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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔīti
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tooth
Ket: it4 (South.), North. i:ti4 (Bak., Sur. i:tǝ4 / itǝ4); pl. Imb. īteŋ1 (cf. also South. it-tes6 'jaw')
Yug: i:ht, pl. iteŋ1
Kottish: iti, *ite, g. itī, pl. itaŋ
Arin: itin (Лоск.)
Comments: ССЕ 195. Werner 1, 382 <*iʔǝtǝ>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HV̄dV
Meaning: tooth
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: [*thiǝH]
Yenisseian: *ʔīti
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: [*thiǝH]
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tooth
Chinese: 齒 *thǝʔ
Comments: Cf. Dhimal ta-siŋ, Idu tia-pra, Bodo *tai 'tooth', perhaps also Yogli (Konyak) tai 'horn'; with a nasal suffix cf. Sulung *thuŋ 'tooth'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: chǐ
Preclassic Old Chinese: thǝʔ
Classic Old Chinese: thǝ́
Western Han Chinese: thǝ́
Eastern Han Chinese: ćhǝ́
Early Postclassic Chinese: ćhɨ́
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ćhɨ́
Late Postclassic Chinese: ćhɨ́
Middle Chinese: ćhɨ́
English meaning : tooth, tusk
Russian meaning[s]: 1) передние зубы; зубы; 2) возраст, годы; преклонный возраст, старость; 3) располагать в ряды; стройный
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 211
Four-angle index: 971
Karlgren code: 0961 l
Jianchuan Bai: ci1-
Dali Bai: ci1-
Bijiang Bai: ćo1-
Shijing occurrences: 52.2_, 57.2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 2133
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三上止昌
ZIHUI: 7876 0478
Beijing: c̣hî_ 2
Jinan: c̣hî_ 2
Xi'an: chi_ 11
Taiyuan: chi_ 2
Hankou: chi_ 11
Chengdu: chi_ 2
Yangzhou: chi_ 2
Suzhou: chü 2
Wenzhou: chi_ 21
Changsha: c̣hî_ 2
Shuangfeng: c̣hî_ 2
Nanchang: chi_ 2
Meixian: chi_ 2
Guangzhou: chi 21
Xiamen: chi 2 (lit.); khi 2
Chaozhou: ki 21
Fuzhou: chi 2
Shanghai: chi_ 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: čhi_ 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVTV
Meaning : to eat
Eurasiatic : *ʔitV
Afroasiatic : *ʔet- (also *tVʔ-/*tVw-)
Sino-Caucasian : *HV̄dV 'tooth'?
Amerind (misc.) : *ati 'meat' (? R 470); *iṭio 'tooth; bite, eat' (R 773) [+ K]
Reference : МССНЯ 340, ND 92, GE 49 *ʔit.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔitV
Meaning: to eat
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ed- 'to eat' (Pok. 287-288)
Altaic: *ite
Dravidian: *èd_Vc-/*ed_V-
References: МССНЯ 340, ОСНЯ 1, 273-274; ND 92 *ʔitE 'eat' (w/o Drav.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ed- <PIH *e->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to eat
Hittite: ad-/ed- (I) 'essen' (Tischler 91-92, 117), etri- n. 'Speise, Gericht' (119)
Tokharian: B yesti 'meal' (Adams 507)
Old Indian: átti, caus. ādáyati `to eat'
Armenian: utem `esse'
Old Greek: édō, inf. édmenai̯, fut. édomai̯, pf. ptc. edēdṓs, med. edḗdotai̯, aor. pass. ēdésthēn, pf. med. att. edḗde(s)mai̯; ésthō, esthíō `essen, fressen'; *edwr: hom. ẹ̄̂dar, -atos n. `Nahrung', édar = brō̂ma Hsch.; edōdǟ́ f. `Speise, Nahrung, Mahlzeit', hom. edētǘ-s f. `Speise', att. édesma n. `Speise'
Slavic: *jēsti, *jēmь; *j[ē]sto > MBlg jasto `Portion Speise', *jēdъ, *jēdjā, *jēdā, *obēdъ
Baltic: *ē̂d- (*ē̂d-meî) (2) vb. tr., *ēd-ia- c., *ē̂d-ā̂ (2), *ē̂d-jā̂ f.
Germanic: *it-a- vb., *ēt-a- m., n., *ēt-an-, *ēt-ian- m., *ēt-ō f.; *ēs-s-a- n.; *at-ja- vb.
Latin: edō (ēs, ēst), ēdī, ēsum, ēsse `essen', ēsca f. `Speise; Lockspeise, Köder'
Other Italic: Osk edum `edere'
Celtic: *edtjo-> OIr esse `gegessen', Ir (Corm.) ess `food'
Russ. meaning: есть
References: WP I 118 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: ем,
Near etymology: есть, укр. ïм, ḯсти, блр. ем, есць, ст.-слав. мь, сти, болг. ям, сербохорв. jе̑м, jе̏сти, словен. jė́m, jė́sti, чеш. jím, jísti, слвц. jem, jest', польск. jem, jeść, в.-луж., н.-луж. jěm, jěsć.
Further etymology: Праслав. *ědmь, инф. *ěsti, ср. лит. ė́du, ė́mi, ė́dmi 1, ė́džiau, ė́sti "есть (о животных, скоте)", лтш. ę̄du, êst, др.-прусск. īst "есть", др.-инд. ádmi, átti "есть", арм. utem "ем" (из и.-е. *ōd-; см. Бартоломэ, IF 3, 15), греч. ἔδω, ἔσθίω, ἔσθω, лат. edō, ēdī, гот. itan, прош. at, 1 л. мн. ч. ētum, д.-в.-н. еʒʒan "есть"; см. Бернекер 1, 273 и сл.; Траутман, BSW 66; Бругман, Grdr. 2, 3, 96; М. -- Э. I, 577. Сохранилось ě- (вместо ja-), вероятно, по аналогии с sъněsti; см. Мейе -- Вайан 83. Ср. ешь.
