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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kǝ̄m(H) (~g-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: hold in mouth
Chinese: *gǝ̄m hold in the mouth.
Tibetan: ãgam put or throw into the mouth (p. (b)gams, f. bgom, i. goms), ãkham take into mouth.
Burmese: khwamʔ to put into the mouth, as food.
Kiranti: *ʔkä̀m
Comments: Miri gam seize (with teeth). Simon 22; Ben. 166.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: hán
Preclassic Old Chinese: g(h)ǝ̄m
Classic Old Chinese: g(h)ǝ̄m
Western Han Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Eastern Han Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Early Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Late Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Middle Chinese: ɣʌm
English meaning : to hold in the mouth; hold back (e.g. anger)
Russian meaning[s]: 1) держать во рту; 2) содержать (таить) в себе; 3) сносить (обиду); сдерживать (напр. слезы)
Comments: In Viet. cf. also ngậm 'to hold in the mouth' (although the tone is different, and it may be just a chance coincidence).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 30
Four-angle index: 1338
Karlgren code: 0651 |l ́
Vietnamese reading: hàm
Jianchuan Bai: ka7
Dali Bai: ka7
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 353
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 咸開一平覃匣
ZIHUI: 0698 1753
Beijing: xan 12
Jinan: xã 12
Xi'an: xã 12
Taiyuan: xä̃ 1
Hankou: xan 12
Chengdu: xan 12
Yangzhou: xɛ̃ 12
Suzhou: ɦö 12
Wenzhou: ɦö 12
Changsha: xan 12
Shuangfeng: ɣã 12
Nanchang: hɔn 12
Meixian: ham 12
Guangzhou: ham 12
Xiamen: ham 12
Chaozhou: ham 12
Fuzhou: xaŋ 12
Shanghai: ɦö 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: xam 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *ʔkä̀m (-s)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: chew
Tulung: kam-
Kaling: kämnä (kämu)
Limbu: khāmmā (khāmsu)
Kulung: khamma
Yamphu: komma (?)
Comments: Toba 88 *käm-.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: kha:mmaʔ, -kha:md-/-kha:m-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vt.
Meaning: chew
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: khamma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vt-4 [1: kham- 2: khamm- 3: kham-]
Meaning: chew
Nepali: capāunu.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: komma I
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Stem: <kops- ; kom->
Grammar: v.intr. & v.tr.
Meaning: to eat; slang expression for ca:ma 'to eat', with an additional implication of eating what is not entirely edible
Comments: kops.u.m. (eat.о3.PLA) Let's eat it!
yamet-prnum,yamet-stem,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʔikwV́n-
Meaning: to eat
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʔikwVn
Sino-Tibetan: *kǝ̄m(H) (~g-)
Comments and references : WFR 119. Differently in NSC 57.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔikwVn
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to eat
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔikʷVn-
Proto-Tsezian: *kǝk- (~-e-,-ɨ-)
Proto-Lak: =uka-
Proto-Dargwa: *=i(r)kʷVn-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔikʷVn-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The verb has class prefixes only in Lak. and Darg. Several languages have an interesting opposition 'to eat (objectless)' : 'to eat (smth.)': Av. Chad. kuná-ji : kʷén-ži; Darg. Chir. =erkʷVn- / =uk- : =uk- / =uk-; Arch. kúm-mus (dur. kúkin, term. kúnni) : kum-mús (dur. kʷan, term. kunné).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔikʷVn-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to eat
Avar: kʷan-
Chadakolob: kʷ(Vn)-
Andian language: ikʷon-
Akhvakh: unkan-
Chamalal: ikʷn-
Tindi: ekʷĩ-
Karata: inkʷ-
Botlikh: inkʷ-
Bagvalal: ekʷã-
Godoberi: ikũ-
Comments: The Av. form reflects the Ablaut variant *kʷVn-. In some of the Andian languages the final -n was duplicated in the stem (Akhv., Kar., Botl.). In Av. and And. the verb is both transitive and intransitive; in other Andian languages it is only intransitive.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *kǝk- (~-e-,-ɨ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to eat 2 to feed
Tsezi: kik- 1,2
Ginukh: kik-aj- 2
Khvarshi: kak- 1
Inkhokvari: kok- 1
Comments: PTsKh *kǝk- (an historical reduplication).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =uka-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: eat
Lak form: =uka-
Comments: G.pr. =u=ku-nu. Cf. Khosr. =uka-n, dur. kʷana-n.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=i(r)kʷVn-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: eat
Akusha: uk-es
Chiragh: =erkʷ- / =uk-
Comments: Cf. also Ur. =irkʷ(n)/=uk-.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔikʷVn-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: eat
Archi: kum-mus
Udi: ukes
Comment: An important Arch.-Ud. isogloss (lost in all other languages; the Arch. root is kʷan-).

