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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔīń- (~x-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: finger-nail, claw
Ket: iń4 (South.), Kur. i:ńi4, Bak., Sur. i:ńǝ4 / ińǝ4, pl. īńeŋ1
Yug: i:h4, pl. ińiŋ1
Comments: ССЕ 195. See also *ʔeŋ- 'to scrape'. Werner 1, 364 <*iʔǝn'ǝ>, 367 <*iʔǝnǝ>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xq̇winV̆́
Meaning: (finger)nail; peg
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ɦq̇wĭnV̆
Sino-Tibetan: ? Magar ar-kin, Sunwar gē 'fingernail'
Yenisseian: *ʔīń- (~x-)
Comments and references : NSC 56 *xq̇winV. Vowel length correspondence seems irregular. Cf. also ND *gʷā̀N 'fingernail'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦq̇wĭnV̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: nail, peg
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *hanḳʷo
Proto-Dargwa: *ʁIam-bul
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇ʷin(a)
Proto-Khinalug: qim
Proto-West Caucasian: *q̇́ʷǝnV / *nǝq̇́ʷV
Notes: A rather typical example of the *HCVRV̆ root structure. The Darg. form has a rather complicated history: it is probably a dissimilated plural form (*ʁIam-bV < *q̇em-bV with secondary pharyngealization before a front vowel), supplied additionally by a suffixed *-l.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *hanḳʷo
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 nail 2 linchpin 3stick,wooden nail;hammer handle
Avar: ʕanḳʷá 1,2
Andian language: hanḳʷo/hamḳʷo 1
Akhvakh: ãḳʷa 3
Chamalal: hãḳa 1
Tindi: hanḳʷa 1
Karata: hanḳʷa 1
Botlikh: hanḳʷa 1
Bagvalal: hanḳʷa 1
Godoberi: hanḳʷa 1
Comments: Av. paradigm B ~ C (gen. ʕanḳʷá-dul). The Andian root was borrowed by some Tsezian languages: Inkh. ãḳʷa 'nail, wedge', Tsez. oḳo, Gin. aḳʷe 'nail'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ʁIam-bul
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: nail
Akusha: ʕaIbul
Chiragh: ʁIamul
Comments: Cf. also Ur. ʕʷabul, Kub. ʁIumul.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *q̇ʷin(a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 peg 2 nail
Tabasaran: q̇um 1
Agul: q̇ʷin 2 (Ars.)
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. q̇um 'nail'. The Ag. form is cited from Shaumyan (who lists also Bursh. q̇in 'nail').
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: qim
North Caucasian etymology: 1411
Meaning: hook; wooden peg
Khinalug form: qim
Comments: One should expect q̇- in Khin. in this root; it may well be that the form qim is a misspelling.
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *q̇́ʷǝnV / *nǝq̇́ʷV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 stake 2 nail
Abkhaz: a-č̣̌ʕʷán 1
Abaza: č̣ʷʕʷan 1
Adyghe: ʡʷǝn 2
Kabardian: ʡʷǝna 2
Ubykh: nǝq̇́ǝ́ 2
Comments: PAT *c̣ʷǝ-ʕʷanǝ (for the first part see *c̣ʷǝ 'pointed stick'); PAK *ʡʷǝ́na; Ub. def. a-nǝ́q̇́. The correspondence PAT *ʕʷ : PAK *ʡʷ : Ub. q̇́ is regular and points to PWC *q̇́ʷ.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVNPV
Meaning : stalk, peg
Eurasiatic : *kanVbV
Afroasiatic : Cush., Omot. *gVnp- 'stem, stalk' (?cf. also LEC *kunuf- 'claw, nail, finger')
Sino-Caucasian : *xq̇winV̆́
Amerind (misc.) : *kan 'tooth; eat, bite' (R 775); ? *kan 'tree, stick, pole' (R 782)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *kanVbV
Meaning: stalk
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *genebh-
Uralic: *kämE (/*kUmE) 'hollow stalk'
Dravidian: *kāmp-
References: ND 644 *gän(V)[ṗ]V ~ *kän(V)PV 'stem, stalk, stick' (+Cush.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *genǝbh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: pointed peg
Armenian: ? kanth, gen. -i `Handhabe, Stiel'
Old Greek: gómpho-s m. `(hölzerner) Pflock, Nagel'
Baltic: *gem̂b-iā̃ (1) f.
Germanic: *kimb=, *kamb-il-a- m., *kumb-a- m., *kump=; *knab-il-a- m.
Russ. meaning: острый колышек
References: WP I 585, Buck 89.
Comments: Cf. *g'ombh-.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *gem̂b-iā̃ (1) f.
Meaning: hook
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: gémbē `hölzerner Haken zum Aufhängen von Kleidungsstücken, Wandpflock, Kleiderhaken'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kimb=, *kambila-z, *kumba-z, *kump=; *knabila-z
Meaning: peg
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: kumb-r m. `Holzklotz'; { knefill 'Baumast, Querstange }
Norwegian: kump `Klumpen, Klotz'
Swedish: dial. kimb(e) `Fassdaube'
Danish: kump `Mehlfass'; knevel, knebel 'Mundknebe'
Dutch: knevel
Middle Low German: knēvel 'Pflock (auch als Mantelverschluss), Querstange, plumper Kerl, Flegel, gedrehte Spitze des Schnurrbarts'
Old High German: kembil `Fesselblock', kamp `compes', knebil 'Holzstüc, Querholz (zum Fesseln), Pferdekummet' (11./12.Jh.)
Middle High German: knɛbel st. m. 'knebel; knöchel; holzstück um die haare darum zu winden (als strafe)'; kumpf adj. 'stumpf'
German: Knebel m.; hess. knabe `Stift, Bolzen'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 568
Root: genebh-, genobh-
English meaning: a piece of wood
German meaning: `Pflock, Stock, abgeschnittenes Holzstück'??
Material: Nur germanisch, daher wohl kaum idg. Herkunft.

