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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 134
Proto: *elä-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to live
German meaning: leben
Finnish: elä- 'leben; wohnen'
Estonian: ela-
Saam (Lapp): ælle- ǣl- (N), iellē-, ǟllē- (L), jielle- (jea-) (T), ieille- (Kld.)
Mordovian: eŕa-, äŕa- (E), eŕa- (M) 'leben, wohnen' ??
Mari (Cheremis): ǝle- (KB), ile- (U B)
Udmurt (Votyak): ul- (S), ulị̑- (G) 'leben; sein'
Komi (Zyrian): ol- (S), ov- (P), o.l- (PO)
Khanty (Ostyak): jel (V) 'Quellader', jilpȧlǝ- (O) '(von einer Krankheit) genesen', jilpǝt- (O) 'wiederbeleben', jĕlǝw (V) 'neu, frisch', jĕtǝp (DN), jilǝp (O)
Mansi (Vogul): ilt- (TJ), jält- (KU P), jalt- (So.) 'gesund od. geheilt werden'
Hungarian: él- 'leben; genießen, gebrauchen'
Nenets (Yurak): jīĺe- (O) 'leben; wohnen'
Enets (Yen): iði- (Ch.), jire- (B) 'leben'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ńile-
Selkup: ilá- (Ta. Ke.), īla- (Tur.), ela- (Ty.)
Kamass: ʒ́ilī- 'wieder aufleben', ʒ́ili 'lebendig'
Janhunen's version: (27) *elä-
Sammalahti's version: *elä-
Addenda: Taig. ilinde
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Contrary to Rédei, OU *jĭlǝp 'new, fresh' doesn't belong here - it has other parallels (see the next etymology, URAET 135).
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; Budenz MUSz. 773; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Paas. Beitr. 38; ИВПЯ 92
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-janh,uralet-samm2,uralet-add,uralet-reshet,uralet-lit,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔelA
Meaning: to be, live
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ēlV; + *ilV 'to stand, become'
Uralic: *elä-; *le (476)
Kartvelian: *el- [but Kartv. *xl- 'to be near' is probably < 'to be in front', see *HalV]
Dravidian: *il-
References: МССНЯ 332, 341; ОСНЯ 1, 267-268. [Dolg. Ndr 25 *ʔel̄V 'clan, tribe', as well as 2578 [χ]elA 'to dwell, live', also adding some pronominal parallels meaning 'all'; there's also 27 *ʔil[a] 'place to stay, stand' where Dolgopolski attaches Drav. il- and some locative morphemes in various languages; 769 *hil̄[U] 'stand, be, exist' - in general, a lot of confusion].
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ḗlV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: peace
Russian meaning: мир
Turkic: *ēl
Mongolian: *el
Tungus-Manchu: *elke
Comments: EAS 145, KW 118, Poppe 76, ОСНЯ 1, 268, Rozycki 68. A Western isogloss (in fact, basically Turk.-Tung., since Mong. may be < Turk., see TMN 2, 200; Clark 1980, 43 on Mong. elči < Turk. ēl-či).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ēl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 peace 2 people, country
Russian meaning: 1 мир 2 народ, страна
Old Turkic: el 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: el 1, 2 (MK)
Turkish: il, el 2
Tatar: il 2
Middle Turkic: il (AH), el (Abush., Pav. C.) 2
Uzbek: el 2
Uighur: il, äl 2
Azerbaidzhan: el 2
Turkmen: īl 2
Khakassian: il 2
Oyrat: el 2
Chuvash: jal 2
Yakut: il 2
Kirghiz: el 2
Kazakh: el 2
Noghai: el 2
Bashkir: il 2
Balkar: el 2
Gagauz: iel 2
Karaim: el 2
Karakalpak: el 2
Kumyk: el 2
Comments: EDT 121-122, VEWT 39, TMN 2, 194, ЭСТЯ 1, 339-343, Егоров 352, Лексика 316. The meaning "peace" attested in MK is probably the most archaic (cf. the external parallels; typologically cf. also Slavic *mirъ 'peace' > 'world'), suggesting a development *'peace' > 'peaceful people, realm, country'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *el
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 peaceful 2 relatives
Russian meaning: 1 мирный 2 родственники
Written Mongolian: el 1 (L 306), elgen 2
Middle Mongolian: el (SH)
Khalkha: el 2
Buriat: eldin
Kalmuck: el
Comments: KW 118.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *elke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: peaceful, silent
Russian meaning: тихий, осторожный
Evenki: elke
Negidal: elke
Spoken Manchu: elǝxǝ 'leisurely' (2956)
Literary Manchu: elxe
Ulcha: erke
Orok: erke
Nanai: elke
Oroch: ekke
Udighe: eke
Comments: ТМС 2, 447-448. TM > Dag. elke (Тод. Даг. 139).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *el-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: народ, страна; быть
English meaning: people, country; to be
Georgian: dial. el-
Georgian meaning (Rus.): народ; ср.-груз. el- 'страна, край'
Georgian meaning (Engl.): people; Middle Georg. el- 'country, location'
Svan: l-
Svan meaning (Rus.): быть (l-i 'есть', l-i-x 'суть')
Svan meaning (Eng.): to be (l-i 'is', l-i-x 'are')
Notes and references: ОСНЯ 1, 268. Основа далее сравнивается с урал. *elä 'жить', драв. *il 'жилище', алт. *ēlV 'население, народ' (ностр. *ʔelA "жить"). Отметим, что др.-груз. er- 'народ, войско', также привлекаемое Иллич-Свитычем, скорее всего, заимствовано из СК (см. NCED 249, ПСК *ʡwǝ̆hri 'войско').
