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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *bǝj-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: many, much
Ket: bèäjäm, bèjäm (Кастр.) (Бахта); (Werner 1, 153) bʌ́jaŋ 'enough'
Kottish: pajaŋ
Comments: ССЕ 209. Werner 1, 153 <*bʌjǝŋ>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ṗV̆HV
Meaning: much, big
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *bV̆HV
Sino-Tibetan: *bā(H) / *phā(H)
Yenisseian: *bǝ(ʔ)j-
Basque: *hobe
Comments and references : NSC 52. .00
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *bV̆HV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: big, many
Proto-Lezghian: *p:VhIV- /*hIVp:V-
Proto-West Caucasian: *bIA
Notes: A Lezg.-WC isogloss, thus the vocalism is difficult to reconstruct.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *p:VhIV- /*hIVp:V-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 big 2 good
Agul: ʕaba-ni-r 1
Kryz: bu 1
Budukh: boʕlu 1
Archi: hiba-t:u-t 2
Comment: The Ag. word is from the Burshag dialect (in Richa the root is reduplicated: baba-f). The semantic shift 'big'/'good' is rather common. Vowels are hard to reconstruct (but probably there was *i in the first syllable).
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-agu,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *bIA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 many 2 thick 3 thumb, big toe
Abkhaz: -b 3
Abaza: -ba 3
Adyghe: ba 1
Kabardian: ba- 1 (in comp.)
Ubykh: bIǝ 2
Comments: The root is preserved independently in Ad. (PAK *ba 'many'; Kab. preserves it only within compounds like ba-ʁʷa-n 'to increase, prosper' - see Шагиров 1,70-71) and Ubykh. AT languages have kept the root only in compounds *macʷǝqA-bA 'thumb' (Abkh. a-načχǝ́-b, Abaz. mačʷqa-ba) and *š́acʷǝqA-bA 'big toe' (Abkh. a-š́ačχǝ́-b, Abaz. š́ačʷqa-ba) = Ub. q̇a(n)cʷa-bIǝ, ʎa(n)cʷa-bIǝ.

    Another common WC compound with the same component is *ʎ́a-bIA "foot's bulge" > Ad. ʎa-b 'heel', Ub. ʎa-bIǝ (in compounds) - see Dumézil 1965, 235, Шагиров 1, 248-249).

    On the etymology of PAK *ba see Шагиров 1,70-71 with literature (all attempts to separate this morpheme from Ub. bIǝ and AA *-bǝ seem to us superfluous).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *bā(H) / *phā(H)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: spread, extend; wide, vast
Chinese: *phāʔ be vast, wide, 布 *pās cloth; spread out (a mat); 鋪 *phā, *pha spread out; 誧 *pāʔ, *phāʔ, *phāʔs big, large, increase.
Kachin: šǝpa1 to extend, as a cobra its hood; gǝba2 be big, great.
Lushai: phaʔ to spread (as cloth, etc.); to place flat on the ground.
Kiranti: *bhä́[p]
Comments: Maybe two roots, but very hard to demarcate. Cf. also Sulung *bV, Tani *bǝ 'big'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: pǔ
Preclassic Old Chinese: phāʔ
Classic Old Chinese: phā́
Western Han Chinese: phā́
Eastern Han Chinese: phā́
Early Postclassic Chinese: phṓ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: phṓ
Late Postclassic Chinese: phṓ
Middle Chinese: phó
English meaning : be vast, wide
Russian meaning[s]: 1) огромный, широкий; простор; 2) повсюду, везде, см. 普; 3) Пу (фамилия)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 85
Four-angle index: 3197
Karlgren code: 0771 f
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *bhä́[p]
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: broad, wide
Tulung: bhapa
Kaling: 'bhäppä
Kulung: baipa 'long' (?)
Yamphu: beʔe 'big, large', bī-ma 'to be big'; (?) peʔ-lo 'many'
Comments: Toba 99 *bhäpä. Cf. also Kulung pǝma 'increase, grow' (see under *bhǝ̀r).
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: baipa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: adj.
