Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Yenisseian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yenisseian: *čīǯ-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: root
Ket: ti:ŕi4 (Kur.), pl. tīŕeŋ1; Bak., Sur. ti:dǝ4 / tidǝ4, pl. tīdǝŋ1 / tīdeŋ1; South. tiŕ4, pl. tīŕeŋ1
Yug: ti:ht́, pl. tid́iŋ1
Kottish: ičičan (Бол.) "root"
Pumpokol: kédiŋ (Сл., Срсл., Кл.)
Comments: ССЕ 217. The Pump. form tɨči (Срсл.), tɨčɨ (Кл.) is in reality Yug. Yug has a regular dissimilation ti:ht́ < *t́i:hd́-); Assan has i-čičan instead of *i-čijan (devoicing *čīǯ- > *čīč-); see КС 158. The Assan and Pumpokol form (with a completely regular k-: cf. kit 'stone' < *čɨʔs etc.; Werner's question mark is therefore excessive) point unanimously to *č-, so Werner's (2, 265) reconstruction <*thiʔǝd'ǝ> is incorrect; needless to say, Kott thempul, Arin t́ēmbirgaŋ 'root' (see *t[e]mbVĺ-), despite Werner, have nothing to do with the present root.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *[c]Vr(V)č̣V
Meaning: root
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Yenisseian: *čīǯ-
Burushaski: *cheréṣ
Basque: *śuśtrai
Comments and references : SCE 107. [?ST *sVr `thread']
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

Search within this database


Burushaski etymology :

Search within this database
Common Burushaski: *cheréṣ
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: root
Yasin: ceréṣ
Hunza: chiríṣ
Nagar: chiríṣ
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

Search within this database


Basque etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Basque: *śuśt(V)r(V)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 root 2 stubble (of crops) 3 sting, prick (of snake) 4 foundation, origin
Bizkaian: sustrai, zustrai 1, sustar, suster 1, 2, 3
Gipuzkoan: sustrai 1, 4
High Navarrese: sustrai 1
Comments: A western Bsq isogloss. Cf. sirats 'nerve, vein, tendon' (Trask 1995; not in Azkue with this meaning). The BZK form zustrai is anomalous (not having the usual assimilation of sibilants) - influenced by *sul 'wood, tree'?
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-comments,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : CVRV
Meaning : sinew; root
Eurasiatic : *SirV
Afroasiatic : *ĉer- (also *sVr- 'string, thread' in Sem., Berb., *Srm in Chad.); Jib. ŝrχ- 'root'
Sino-Caucasian : *[c]Vr(V)č̣V
Notes : Or Alt. *siŋri (764)
Reference : МССНЯ 341; ND 2106, 2171, 2802, 2803.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-notes,globet-reference,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *SirV
Meaning: sinew; root
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ser-
Altaic: *si̯ŏ̀rme + *či̯uŕu 'string' 253; *sĭra 'to sew together' 2017; *ši̯ŭru 'beads' 2185; *ǯḗro 'edge, row' 2594; *sēri 'embroidery' 2718
Uralic: *särV + *śerV 'Reihe, Ordnung' 971; *š[e]rmV 'sinew, thread'; FP *śerwV 'blood-vessel' (cf. also Khanty J лŏrt, Ko. turt 'Wurzel' - Redei 784); *śermVtti 'halter'
Kartvelian: *ʒ́ir-; Georg. šar- 'row'; *swer- 'row' 974
Dravidian: *sīr (?); *čàraḍ- 231; SDr *sur-i- 'to string'
Comments: Prob. many roots: cf. also Alt. *siŋri (764); PU *jure 'Wurzel(ende)' (also Yuk. *jerǝmǝ 'log'?); PK *ʒ́arɣw- 'sinew' (see Долгопольский 1972, 165) [+ *ʒ́ir- 'root' 1280?].
References: МССНЯ 341; ND 2106 *säru 'sinew, fibre' (IE + Ur + Alt *siŋri); 2107 *śeRV 'row' (Ur. *śerV + IE *ser- + Sem. *šVwr-; Georg. šar- is regarded as < Sem.); 2171 *š[e]R(V)mu 'sinew, root' (Alt. *si̯ŏ̀rme - Ur. *š[e]rmV + Chad.); 2802 *ʒ̂irGu/ü 'vein, sinew' (Kartv. *ʒ́arɣw-, Ur. *śerwV + IE *ser- + SH); 2803 *ʒ̂irwV 'root' (Kartv. *ʒ́ir- + Drav. *sīr- + SH). This all has to be sorted out.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *ser-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to wind, to weave
Old Indian: sarat- m. `thread' (L.)
Old Greek: éi̯rō, aor. ẹ̄̂rai̯, érsai̯, pf. md. eerméno-, ẹ̄rméno-, plqp. éerto `reihe, anfügen, zusammenfügen '; én-ersi-s f. `das Einfügen, Hineinstecken', pl. hérmata n. `Ohrgehänge; Schlinge', hórmo-s m. `Halsband, Kette', hormiǟ́ `Angelschnur'
Baltic: *sēr-i(a)- c.
Germanic: *sarw-ia- m.
Latin: serō, -ere, -uī, sertum `fügen, reihen, knüpfen', sertum, -ī n. `Blumengewinde'; seriēs `Reihenfolge, Kette, Reihe', pl. serīlia n. `Seile'
Other Italic: Osk (manim) aserum `(manum) asserere'
Celtic: *ser-, *srtā > OIr nī sernat `neque conserunt', sreth `Reihe'
Russ. meaning: свивать, сплетать
References: WP II 499 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