    See Гигинейшвили 1977, 80-81.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVMV
Meaning : to eat, gulp
Eurasiatic : *ḳVmV
Afroasiatic : Sem. *ḳmħ 'swallow', ECush *ḳVm- 'eat'
Sino-Caucasian : *ʔikwVn
Austric : PAA *gam 'bite', PAN *kemi, *gemi 'hold, bite, suck', *eŋgem, *qeŋkem 'hold in mouth'
Amerind (misc.) : *kam ~ *kom 'water; drink' (R 833) [+ A]
Reference : ND 1065, 1069.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳVmV
Meaning: to eat, gulp
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kʷē̆m-
Altaic: *kĕ̀ma (~ -o) (? *k`-)
References: ND 1065 *Ḳ[e]mV 'to bite' (Alt. - ECush.), 1069 *ḲomħV 'to eat, swallow' (IE + Sem.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kʷem-
Meaning: to gulp
Old Indian: camati `to sip, drink', ā-cāmati `to sip, lap up, lick up', ptc. ācānta-; camasá- m. `a vessel for drinking the Soma', camū́- f. `vessel into which the Soma is poured'
Other Iranian: NPers čam `das Essen', čamīdan `Trinken'; Osset čumum `schlurfen'
Old Greek: témnonta = amélgonta Hsch.; étemen = ḗmelgen Hsch.
Germanic: *xwēm-ō- vb., *xwēm-ōn- f.
Russ. meaning: хлебать
References: WP I 514
piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xwēmōn-, *xwēmōn
Meaning: swallow
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: NIsl hvōma `verschlucken, verschlingen', hvōma f. `Speiseröte, SChlund'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1092
Root: kʷem-
English meaning: to swallow, sip
German meaning: `schlürfen, schlucken'
Material: Ai. cā́mati und camati *schlürft', Partiz. ācānta-, camasá- m. `Trinkschale, Becher', camū́- m. `Schüssel'; npers. čam `das Essen', čamīδan `trinken', osset. cumun `schlürfen';

    arm. k`im-k` Pl. `faux, guttur' (*kʷēmā-); mit Ablautstufe ō: npers. kām `Gaumen', afghan. kūmai ds.; zweifelhaft ist gr. ἔτεμεν ἤμελγεν und τέμνοντα [wohl τέμοντα] ἀμέλγοντα Hes., wobei ἀμέλγειν in der spätern Bed. `Flüssiges aussaugen, auspressen' zu fassen wäre;

    nisl. hvōma (aus *hvāma, idg. *kʷēmō = ai. cā́mati) `verschlucken, verschlingen', hvōma f. `Speiseröhre, Schlund'.