Meaning: long
Nepali: lāmo.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: bi:ma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Stem: <bi:d- ; bi:->
Grammar: v.intr.stat.
Meaning: to be big
Comments: kaŋ.ba bi:.ye (my.ELA be_big.FCT) He's bigger than I am.
Nepali: ṭhulo hunu
yamet-prnum,yamet-stem,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,yamet-nepali,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *hobe
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 better 2 more
Bizkaian: oba 1
Gipuzkoan: obe 1
High Navarrese: obe 1
Low Navarrese: hobe, hobe-ki 1
Salazarese: abo-ro 2
Lapurdian: hobe, hobe-ki 1
Zuberoan: hóbe, hobé-ki 1, habó-ro 2
Roncalese: obe 1, ob-ro 2
Comments: Cf. especially Archi hiba-t:ut- 'good' (comp. by Bouda, 1948). Bsq *hobe is used as a comparative of *hon 'good' (q.v.).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : PVHV
Meaning : many
Eurasiatic : *ṗV(H)- ?
Afroasiatic : Ar. bħħ-, Cush. *buħ-, Chad. *ḅV-
Sino-Caucasian : *ṗV̆HV
Austric : PAN *babaq 'width, breadth' (or *imbuq 'increase, addition', PAA *bVh 'enough', Tai bo id.)
Amerind (misc.) : *paa 'full; enough, all' (R 303) (cf. also *poy 'good' R 322 [+ A]); *po 'large' (R 418); *pu 'many' (actually "all; large") (R 463)
African (misc.) : Cf. Hadza-Sandawe *Pa "big".
Reference : ND 178 *beGV, 274 *baXyV (hardly to be distinguished).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ṗV(H)- ?
Meaning: ten, many
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *pant- ?
Altaic: *p`VbV
Kartvelian: *beɣ- ?
Dravidian: *paT-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *pъ̆tho- (~ * -tv-) ?
Comments: In the Dravidian root, *-t- is obviously a suffix (cf. the other numerals). The root is *pa- or *paH- if Tamil pak_tu indeed reflects an original laryngeal.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-notes,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *pant-
Meaning: all, whole
Tokharian: A po / pont-, B po / pont-
Old Greek: pā̂s, gen. pantós, ge.pl. pántōn, f. pā̂sa, gen. pā́sǟs, gen.pl. pāsō̂ n (Cret., Thes., Ark. pánsa), n. pán 'all, the whole; every'
Russ. meaning: весь
References: Adams 402.
piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *p`VbV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: many, ten / hundred (an auxiliary stem)
Russian meaning: весь
Turkic: *ōn
Mongolian: *ha-
Tungus-Manchu: *poba
Japanese: *-pǝ ~ *-pua
Comments: The original root structure is not quite clear: perhaps one has to suppose a monosyllabic root *p`ō-, with suffixed *-ba(n) or *-n.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ōn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ten
Russian meaning: десять
Old Turkic: on (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: on (MK)
Turkish: on
Tatar: un
Middle Turkic: on (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ọn
Uighur: on
Sary-Yughur: on, un
Azerbaidzhan: on
Turkmen: ōn
Khakassian: on
Oyrat: on
Halaj: ọ̄̂n
Chuvash: vonъ
Yakut: uon
Dolgan: uon
Tuva: on
Tofalar: on
Kirghiz: on
Kazakh: on
Noghai: on
Bashkir: un
Balkar: on
Gagauz: uon, on
Karaim: on
Karakalpak: on
Kumyk: on
Comments: EDT 166, VEWT 362, TMN 2, 163, ЭСТЯ 1, 455-456, Лексика 573, Федотов 1, 130-131, Stachowski 244.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ha-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ten 2 all
Russian meaning: 1 десять 2 весь, все
Written Mongolian: arban 1
Middle Mongolian: xarban (HY 43, SH), ḥarbān (IM), hărban (MA) 1
Khalkha: arav, arvan 1
Buriat: arba(n) 1
Kalmuck: arwṇ 1
Ordos: arwa 1
Dongxian: haran, haruan 1
Baoan: harwaŋ (MGCD), habran (Tungren) 1, hane 2
Dagur: xarab (MGCD), xarba(n) (Тод. Даг. 174), harebe (MD 157) 1
Shary-Yoghur: harwan 1
Monguor: xar(w)an (SM 165), xarwan 1 (MGCD), xana 2
Mogol: arbōn; ZM arbɔ̄n (25-3a)
Comments: KW 15, MGCD 114.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *poba