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *il-
Meaning : house
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *il
Proto-Telugu : *ill-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *il-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *il-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *il
Meaning : house
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : il
Tamil meaning : house, home, place, wife
Tamil derivates : illam house, home; illavaḷ, illāḷ wife, mistress of house; illāḷan_, illāḷi householder
Malayalam : il
Malayalam meaning : house, place
Malayalam derivates : illam house of Nambudiri
Kodagu : illavëN
Kodagu meaning : man who is a relative
Tulu : illụ
Tulu meaning : house, dwelling, family
Number in DED : 0494
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *ill-
Meaning : house, dwelling, habitation
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : illu (adj. iṇṭi)
Additional forms : Also [1] illaṭamu, [2] illaṇṭramu living in the house of one's wife's father
Number in DED : 494
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *il-
Meaning : house
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : ella
Naikri : ella
Parji : il podi "roof"
Notes : Irregular e- in Kolami and Naikri.
Number in DED : 494
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-parji,kogaet-notes,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *il-
Meaning : house
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *il-
Konda : ilu (pl. ilku)
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *il
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *il-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *il-
Meaning : house
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Adilabad Gondi : il (SR)
Number in DED : 494
Number in CVOTGD : 196
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : ilu (pl. ilku)
Meaning: house
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 494
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *il
Meaning : house
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : il (obl. inj-, pl. ilku)
Manda : il
Number in DED : 494
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *il-
Meaning : house
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : iḍu "house, dwelling, shed, hut"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : illū (pl. ilka)
Kuwi (Schulze) : illu
Sunkarametta Kuwi : il (pl. ilka)
Parja Kuwi : il (pl. ilka)
Number in DED : 494
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVLV
Meaning : to be, live
Eurasiatic : *ʔelA
Afroasiatic : *ʔal-/*ʔil-; *hVl(w) 'to exist, be, stand' (Sem., Berb., Cush.); also Sem. *ħill- 'stay, live'
Sino-Caucasian : *=V̆́ʎwV̆
Austric : PAA *(rǝ)lu 'rest' (or PAA *lǝ:j 'lazy', PAN *belay 'tire(d), weary')
Amerind (misc.) : *ʔali 'to bear; child' (R 121) (for "lazy" cf. R 422 *hilak?)
Reference : ND 769, 2578.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔal-/*ʔil-
Meaning: be
Berber: *ʔil- 'be, become'
Central Chadic: *ʔal- 'be'
East Chadic: *ʔal- 'exist'
Low East Cushitic: *ʔal-/*ʔil- 'be'
afaset-meaning,afaset-brb,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-lec,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *ʔil-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'be, become'
Senhadja: ili
Iznassen: ili
Notes: Tua ili
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-snh,brbet-izn,brbet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ʔal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'be'
Logone: āli, li [LLog]
Notes: Mada ala, ara < *ʔara.
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-log,cchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ʔal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'exist'
Bidiya: ʔāl [JBid]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-bid,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *ʔal-/*ʔil-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'be'
Somali: -aal, -iil
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=V̆́ʎwV̆
Meaning: to rest; quiet, silent
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=uʎ_wV
Sino-Tibetan: *l[ɨ̆]j
Yenisseian: *ʔaʔl-bǝt (~x-)
Basque: *oɫhe
Comments and references : In PST cf. also *ʔɨāɫ 'rest'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=uʎ_wV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be silent, quiet
Proto-Dargwa: *=uxʷ-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔoʎ:ʷa-
Notes: Abdokov (1983, 148) compares the root with PAK *xʷámǝ 'silent, quiet' (Ad. fam, Kab. xʷam): this is possible if -mǝ is a suffixed morpheme.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=uxʷ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to speak, to say, to talk
Chiragh: =uxʷ-
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔoʎ:ʷa-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to be silent,listen 2 be reconciled 3 to say
Agul: d-ux́- 2
Rutul: =uxʷa- 3
Archi: o=ʎ:a- 1
Comment: Cf. also Arch. dur. =orʎ:u-r, Ag. Bursh. ʕad-uš:a-s. Note a peculiar semantic shift '(keep silent, reconcile) > listen > (*cause to listen) > say' (rather often observed in Caucasian languages).
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *l[ɨ̆]j
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: easy
Chinese: *lǝj easy; be at rest; pacify, peaceful.
Burmese: lwaj be easy, not difficult.
Kachin: loi2 easy.
Lushai: tlei be good, be quiet; not cry.
Kiranti: *lè-bä
Comments: Bunan lo-i; Trung la1 (but cf. *lă). Ben. 67; Mat. 170.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *lèbä
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: quiet
Tulung: liwa (AS leba) quiet
Kaling: läbä münä be quiet
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔal-bǝt (~x-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: quietly (not loudly)
Ket: aĺbǝt5
Yug: albǝt5
Comments: ССЕ 180. Werner 1, 29.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *oɫhe
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 meek, mild, gentle, peaceful 2 meekly, mildly, etc.
Lapurdian: (arc) olhe 1, olhe-ki 2
Comments: Attributed by Azkue to Haraneder (18th c.) and Pouvreau (17th c.), who wrote in the LAB dialect.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-lab,basqet-comments,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *lVj
Meaning: lazy
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *lǝ:j
Austroasiatic meaning: lazy
Proto-Austronesian: *belay
Austronesian meaning: tired, weary; to tire, grow tired
Proto-Thai: lalǝ:j.A careless
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *lǝ:j
Meaning: lazy
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: lalǝ:j.A careless
Khmer: dhlaoj
Proto-Vietic: [*lǝ:j]
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kmr,aaet-vim,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: dhlaoj
Meaning: to miscalculate, go wrong, err
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
References: JP334
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-ref,

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