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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 127
Proto: *e ~ *ä ~ *a
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: negative particle, negative verb
German meaning: (Verneinungspartikel ->) Verneinungsverb
Finnish: e-, imp. e-lä, part. e-pä ( > Saam. N æppĕ- as 1st part of compounds)
Estonian: e- (ei, es / is, ep)
Saam (Lapp): i-, imp. al-, âl- (N), ji̮- ~ je- ~ i̮- (Ko. P), i- ~ ie- (Wfs.)
Mordovian: e-, imp. i-ĺa- (E), e-, imp. t́a-, d́a- (M)
Mari (Cheremis): ǝ-š- > š- (praet.), ǝ- ~ i- (conj., desid.), i-t (imper.); a- (KB), o- (U, B) 'nicht'
Udmurt (Votyak): e- (S K G) 'nein, ist nicht, nicht', u- (S K G) (pres.-fut.)
Komi (Zyrian): e- ~ i- (pret.), o- (pres.)
Khanty (Ostyak): ĕntǝ (V DN), ȧ̆n (O) 'nein, nicht', imp. äl (V), ȧt (DN), ȧl (O), ot (DN)
Mansi (Vogul): ä (T), at, ɔ̄̈t (K), at (LU So.) (indic.), äl (T), wil (K), ul (LU So.) (imper.)
Nenets (Yurak): ńī- (indic.), ńo- (imper.)
Enets (Yen): ńe- (indic.)
Nganasan (Tawgi): ńintu 'nein', ńinte- (indic.)
Selkup: î-ki (Ta.), ê-kkä, ê-k (Ke.), i-g, ii-g (Čl.) (imper.), a-ša (Ta.), a-ssa (Tur.), assa, ass (Ke.), aha, ā (N) 'nicht' (indic.)
Kamass: e- ~ el- (pres.), i-ʔ, i-gǝ (imper.)
Addenda: Veps. en, ed, ei (pres., pret.), aлa, augam, augat (pret.); Koib. абы тымнемъ 'незнаю'; Mot. игам-данемъ
Yukaghir parallels: el(e), oi-le 'Verneinungswort; a word expressing negation'; OC 128, 129; Sieh Rédei's Kommentäre.
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; DEWO 56, 124; Coll.CompGr. 118, 172, 136, 405, 406; Stein.Fgr.Vok. 41; Collinder JukUr. 60-69; Angere J. Die uralo-jukagirische Frage 102; ИВПЯ 90-91, 134
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-add,uralet-yuk,uralet-lit,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔe
Meaning: not, negative verb
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *e
Uralic: *e
Dravidian: *-a- 'negative suffix of verbs'
References: ОСНЯ 1, 264-265, NDr 3.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *e
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: not
Russian meaning: не
Mongolian: *e-se
Tungus-Manchu: *e-
Comments: Poppe 65, KW 128, ОСНЯ 1, 265, АПиПЯЯ 44, 291. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *e-se
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: not
Russian meaning: не
Written Mongolian: ese (L 333)
Middle Mongolian: ese (SH, HYt), ise (IM), is(ä̆) (MA)
Khalkha: es
Buriat: ehe
Kalmuck: es
Ordos: ese
Dongxian: ese
Baoan: se
Dagur: es (Тод. Даг. 140)
Monguor: sǝ,
Mogol: sa, sɛ; ZM eɵɵä (27-7a)
Comments: KW 128, MGCD 272.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *e-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: not
Russian meaning: не (отрицательный глагол)
Evenki: e-
Even: e-
Negidal: e-
Jurchen: ej-xe (476), esi(n)-in (710)
Ulcha: e-
Orok: e-
Nanai: e-
Oroch: e-
Udighe: e-
Solon: e-
Comments: ТМС 2, 432.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HV
Meaning : negative verb
Eurasiatic : *ʔe
Afroasiatic : *ʔy- (+Eg. w-)
Sino-Caucasian : *ɦwV
Austric : PAA *ʔuh 'negative, not', MY *ha, PAN *aqa
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔy-
Meaning: not
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: Gez. ʔi; Tna. ʔay...n; Tgr. ʔi.
Notes: Sem, Eg, EC, WCh, see ОСНЯ 1, 264-5, NDr 3.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ɦwV
Meaning: not, negative particle
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ɦwV
Sino-Tibetan: [*Ha]
Burushaski: *a-
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *-hi
Proto-Tsezian: *-ʔ(V)
Proto-Dargwa: *ħe
Proto-Khinalug: -i-
Notes: The morpheme can be safely reconstructed for PEC on basis of the PA, PC, PD and Khin. evidence. It has a probable parallel in HU: Hurr. -wa- 'not' (negation in verbs), see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-khin,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *-hi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Chamalal: -i:
Tindi: -hi
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-ʔ(V)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Ginukh: -j-(om)
Khvarshi: -j-
Bezhta:
Gunzib: -ōj-s
Comments: PTsKh *-j- (past negative and prohibitive in Khvarsh., prohibitive in Gin.); PGB *-ʔ- (present indefinite and past negative).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ħe
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (neg. particle)
Akusha: ħe
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: -i-
North Caucasian etymology: 2274
Meaning: negative suffix, not
Khinalug form: -i-
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: [*Ha]
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: negative particle
Comments: Reflected in: Bodo *ja, Konyak ya, Gurung *a, Zhaiwa a, Rourou a.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-comments,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *a-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: not
Yasin: a(i)-
Hunza: a-
Nagar: a-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *ʔV(X)
Meaning: not
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *ʔuh
Austroasiatic meaning: negative, not
Miao-Yao parallels: ha
Proto-Austronesian: *aqa
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-myao,austr-an,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ʔuh
Meaning: negative, not
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: *ʔVh
Proto-Bahnaric: NB *ʔǝh / *ʔuh
Khmer: sʔuh
Proto-Pearic: *ʔih.N / *ʔiʔ.N
Proto-Vietic: *ʔɔh
Proto-Palaungic: De *ʔau
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-kmr,aaet-pear,aaet-vim,aaet-pawa,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *ʔVh
Meaning: negative particle
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *ʔɔh / *ʔǝh
Proto-East Katuic: *ʔih / *ʔeh
References: P-1241
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic: *ʔɔh / *ʔǝh
Meaning: negative particle
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru: ʔâh.N
Bru meaning: a question word
Kui: ʔǝh.N
Kui meaning: a negative particle
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-wpre,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,wkatet-kui,wkatet-kuime,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *ʔih / *ʔeh
Meaning: negative particle; alike
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: ʔih
Pakoh meaning: not this, but different
Ngeq: ʔih
Ngeq meaning: like, to be like
Katu dialects (1): ʔɛh
Katu meaning: no, negative
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-nge,ekatet-ngeme,ekatet-and,ekatet-katme,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric: *ʔǝh / *ʔuh
Meaning: no, not
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Bahnar: ʔǝh
Bahnar meaning: not
Proto-North Bahnaric: *ʔuh.L
banet-meaning,banet-prpr,banet-prnum,banet-bah,banet-bahme,banet-nob,