Search within this database


Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *sēr-i(a)- c.
Meaning: thread
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Lithuanian: { sēri-s `Faden, Pechtdraht' }
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-olith,

Search within this database


Germanic etymology :

Search within this database
etymology.cgi needs just one record for every base, 0 found

Pokorny's dictionary :

Search within this database
Number: 1698
Root: ser-4
English meaning: to put together, bind together
German meaning: `aneinander reihen, knüpfen'
Material: Ai. sarat-, sarit- `Faden' (unbelegt), vielleicht saṭā `Flechte, Mähne, Borste';

    gr. εἴρω (*seri̯ō) `reihe aneinander' (hom. nur Partiz. Perf. ἐερμένος, 3. Sg. Plusqpf. ἔερτο), ἐνείρω `knüpfe an, reihe an' (: lat. in-serō `füge ein'), ἔνερσις `das Hineinfügen, Hineinstecken' (: lat. insertiō; ti-St. auch in praesertim `in erster Reihe, vorzugsweise'), ἕρμα n. `Ohrgehänge', ὅρμος m. `Halskette', ὁρμίᾱ f. `Angelschnur', ὁρμαθός m. `Reihe, Kette', vermutlich auch εἴρερον `in Gefangenschaft';

    lat. serō, -ere, -tum `fügen, reihen, knüpfen', seriēs `Reihenfolge, Kette, Reihe', serīlia `Seile', sors `Los' (wohl vom Aufreihen der Lose); sera `als Riegel vorgelegter Querbalken' (?); osk. aserum `asserere'; air. sernaid `reiht an, ordnet an', Konjunktiv seraid, Verbalnomen sreth (*sr̥tā) `Ausbreiten, Reihe' usw. kann auch *ster- und *sper- enthalten; got. sarwa n. Pl. `Rüstung, Waffen' (wohl `geknoteter, geknüpfter Harnisch', vgl. lat. sertae loricae), aisl. sørvi n. `kostbares, Halsband', ahd. as. saro `Rüstung', ags. searu `Rüstung'; auch `Kunstfertigkeit, List', wie sierwan `insidiari, planen';

    alit. sėris `Faden, Pechdraht'; hitt. šarra- `brechen, teilen' (?).

    Ein mit unserem ser- ursprungsgleiches ser- für `geschlechtlichen Verkehr; Frau' sucht man in aisl. serða st. V. `Unzucht treiben', sorðenn und stroðenn `muliebria passus' (ags. seorðan ist nord. Lw.), ahd. sertan `geschlechtlichen Umgang haben', cymr. serth `obscenus', serthedd `obscena locutio'; wenn ir. serc `Liebe', bret. serc'h `Kebsweib' anzureihen ist, ist ein westidg. ser- `geschlechtlich verkehren' anzuerkennen; über unsicheres idg. *sor- `Frau' s. M. Mayrhofer bei Brandenstein, Studien 32 ff.