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ten (a bundle of ten squirrels) 2 collection, gathering
Russian meaning: 1 десяток (связка белок) 2 собрание
Orok: pōwo 1
Nanai: poã 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 40.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *-pǝ ~ *-pua
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hundred (in names of hundreds)
Russian meaning: сто (в назв. сотен)
Old Japanese: -p(w)o
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *beɣ-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: быть достаточным
English meaning: to be enough
Megrel: baɣ-
Laz: baɣ-
Notes and references: Чанская глагольная основа, не засвидетельствованная в грузинском и сванском. Климов (ЭСКЯ 50), а вслед за ним Иллич-Свитыч (МССНЯ 1, 193) и Фенрих (EWK 53) возводят к этой основе ПК *beɣ- "амбар" и *beɣura- "воробей", что довольно сомнительно. Иллич-Свитыч (ibid.) далее возводит основу к ностр. *bVGV 'достаточно, чрезмерно'. Однако приводится только довольно сомнительная семито-хамитская параллель, так что ностратический характер корня под сомнением. Не исключен СК характер корня: ср. ПСК *bV̆HV "большой, много" (NCED 316-317).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *paT-
Meaning : ten
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *pat-
Proto-Telugu : *pad-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *pad-
Notes : Strange form in Tamil pax_tu.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *pat-
Meaning : ten
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : pattu, pak_tu
Tamil meaning : ten
Tamil derivates : pak_-pattu 100 (10*10); patt on_patu nineteen; patin_- ten (in 11, 13, 15-18; patin_ālu, patin_ān_ku fourteen; patin_ āyiram 10,000); pan_n_ iraṇṭu, pan_n_aṇṭu twelve; -patu ten (irupatu, iruvatu twenty, muppatu thirty, nār_patu, nāppatu forty; aimpatu, ampatu fifty, ar_upatu sixty, eẓupatu seventy, eṇpatu eighty); patin_mar ten persons; pappattu by tens, group of tens
Malayalam : pattu (obl. patin-)
Malayalam meaning : ten
Malayalam derivates : -patu id. (in 20, etc.); patuppattu by tens; (Shanmugam) patinmar ten persons
Kannada : pattu
Kannada meaning : ten
Kannada derivates : patt ombattu nineteen; padin- ten (in 15-18); padi- id. (in 13, 14); pann- id. (in 11, 12); padimbar ten persons; (PBh.) payin-, in: payin-chāsirvar 10,000 persons; -vattu ten (mūvattu thirty, nālvattu forty, ayvattu fifty, ar_uvattu sixty); -pattu id. (irpattu twenty, eḷpattu seventy, eṇpattu eighty); -battu id. (tombattu ninety)
Kodagu : pattɨ
Kodagu meaning : ten
Kodagu derivates : patt oymbadɨ nineteen; padɨn- ten (in 14-18); padi- id. (in 13); pann- id. (pannandɨ eleven, panneraṇḍɨ twelve); -vadɨ id. (iruvadɨ twenty, aruvadɨ sixty, ëḷuvadɨ seventy); -padɨ id. (nuppadɨ thirty, nāpadɨ forty); -badɨ id. (aymbadɨ fifty, ëmbadɨ eighty, tombadɨ ninety); pav-pattɨ by tens; payt āṇḍɨ ten years; paytak(ɨ) ëttɨ ten pairs of bullocks; paym baṭṭi ten measures
Tulu : pattụ
Tulu meaning : ten
Tulu derivates : patt- id. (in 11); padụ- id. (in 12-14); padụn- id. (in 15-19); -va (obl. vatụ) id. (irva twenty, aiva fifty); -pa id. (muppa thirty, nālpa fourty, ajipa sixty, eḷpa seventy, eṇpa eighty, soṇpa ninety)
Proto-Nilgiri : *pat
Number in DED : 3918
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *pat
Meaning : ten
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : pat
Toda : pot
Additional forms : Also Kota pad- ten (in 13, 14); padn- ten (in 15-18); pan- ten (in 11-18); patrmbād, potrmbād nineteen; pand_ eleven; pon- ten (conservative speech; in 11, 12, 14-18); pod- id. (conservative speech; in 13); po calg ten calg measures; -vat ten (ivat twenty, nālvat fourty, ayvat fifty, arvat sixty, eḷvat seventy); -bat id. (embat eighty, tombat ninety); -at id. (muat thirty, nālat forty); patat by tens; irvād twenty; orbād nine; mu pād thirty days; nār pād forty days; Toda pon- ten (in 11-13); pāng fourteen; pūj fifteen; pār_ sixteen; pāw seventeen; pūṭ eighteen; pūṇboɵ nineteen; -foɵ ten (ɨfoɵ twenty, öwfoɵ seventy, naɫpoɵ forty); -boɵ id. (eboɵ fifty, ēṇboɵ ninety); -oɵ id. (ar_oɵ sixty)
