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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *duʔ(χ)-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: smoke
Ket: duʔ,pl. dūńeŋ1; dūɣɔt1, pl. dūɣɔteŋ1, dūɣɔrǝŋ1 "bonfire" (дымокур)
Yug: duʔ, pl. dunɨŋ1; duget́5 "to smoke, smoked"
Kottish: tu, g. tui, pl. tuan; tug (М., Сл., Кл.); Ass. tu (М., Сл., Кл.)
Arin: t́u (М., Сл., Кл.)
Pumpokol: dúkar (Сл.)
Comments: ССЕ 224. Werner 1, 210 <*duʔ / *duka > *dugǝ>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *sĭ́HwV
Meaning: vapour, smoke; breath, breathe, be tired
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *s_ĭHwV
Sino-Tibetan: *sĭj(H)
Yenisseian: *duʔ(χ)-
Basque: *bi=si
Comments and references : HGC 34, NSC 62 *sVHwV, BCD 32.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *s_ĭHwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: breath, to breathe
Proto-Nakh: *sa
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *s:uh-
Proto-Lak: s:iħ
Proto-West Caucasian: *pǝ-śʷA
Notes: Cf. also HU forms: Hurr. šeɣ-iri 'alive', šeɣ-ori 'fate' or 'life', Urart. šu/oχ-ori / šeχ-eri 'alive' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 36).

    Both phonetically and semantically the EC-WC parallel seems quite plausible. PWC has a frequent labial prefix. In a position following a labial WC labialized consonants usually are delabialized, but not in this case (PAA *ś : PAK *ś point unambiguously to *śʷ; in Ubykh, in fact, delabialisation had occurred - otherwise we would have pšʷa- - but this is a regular later Ubykh process). Lack of delabialisation can be very well explained if we assume a form like *pǝ-śǝHwV > *pǝ-śǝwV (not *pǝ-śʷV) for the early period, when the after-labial delabialisation process was active. For phonetic reasons it seems better to keep apart WC *pǝsV 'soul' (which is superficially closer to PN *sa), which has a quite different NC etymology (see under *ʡăms_a).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *sa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: soul
Chechen: sa
Ingush: sa
Batsbi: sa
Comments: Obl. base *si- (Chech. si-na-, Ing. si-no, Bacb. pl. sij-š). 3d class in all languages.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *s:uh-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to get tired
Karata: s:uh-an-
Comments: Attested only in Kar., but having probable external parallels.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: s:iħ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: breath, vapour
Lak form: s:iħ
Comments: 3d class.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *pǝ-śʷA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 get tired 2 breathe 3 die
Abkhaz: a-ps-rá 3
Abaza: ps-ra 3
Adyghe: pśǝ-n 1
Kabardian: pśǝ-n 1
Ubykh: pśá-χʷǝ- 2
Comments: PAT *pǝśǝ- 'to die', *ʕa-pǝśa- 'to get tired' (Abkh. ā́psa-ra, Abaz. ʕapsa-rá). PAK *pśǝ-. In Ub. - a compound whose second component (-χʷǝ-) is not quite clear.