References: WP. II 499 f., WH. II 52 f., Pedersen Hitt. 118.
Pages: 911
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

Search within this database


Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŏ̀rme
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sinew
Russian meaning: жила
Mongolian: *sirmö- / *sirbö-
Tungus-Manchu: *sumu-
Korean: *hím
Comments: In Turkic cf. perhaps *sürmeč 'women's plait' (VEWT 438), Chuv. sǝrme kobъz 'violin' ('string instrument'). See SKE 63.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *sirmö- / *sirbö-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sinew
Russian meaning: жила, нерв, сухожилие
Written Mongolian: sirbüsü(n), sirmüsü(n) (L 716)
Middle Mongolian: širmusu (SH), širbusun (HY 48), sirboṣu, sirboson (IM), širbusun (MA)
Khalkha: šörmös(ön), šürbüs, šörvös(ön)
Buriat: šürbehe(n), šürmehe(n)
Kalmuck: šürwsn, šir(w)ǖsn
Ordos: šörwös, šörwösü
Dagur: širbes, širbus (Тод. Даг. 184)
Monguor: šbuʒǝ (SM 370), šuluʒǝ (SM 385), (MGCD śurbusǝ)
Comments: KW 371, MGCD 723. Oyr. širi < Mong. (?)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Tungus etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *sumu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sinew
Russian meaning: жила
Evenki: sumu
Even: hum
Negidal: sumu
Spoken Manchu: suvu 'tendon' (170)
Literary Manchu: sube
Ulcha: sumul
Orok: sumu ~ xumu
Nanai: sumul
Oroch: sumu(l)
Udighe: sumul(i)
Solon: sumul
Comments: ТМС 2, 126. Note also Evk. sura 'vein' (ТМС 2, 129).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

Search within this database


Korean etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Korean: *hím
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sinew; strength
Russian meaning: жила; сила
Modern Korean: him
Middle Korean: hím
Comments: Nam 500, KED 1901.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

Search within this database


Uralic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 896
Proto: *särV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: vein, sinew, root
German meaning: Ader, Faser, Wurzel
Mari (Cheremis): šär (KB), wür-šer (U B) 'Blutader'
Udmurt (Votyak): vir-ser (S), ver-ser (K) 'Ader'
Khanty (Ostyak): ler (V) 'Strich; Rinne', jer (Vj.) 'Streifen, Strich', ter (DN) 'Faser', ler (O) 'Wurzelfaser' ( > Komi I Ob ler 'коренья кедра для связки верши из ранок')
Mansi (Vogul): tǟr (TJ), tɔ̄̈r (KU), tār (P So.) 'Wurzel'
Hungarian: ér (acc. eret) 'Ader'
Sammalahti's version: *särä + FP *serV (mit Lp)
Yukaghir parallels: larχu 'Wurzel'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-samm2,uralet-yuk,

Search within this database


Kartvelian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kartvelian: *ʒ́ir-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: корень, дно
English meaning: root, bottom
Georgian: ʒir-
Megrel: ǯin(ǯ)-
Laz: ǯiǯ-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 238-239, EWK 490.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

Search within this database


Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dravidian : *sīr- (*ś-)
Meaning : root
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *sīr
Notes : A PGn root.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-gnd,dravet-notes,

Search within this database


Gondwan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *sīr
Meaning : root
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *sīr
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *cīr-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *sīr-u
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

Search within this database


Gondi etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Gondi : *sīr
Meaning : root
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : sīṛ
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : sīr
Gommu Gondi : hīr
Muria Gondi : hīṛ
Maria Gondi : īr
Seoni Gondi : hīr, īr
Yeotmal Gondi : sīr
Chindwara Gondi : sīr
Adilabad Gondi : śīr
Durg Gondi : hīr
Number in DED : 2626
Number in CVOTGD : 3423
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_ph,gonet-gondi_g,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_s,gonet-gondi_y,gonet-gondi_ch,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-gondi_d,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

Search within this database


Pengo-Manda etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *cīr-
Meaning : root
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : cīra
Number in DED : 2626
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-dednum,

Search within this database


Kui-Kuwi etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *sīr-u
Meaning : root
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : sīru (pl. sīrka)
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : hīrū
Kuwi (Schulze) : hīru
Sunkarametta Kuwi : hīru (pl. hīrka)
Parja Kuwi : hīru (pl. hīrka)
Number in DED : 2626
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-dednum,