Trubachev's comments: [О приставочных русск. съесть и под. см. Вандриес, BSL, 41, 1940, стр. 25 и сл. -- Т.]
Editorial comments: 1 Согласно Буге, эта форма в языке отсутствует и является изобретением авторов грамматик и словарей. -- Прим. ред.
Pages: 2,18
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-editorial,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ē̂d- (*ē̂d-meî) (2) vb. tr., *ēd-ia- c., *ē̂d-ā̂ (2), *ē̂d-jā̂ f.
Meaning: eat
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Lithuanian: ḗmi 1 sg.
Lithuanian: ḗsti (ḗdu) 'fressen'; { ē̃di-s `Speise', pl. ḗdžiōs `Raufe'; ḗda `das Essen' }
Lettish: êst (prs. ę̄du/ę̄mu, prt. ēdu) 'essen, fressen, verzehren'; pl. ę̄da 'Lockspeise, Köder', ę̂das2 pl. `Frass, Futter'
Old Prussian: īst(wei) `essen', dat. īstai `Essen'; īdis `Speise'; īdai `das Essen'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-olith,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *itan-, *ēta-z, -n, *ētēn, *ētiēn, *ētō; *ēssa-n; *atjan- vb.
Meaning: eat
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: itan st. `eat'; uz-ēta m. (n) `crib', af-ētja m. (n) `glutton'
Old Norse: eta st. `essen'; āt n. `Speise, Fressen'; etja wk. `ätzen, essen lassen'
Norwegian: eta; ɔt; dial. ättja `Vieh weiden'
Swedish: äta; dial. ǝt
Danish: äde
Old English: etan (ät, ǟton; eten) `eat, consume, devour'; ǟt, -es m., ǟt, -e f. `food; eating'
English: eat
Old Frisian: eta, ita
Old Saxon: etan essen'; āt n. `Speise'; angul-ās
Middle Dutch: ēten; aes; aet
Dutch: eten; aas n.
Middle Low German: ās; eten; āt
Old High German: eʒʒan `essen' (8.Jh.); āʒ n. `Speise' (9.Jh.); ās (11.Jh.)
Middle High German: ëʒʒen st. 'essen'; atz, atze st. m. 'speise, beköstigung; futter, gras'; āʒ st. n. 'speise für menschen und tiere'
German: essen; Aas n.; ätzen
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ite ( ~ *eti)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to eat
Russian meaning: есть
Turkic: *et-mek
Mongolian: *ide-
Comments: A Turkic-Mong. isogloss, but no doubt archaic: a Nostratic etymology see in МССНЯ 340, ОСНЯ 1, 273-4.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *et-mek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bread
Russian meaning: хлеб
Old Turkic: ötmek (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: etmek (MK), epmek (MK - Oghuz, Qypch.)
Turkish: etmek, ekmek
Tatar: ikmäk
Middle Turkic: etmek, ötmek (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: äppäk
Turkmen: (dial.) ekmek, epmek
Khakassian: ipek
Shor: itpäk
Oyrat: ötpök
Noghai: ötpek
Bashkir: ikmäk
Balkar: ötmek
Gagauz: iekmek
Karaim: ekmek, etmek, ötmek
Kumyk: ekmek
Comments: EDT 12, 60, VEWT 376, ЭСТЯ 1, 254-256. The oldest form is clearly *et-mek with various subsequent assimilations.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ide-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to eat
Russian meaning: есть
Written Mongolian: ide- (L 398)
Middle Mongolian: jide- (HY 25, SH), idä- (IM), idä- (MA)
Khalkha: ide-
Buriat: ede-
Kalmuck: idǝ-
Ordos: ide-
Dongxian: iǯie-
Baoan: nde-
Dagur: ide- (Тод. Даг. 146, MD 173)
Shary-Yoghur: ede-
Monguor: ide- (SM 188)
Mogol: idä-; ZM idä (16-2b)
Comments: KW 205, MGCD 407, TMN 1, 188.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *iT_-
Meaning : flesh; to eat meat
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *it_-/*Ir_-ac-i
Proto-Telugu : *er_ac-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *d_e- (*Vd_e-)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *it_-/*Ir_-ac-i
Meaning : flesh, meat
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ir_acci
Tamil meaning : flesh
Tamil derivates : ir_r_i meat
Malayalam : ir_acci
Malayalam meaning : flesh, meat
Kodagu : eraci
Kodagu meaning : flesh, meat
Number in DED : 0529
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *er_ac-
Meaning : flesh, meat
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : er_aci
Number in DED : 529
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *d_e- (*Vd_e-)
Meaning : (to eat) meat
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : r_e- (-t-)
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ǯej (*z-)
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : r_e- (-t-)
Meaning: to eat meat, relish
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 529
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ǯej (*z-)
Meaning : flesh
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : jey
Number in DED : 529
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-dednum,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔit-
Meaning: eat
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Western Chadic: *ʔyat-
High East Cushitic: *ʔit-
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-wch,afaset-hec,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ʔyat-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'eat (soft things)'
Fyer: et [JgR]
Notes: According to [CLR: 120] originates from Common Ch *tV-.
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-fyr,wchet-notes,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *ʔit-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'eat'
Sidamo: it-
Burji (Bambala, Dashe): it-
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-sid,hecet-bmb,

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