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North Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-North-Bahnaric: *ʔuh.L
Meaning: no, not
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Sedang form: ʔoh.L
Sedang meaning: no, not
Mo'dra: ʔoh.T
Didra: ʔoh.L
nobet-meaning,nobet-prnum,nobet-sed,nobet-sedme,nobet-modr,nobet-didr,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: sʔuh
Meaning: particle: 'no desire to do'
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,

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Pearic etymology :

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Proto-Pearic: *ʔih.N / *ʔiʔ.N
Meaning: how?
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Chong: ʔih.A
Chong meaning: not; ka:ŋ.A ʔih.A when?
Song: nǝʔih.A
Song meaning: when?; ʔi.A chǝj.C not
Kasong: mo:i.B ʔi:.B
Kasong meaning: how much?
Samre: mu:j.C ʔi:.C
Samre meaning: how much?
pearet-meaning,pearet-prpr,pearet-prnum,pearet-chng,pearet-chngme,pearet-song,pearet-songme,pearet-kas,pearet-kasme,pearet-smr,pearet-smrme,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong: *ʔɔh
Meaning: not
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Thomon: ʔɔ.34ʔ
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-thm,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa:
Meaning: not
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-De'ang: *ʔau
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-prde,

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De'ang etymology :

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Proto-De'ang: *ʔau
Meaning: not
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
De'ang: ʔǝ:
De'ang-1: ʔâu
De'ang-2: ʔau.1
prdeet-meaning,prdeet-prnum,prdeet-dea,prdeet-dea1,prdeet-dea3,

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