    Es handelt sich wohl um zwei verschiedene Wortgruppen:

    1. Germ. kamb-, kumb- `Klotz, Klumpen, abgeschnittenes Holzstück'.

    Ahd. kembil `Fesselblock', kamp `compes', anord. kumbr `Holzklotz' mit germ. -p-: mhd. kumpf `gestutzt, stumpf', engl. chump `Holzklotz' (Anlaut von chop), norw. dial. kump `Klumpen', norw. dän. kamp `Bergkuppe', anord. kǫppusteinn, dän. kampe-sten `Rollstein' usw. Vgl. auch unter gem-.

    2. Germ. knab-, knabb-, knap-, knapp- (expressive Geminationen) `Pflock, Stock, Penis, Knabe'.

    Mit -b-: nhd. dial. knabe `Stift, Bolzen', ahd. knabo, nhd. Knabe `puer', ags. cnafa ds., woraus engl. cnave `Schurke'; anord. knefill `Stange, Pfahl, Stock', ahd. knebil, mhd. knebel `Кпеbel, Кnöchel' (auch `Schlingel', wie auch norw. knebel), mnd. knevel `kurzes, dickes Querholz, Knebel' und `gedrehte Schnurrbartspitze' (nhd. `Knebelbart'), schwed. dial. knavel `dünne Stange';

    mit -bb-: schwed. dial. knabbe `Knollen, Klumpen', auch `untersetzter Bursche, Rind, Stier'; knabb `Pflock' (norw. `Bergkuppe');

    mit -p-: ags. cnapo, as. knapo `junger Mann, Diener', schwed. dial. knape `Pflock' und `Knoten';

    mit -pp-: nhd. dial. Knappe `Fuß, Stütze einer Bank', ahd. knappo `Jüngling, Knabe', nhd.Knappe, schwed. dial. knappe `Pflock, Holzklotz';

    manchmal sind obige Formen von den Ableitungen von gn-ebh- `zusammendrücken' (oben S. 370) kaum zu unterscheiden; vgl. oben (S. 370) anord. knappr usw.;

    ags. cenep, afries. kenep, anord. kanpr `Schnurrbart' (germ. *kanipa-), wozu wohl mnd. kenneve `Halsblock', mnl. kanef-been `Kinnlade' sind wohl irgendwie mit ĝenu- `Kinn' (unten S. 381 f.) kontaminiert.

References: WP. I 585 f., Martinet Gémination 117 f., 196.
Pages: 378-379
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kāmb-
Meaning : 1 stalk 2 handle
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kāmb-
Proto-Telugu : *kām-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kāmb-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kāmb-
Meaning : stalk, handle
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kāmpu
Tamil meaning : flower-stalk, flowering branch, handle, shaft, haft
Malayalam : kāmpu
Malayalam meaning : stem, stalk, stick of umbrella
Kannada : kāmu, kāvu
Kannada meaning : stalk, culm, stem, handle
Proto-Nilgiri : *kāv
Number in DED : 1454
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kāv
Meaning : handle
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kāv
Toda : kōf "hollow stem, handle of tool"
Number in DED : 1454
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kām-
Meaning : stem, stalk, stick, handle (of axe, hoe, umbrella, etc.), shaft
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kāma
Number in DED : 1454
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kāmb-
Meaning : handle
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *kām-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kāmb-a
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *kām-
Meaning : stalk, handle
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : kāmē "stalk of a spoon"
Muria Gondi : kāme "handle of ladle"
Number in DED : 1454
Number in CVOTGD : 640
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kāmb-a
Meaning : handle
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : kamba
Kuwi (Schulze) : kāmba
Notes : Although it is never wise to rely on Schulze's (or Fitzgerald's) data for determining vowel quality, here we prefer to reconstruct an original long vowel because of external data and preservation of length in a closed syllable in Kuwi_S.
Number in DED : 1454
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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