References: WP. I 514.
Pages: 640-641
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kĕ̀ma (~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to gnaw, bite
Russian meaning: грызть, кусать
Turkic: *gEmür-
Mongolian: *kemeli-
Tungus-Manchu: *kem-ki-
Japanese: *kàm-
Comments: KW 225, АПиПЯЯ 112, 274, Лексика 262. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. is impossible (despite Щербак 1997, 126); the Manchu form, however, may be < Mong. (see Rozycki 137).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gEmür-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to gnaw
Russian meaning: грызть, глодать
Karakhanid: kemür- (MK)
Turkish: gemir-, kemir-
Tatar: kimer-
Middle Turkic: kömür- (Sangl., Abush.)
Uzbek: kemir-
Uighur: kemi(r)-
Azerbaidzhan: gämir-
Turkmen: gemir-
Khakassian: kimǝr-
Oyrat: kemir-
Yakut: kömürüö 'spongy bone'
Tuva: xemir-
Tofalar: xemir-
Kirghiz: kemir-
Kazakh: kemir-
Noghai: kemir-
Bashkir: kimer-
Balkar: kemir-
Gagauz: kemir-
Karaim: kemir-
Karakalpak: kemir-
Kumyk: gemir-
Comments: VEWT 251, EDT 723, ЭСТЯ 3, 18-19, Лексика 262.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kemeli-, *kemi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to gnaw 2 to bite
Russian meaning: 1 грызть 2 кусать
Written Mongolian: kemeli-, kemele- (L 451), kemile- 1; kemki- 2 (DO 413)
Middle Mongolian: kemile- 1 (MA)
Khalkha: ximle-, xemle- 1
Buriat: ximel- 1
Kalmuck: kemḷ- 1
Ordos: kemele- 1, kemχel- 2
Baoan: kamel- 2
Dagur: keme- (Тод. Даг. 149) 1 (MGCD keḿ-, kemi-)
Shary-Yoghur: kemle- 1 (MGCD kelme-)
Monguor: xamla- 1
Comments: KW 225, MGCD 348, 350. Cf. also kemki- 'to grind, to bite'.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kem-ki-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bite (of a dog, goose)
Russian meaning: кусать, хватать за ноги
Literary Manchu: kemki-
Comments: ТМС 1, 448. Attested only in Manchu, but probably archaic (cf. the external evidence).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bite
Russian meaning: кусать
Old Japanese: kam-
Middle Japanese: kàm-
Tokyo: kám-
Kyoto: kàm-
Kagoshima: kám-
Nase: kàmj-
Shuri: kánā́s-, kán-
Hateruma: ka_̀m_-
Yonakuni: kàm-
Comments: JLTT 703.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-hat,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *kVmi
Meaning: bite
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *gam
Austroasiatic meaning: to bite
Proto-Austronesian: *kemi, *gemi
Austronesian meaning: hold, bite, suck, fish sp.
Austronesian code: 12:20
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-ancode,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *gam / *kam
Meaning: bite
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: ONG kam.B
Khmer: k<h>ɔm
Proto-Vietic: gamh, C-
Proto-Palaungic: *gǝm
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-kmr,aaet-vim,aaet-pawa,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *rih
Meaning: big, large
Presyllable: gǝ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: BRU krih.B
Proto-East Katuic: *rih
References: P-737; TK15.204a
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic:
Meaning: big, large
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru: krih.B
Bru meaning: (of long or narrow objects, such as eyelashes, teeth, fishhooks, strings, bamboo strips, yam plants, etc.) big, large
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *rih
Meaning: big, large
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: krih
Pakoh meaning: big; kǝkrih long time ago
Ngeq: krih
Ngeq meaning: big, large
Kri: krih
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-nge,ekatet-ngeme,ekatet-kr,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: k<h>a:ṃ
Meaning: to bite; be sore
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Comments: cf. thga:m molar JP32
References: JP23
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-comm,kmret-ref,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong: *gamh, C-
Meaning: bite
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: gặm 'bite, gnaw'
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa: *gǝm
Meaning: to hold in the mouth
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Wa: *gum, K-
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-prwa,

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Wa etymology :

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Proto-Wa:
Meaning: to hold in the mouth
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Paraok: kum.B
Paraok meaning: to hold in the mouth; gum.B mouth
Wa: khum.B
Wa meaning: to hold in the mouth
Wa (dial.): kum.3 T??
Wa (dial.) meaning: to hold in the mouth
prwaet-meaning,prwaet-prnum,prwaet-praok,prwaet-praokme,prwaet-meng,prwaet-mengme,prwaet-gs,prwaet-gsme,

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Angku etymology :

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Proto-Angku: *pis
Meaning: to sweep
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Pangpin: phih.T
Gantang: phit.33
U: phi.2
References: WW-469; S-110
pranet-meaning,pranet-prnum,pranet-phu,pranet-ph2,pranet-u,pranet-bib,

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