisu, kollisu, kolsu to cause to kill; kole killing, murder, slaughter; kolega murderer; kolluvike killing; kuli a killer
Kodagu : koll- (kolluv-, kond-)
Kodagu meaning : to kill
Tulu : kolè
Tulu meaning : murder
Proto-Nilgiri : *kol- (?)
Miscellaneous : KOR (M) koru, (T) kori, (O) korru to kill
Number in DED : 2132
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kol- (?)
Meaning : to kill
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kol "act of killing"
Toda : kwaly "murder; murderous (in song, of buffalo, kite, dry season); who has died or is near death (in song, old man or woman)"
Additional forms : Also Kota kol gaḷ thief; kolgārn murderer; Toda kwalyxōr_n murderer; kos_n the messenger of the god of death (lit. the killer)
Notes : It is not excluded that all these forms are borrowings. The original verbal stem is not preserved in PN, and Toda kwaly is irregular (PN *kolä should have yielded Toda *kwas_).
Number in DED : 2132
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *koll-
Meaning : to kill
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kollu (B)
Additional forms : Also (Śaŋk.) kola sin, (K also) murder, holocaust, enmity
Number in DED : 2132
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : xall-ing
Meaning : to strike, kill, fire (gun), throw (stone)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Additional forms : Also BRA xal_h_ pain, labour pains, colic
Number in DED : 2132
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-addition,braet-dednum,

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