    The semantic developments 'to breathe' > 'get tired' and 'get tired' > 'die' are quite usual (cf. also the meanings of the corresponding root in EC).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *sĭj(H) (? / ś-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: die
Chinese: *sijʔ die, death.
Tibetan: śi, ãćhi to die, gśin a dead man.
Burmese: sij to die, LB *śij.
Kachin: si1 to die, expire.
Lushai: thi (thiʔ) to die, be dead, KC *thi.
Kiranti: *si
Comments: PG *śi; BG: Dimasa thi, Garo si-; Bodo tǝy; Kanauri śī-; Rgyarung -śis; Moshang ti, Namsangia ri; Rawang śi, Trung či2; Miri śi; Magari śi. Simon 19; Sh. 52, 124, 436; Ben. 55; Mat. 168.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: sǐ
Preclassic Old Chinese: sijʔ
Classic Old Chinese: síj
Western Han Chinese: sjǝ́j
Eastern Han Chinese: sjǝ́j
Early Postclassic Chinese: sjíj
Middle Postclassic Chinese: sjíj
Late Postclassic Chinese: sjí
Middle Chinese: sjí
English meaning : to die
Russian meaning[s]: 1) смерть; умереть; сдохнуть, пасть (о скоте); мертвый, дохлый, павший; 2) причинить смерть, убить, казнить; 3) погибнуть, пасть за...; быть убитым; 4) смертельный; до самой смерти, до гробовой доски; не щадя жизни; решительный, отважный; 5) заслуживающий смерти; смертный; 6) неподвижный, стоячий (о воде); сплошной; 7) недействующий; закрытый; забитый; глухой; намертво; 8) трафаретный, шаблонный; 9) тупой; инертный; упрямый; 10) неразлучный, верный до конца, преданный до смерти; неизменный (напр. о друзьях); 11) весьма; в высшей степени; 12) результативный суффикс глаголов, означающих смерть
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 78
Four-angle index: 6989
Karlgren code: 0558 a-c
Vietnamese reading: tu`'
Jianchuan Bai: śi1
Dali Bai: śi1
Bijiang Bai: śi1
Shijing occurrences: 23.1, 23.2, 31.4, 35.1_, 45.1, 45.2, 52.1, 52.2, 52.3_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 284
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三上旨心
ZIHUI: 2984 0429
Beijing: si_ 2
Jinan: si_ 2
Xi'an: si_ 2
Taiyuan: si_ 2
Hankou: si_ 2
Chengdu: si_ 2
Yangzhou: si_ 2
Suzhou: si_ 2
Wenzhou: si_ 21
Changsha: si_ 2
Shuangfeng: si_ 2
Nanchang: si_ 2
Meixian: si 2
Guangzhou: ši 21
Xiamen: su 2 (lit.); si 2
Chaozhou: si 21
Fuzhou: si 2 (lit.); sy 2
Shanghai: si_ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: si_ 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *si
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: die
Tulung: si- die, sitpu corpse
Kaling: śispö corpse
Limbu: sīmā (śjā) die, sisi death, kusiwet dead, kesibā mortal
Kulung: sima
Yamphu: si:ma
Comments: Toba 89 *si-.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: simaʔ
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vi.irr.
Meaning: 1) die; 2) die out (of a fire)
Comments: 1) cf. ma:siNmaʔ 2)\x mi:n se: The fire has gone out.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: sima
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vi-3 [1: si:- 2: si-]
Meaning: die
Nepali: marnu.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: si:ma II
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Stem: <si:s- ; si:->
Grammar: v.intr.
Meaning: a) to die; b) to die down, to be extinguished, e.g. a flame
Comments: si:.ghad.a. (play.PROC.PT) He died./[The flame] died down. si:dikkhäʔma v.tr. to have pins and needles.
yamet-prnum,yamet-stem,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *bi=si
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: life; alive, lively
Bizkaian: bizi
Gipuzkoan: bizi
High Navarrese: bizi
Low Navarrese: bizi
Lapurdian: bizi
Zuberoan: bizi
Roncalese: bizi
Comments: With the frequent fossilized class prefix *bi=/*be=. Cf. PNC *s_ĭHwV 'breath, breathe'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVWV
Meaning : breath, smell
Eurasiatic : *sVwHV
Afroasiatic : *sa(w/yV)ḥ- (???? + Chad. *saw- 'smoke')
Sino-Caucasian : *sĭ́HwV
Amerind (misc.) : *asa (or *asu ?) 'nose; smell' (R 514) [+ A]; ? *ʔaši 'wind' (R 854) [+ A K]
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *[s]VwHV
Meaning: smell
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: (Germ. saiwalō)
Altaic: *suba ( ~ -bg-) 'steam, odour'
Uralic: *sawe 'Rauch'
Comments: Expected *ś- in Ur. Cf. also Kartv. *ćxw- 'live'; Yuk. *soɣǝ- 'heart, pulse' Cf. *soge.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-notes,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *suba ( ~ -bg-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: steam, odour
Russian meaning: пар, запах
Turkic: *sogul-
Mongolian: *sabsa-
Tungus-Manchu: *subgi-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *sogul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to dry off, peter out (of liquids)
Russian meaning: высыхать, испаряться, убывать (о жидкостях)
Old Turkic: soɣul- (suɣul-) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: soɣul- (suɣul-) (MK)
Turkish: soɣul-
Tatar: suwal- (dial.)
Middle Turkic: sovul- (Ettuhf.), soɣal-, suɣal- (R., Буд.)
Sary-Yughur: soɣul-
Khakassian: sōl-
Shor: sōl-
Oyrat: sōl-
Chuvash: sɨval-
Yakut: uol-
Dolgan: uol-
Tuva: sōl-
Kirghiz: sōl-
Kazakh: suwal-
Noghai: suwal-
Bashkir: hɨwal-
Comments: VEWT 425, EDT 809, Stachowski 244.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-sjg,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *sabsa-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to rise (of steam, smoke)
Russian meaning: подниматься (о паре, дыме)
Written Mongolian: sabsa- (L 654)
Khalkha: savsa-
Buriat: habha-
Kalmuck: sabsal- (СЯОС)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *subgi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: steam, smoke
Russian meaning: пар, дым
Evenki: subgin
Even: hebgi
Negidal: subgin
Ulcha: subgi(n)
Orok: subgi(n)
Nanai: subgĩ
Comments: ТМС 2, 115-116.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1560
Proto: *sawe
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: smoke
German meaning: Rauch
Finnish: savu 'Rauch, Qualm'
Estonian: sau (gen. sau, savvu)
Saam (Lapp): suovvâ -v- (N) 'smoke', suovva (L) 'Rauch', sī̊vv (T), sūvv (Kld.), suovv (Not.)
Mordovian: sufta- (E M) 'räuchern, beräuchern', suvodo-, suvod́e- (M) 'schmauchen, dampfend und schlecht brennen'
Mari (Cheremis): (šǝkš KB, šikš B, śikś M 'Rauch' - rejected by Redei)
Udmurt (Votyak): (sou 'Staub' - rejected by Redei)
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sa(w/yV)ḥ-
Meaning: wind
Semitic: *šaḥ(aḥ)- 'wind' 1, 'air, atmosphere' 2
Egyptian: swḥ 'wind' (XXII)
Western Chadic: *sya 'wind'
Central Chadic: *siʔ- 'wind'
afaset-meaning,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1293
Proto-Semitic: *šaḥ(aḥ)-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'wind' 1, 'air, atmosphere' 2
Akkadian: šēḫu 1
Arabic: saḥāḥ- 2
Notes: Partial reduplication.
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: swḥ (XXII)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'wind'
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *sya
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: wind
Bokos: sé [JRon]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-bks,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *siʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'wind'
Kusseri: sii [Lk: 145]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-kus,

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