Number in DED : 3918
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *pad-
Meaning : ten
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : padi
Additional forms : Also padun- id. (in 11, 15-18); padu- id. (in 13, 14); pan- id. (in 19); paṇḍreṇḍu twelve; -vadi ten (iruvadi twenty, naluvadi forty, ar_uvadi sixty); -padi id. (muppadi thirty); -badi id. (ē̃badi fifty, ḍebbadi seventy, enubadi eighty, tombadi ninety) (mod. vai, etc.); [1] paduru, [2] paduṇḍru, (inscr.) padunr_u ten persons
Number in DED : 3918
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *pad-
Meaning : ten
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *pad
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *pad
Meaning : ten
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : pad
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : pad
Chanda Gondi : pad (pl. patk), (Pat.) padi
Number in DED : 3918
Number in CVOTGD : 2105
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_w,gonet-gondi_chd,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *pъ̆tho- (~ * -tv-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): много
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *pъttoŋ-
Proto-Itelmen: *pto-
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ъptoŋ-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): богатый, жадный
Koryak: pǝttoŋ-
Alutor: pǝttuŋ-
Comments: Ср. *ʁoptъ- 'все, полностью' (997), *pǝtʁu- 'вместительный'(1098).
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-kor,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *pto-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): много, обильно
Itelmen: pto-(q) 1, 'ǝ̆m-ptowa 2
Itelmen meaning: много, обильно 1, очень, вдоволь 2
Number in Volodin 1976: 26
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-vol,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *bVʔ
Meaning: increase
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: pVh (cf. also pVq, pVʔ 'big')
Austroasiatic meaning: enough
Proto-Austronesian: *imbuq (?also babaq 'width, breadth'; *lǝbih 'more' - see Peiros 1989)
Austronesian meaning: increase, addition
Proto-Thai: bo.A enough CK; [pɔ.C big]
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: pVq, pVʔ
Meaning: big
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: [pɔ.C big]
Proto-Katuic: EK *bʌʔ
Khmer: p]ao
Proto-Vietic: *bVwʔ
Proto-Aslian: JAHAI bǝw
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kat,aaet-kmr,aaet-vim,aaet-asli,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *bʌʔ
Meaning: big, large
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-East Katuic: *pʌʔ
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-ekat,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *pʌʔ
Meaning: big, large
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: pɨʔ V?
Pakoh meaning: big (PA)
Taojh: poʔ.L
Taojh meaning: big (PT-204)
Katu dialects (3): pǝʔ ja:l
Katu meaning: big, large
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-tao,ekatet-taome,ekatet-hkv,ekatet-katme,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong: *bVwʔ
Meaning: big
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: bu'̣, bố 'great, large'
Thomon: ba:w.34ʔ
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-thm,

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Aslian etymology :

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Proto-Aslian:
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Meaning: big
Jahai: bǝw
asliet-prnum,asliet-meaning,asliet-jhi,

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