Search within this database


Afroasiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ĉVr-
Meaning: root
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ŝVrVŝ- 'root'
Berber: *-zar- 'root'
Western Chadic: *ĉyar-aw- 'root'
Central Chadic: *ŝar- 'root'
East Chadic: *ĉyar-aw-'root'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,

Search within this database


Semitic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 747
Proto-Semitic: *ŝVrVŝ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'root'
Akkadian: šurš-
Ugaritic: šrš
Phoenician: šrš
Hebrew: šōräš
Aramaic: šerš-
Biblical Aramaic: šōrēš
Syrian Aramaic: šerš- Br 810
Mandaic Aramaic: širš-
Arabic: širš-
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ŝǝrǝw
Tigre: sǝr
Tigrai (Tigriñña): sur
Amharic: sǝr
Argobba: šǝrit, sǝr
Gafat: sǝr
Harari: sǝr
East Ethiopic: Wol sǝr
Gurage: Sod sǝr, Cha äsǝr
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-phn,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-bib,semet-syr,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-amh,semet-arg,semet-gaf,semet-hrr,semet-east,semet-gur,

Search within this database


Berber etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Berber: *-zar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'root'
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): azař
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-qbl,

Search within this database


West Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-WChadic: *ĉyar-aw-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'root'
Hausa: sãiwā́
Bolewa: sori-b [CLR: 276]
Karekare: sírín {CLR]
Tangale: yaara [JgT]
Ngamo: šori ,čòorĩ [ShV]
Maha: sorom [NmM]
Kifri=Giwo: sóoríyó [ShB]
Gera: sùurǝ̀-ná [ShV]
Galambu: sùryà [ShV]
Geruma: sūra [ShB]
Miya: ŝerwa [SkNb]
Pa'a: ŝárì [MS] [
Siri: ŝūra [SkNb]
Mburku: ŝar-nani [SkNb]
Jimbin: ŝera [SkNb]
Polchi: ŝǝr-tǝ
Geji: ŝèl-kì [CLR: 276]
Zaar: s̃òr-tu [CLR]
Sayanchi: ŝǝr-tǝ
Guruntum: so:ri [Ja]
Buli: s̃ir [CLR]
Kir: ŝéri [CLR]
Wangday: s̃ir [CLR]
Tala: ŝer ki: [CLR]
Daffo-Butura: súrê [JgR]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-bol,wchet-krk,wchet-tng,wchet-ngm,wchet-mah,wchet-krf,wchet-ger,wchet-glm,wchet-grm,wchet-miy,wchet-paa,wchet-sir,wchet-mbu,wchet-jmb,wchet-pol,wchet-gej,wchet-zar,wchet-say,wchet-grn,wchet-bul,wchet-kir,wchet-wnd,wchet-tal,wchet-dfb,

Search within this database


Central Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-CChadic: *s̃ar-/*s̃war-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'root'
Dghwede=Zǝɣwana: s̃ǝ́lǝ̀ [CLR: 277]
Malgwa: s̃áláwe [Kr]̃ ́
Glavda: s̃àli [Rp]
Guduf: s̃ílà [CLR]
Mofu-Gudur: s̃as̃alay [BMof]
Gisiga: s̃as̃alak [CLR]
Gude: s̃ǝ̄r-gin [CLR]
Zime-Batna: s̃ó:r [Sa]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-dgh,cchet-zgh,cchet-glv,cchet-gdf,cchet-mof,cchet-gis,cchet-gde,cchet-zbt,

Search within this database


East Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-EChadic: *ĉyar-aw-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'root'
Somrai: sár-bǝ̄ [CLR: 277]
Tumak: hèráw [Cp]
Ndam: sírwé [CLR: 277]
Lele: sārā [CLR: 277]
Kabalai: hàrà saar [CLR: 277]
Kera: kǝ́-sár [Eb]
Kwang: kà-sár [CLR: 277]
Dangla: čáàrò [Fd]
Migama: čáàrú [JMig]
Bidiya: čaara [JBid]
Mubi: čààró [CLR: 277]
Birgit: čááró [CLR: 277]
Mokilko: sòttó ? assim. <*sorto (<*ĉur-t-)
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-smr,echet-tum,echet-ndm,echet-lle,echet-kbl,echet-ker,echet-kwn,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-bid,echet-mub,echet-brg,echet-mkk,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
48147475274
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov